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Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reich Born March 24, 1897(1897-03-24)
Dobrzanica, Galicia, Austria-HungaryDied November 3, 1957(aged 60)
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania
Residence Orgonon, Rangeley, Maine,
United StatesCitizenship Austria, United StatesFields Psychiatry, PsychoanalysisAlma materUniversity of ViennaKnown for Freudo-Marxism, body psychotherapy, OrgoneInfluences Sigmund Freud, Karl MarxInfluenced Alexander Lowen, Fritz Perls, Ronald Laing, Arthur Janov

Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.

Reich was a respected analyst for much of his life, focusing on character structure, rather than on individual neurotic symptoms.[1] He promoted adolescent sexuality, the availability of contraceptives and abortion, and the importance for women of economic independence. Synthesizing material from psychoanalysis, cultural anthropology, economics, sociology, and ethics, his work influenced writers such as Alexander Lowen, Fritz Perls, Paul Goodman, Saul Bellow, Norman Mailer, A. S. Neill, and William Burroughs.[2]

He was also a controversial figure, who came to be viewed by the psychoanalytic establishment as having gone astray or as having succumbed to mental illness. His work on the link between human sexuality and neuroses emphasized "orgastic potency" as the foremost criterion for psycho-physical health. He said he had discovered a form of energy, which he called "orgone," that permeated the atmosphere and all living matter, and he built "orgone accumulators," which his patients sat inside to harness the energy for its reputed health benefits. It was this work, in particular, that cemented the rift between Reich and the psychoanalytic establishment.[3]

Reich, of Jewish descent and a communist, was living in Germany when Adolf Hitler came to power. He fled to Scandinavia in 1933 and subsequently to the United States in 1939, by which time he had become an ardent anti-communist. In 1947, following a series of critical articles about orgone and his political views in The New Republic and Harper's,[4] the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began an investigation into his claims, winning an injunction against the interstate sale of orgone accumulators. Charged with contempt of court for violating the injunction, Reich conducted his own defense, which involved sending the judge all his books to read, and arguing that a court was no place to decide matters of science. He was sentenced to two years in prison, and in August 1956, several tons of his publications were burned by the FDA.[5] He died of heart failure in jail just over a year later, days before he was due to apply for parole.[6]

Contents

Early life

Reich was born to Leon Reich, a prosperous farmer, and Cecilia Roniger, in Dobrzanica,[7] a village in Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Three years after his birth, the couple had a second son, Robert.

His father was Jewish, but had moved away from his ethnic and religious culture and had not raised his children as Jews; Wilhelm wasn't allowed to play with Yiddish-speaking children,[8] and as an adult did not want to be described as Jewish.[9]

Shortly after his birth, the family moved south to a farm in Jujinetz, near Chernivtsi, Bukovina, where Reich's father took control of a cattle farm owned by his mother's family. Reich attributed his later interest in the study of sex and the biological basis of the emotions to his upbringing on the farm where, as he later put it, the “natural life functions” were never hidden from him.[10] Reich also spoke of witnessing the family's maid having intercourse with her boyfriend, and apparently later asking if he could “play” the part of the lover. He said that, by the time he was four years old, there were no secrets about sex for him.[8]

“ I had read somewhere that lovers get rid of any intruder, so with wild fantasies in my brain I slipped back to my bed, my joy of life shattered, torn apart in my inmost being for my whole life! — Wilhelm Reich.[11]

He was taught at home until he was 12, when his mother committed suicide after being discovered having an affair with Reich's tutor, who lived with the family. In a report supposedly about a patient, Reich wrote about how deeply the affair had affected him, that the “joy of life [was] shattered, torn apart from my inmost being for the rest of my life!”[12]

Her death was particularly brutal because of the method she chose; she drank a common household cleaner, which left her in great pain for days before she died. The tutor was sent away, and Reich was left without his mother or his teacher, and with a powerful sense of guilt.[13]

He was sent to the all-male Czernowitz gymnasium, excelling at Latin, Greek, and the natural sciences. It appears to have been during this period that a skin condition developed that plagued him for the rest of his life. It was diagnosed as psoriasis; Reich was given medication that contained arsenic, now known to make psoriasis worse.

Reich's father was “completely broken” by his wife's suicide.[14] In or around 1914, he took out a life insurance policy, then stood for hours in a cold pond, apparently fishing, but in fact intending to commit slow suicide, according to Reich and his brother Robert.[15] He contracted pneumonia and then tuberculosis, and died in 1914 as a result of his illness; despite his insurance policy, no money was forthcoming.[15]

Reich managed the farm and continued with his studies, graduating in 1915 mit Stimmeneinhelligkeit (unanimous approval). In the summer of 1915, the Russians invaded Bukovina and the Reich brothers fled to Vienna, losing everything. In his Passion of Youth, Reich wrote: “I never saw either my homeland or my possessions again. Of a well-to-do past, nothing was left.”

Studies

Sigmund Freud and Reich met in 1919 when Reich needed literature for a sexology seminar.

Reich joined the Austrian Army after school, serving from 1915-18, for the last two years as a lieutenant.

In 1918, when the war ended, he entered the medical school at the University of Vienna. As an undergraduate, he was drawn to the work of Sigmund Freud; the men first met in 1919 when Reich visited Freud to obtain literature for a seminar on sexology. Freud left a strong impression on Reich. Freud allowed him to start seeing analytic patients as early as 1920. Reich was accepted as a guest member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association in the summer of 1920, and became a regular member in October 1920, at the age of 23.[16]

He was allowed to complete his six-year medical degree in four years because he was a war veteran, and received his M.D. in July 1922.[17]

Early career

Reich worked in internal medicine at University Hospital, Vienna, and studied neuropsychiatry from 1922-24 at the Neurological and Psychiatric Clinic under Professor Julius Wagner-Jauregg.

In 1922, he set up private practice as a psychoanalyst, and became a clinical assistant, and later deputy director, at Freud's Psychoanalytic Polyclinic. He joined the faculty of the Psychoanalytic Institute in Vienna in 1924, and conducted research into the social causes of neurosis. There, he met Annie Pink,[18] a patient of his and later an analyst herself. They married and had two daughters, Eva[19] in 1924 and Lore[20] in 1928. The couple separated in 1933, leaving the children with their mother. Reich's second wife, Elsa Lindenburg, was trained in Laban movement analysis, and was a pupil of Elsa Gindler, who had started to develop a system of breathing and somatic responsiveness named Arbeit am Menschen in 1910.

Theories

Reich first presented the principles of his vegetotherapy in a paper on “Psychic contact and vegetative current” in August 1934 at the 13th International Congress of Psychoanalysis at Lucerne, Switzerland, and went on to develop the technique between 1935 and 1940.

Reich developed a theory that the ability to feel sexual love depended on a physical ability to make love with what he called “orgastic potency”. He attempted to measure the male orgasm, noting that four distinct phases occurred physiologically: first, the psychosexual build-up or tension; second, the tumescence of the penis, with an accompanying “charge”, which Reich measured electrically; third, an electrical discharge at the moment of orgasm; and fourth, the relaxation of the penis. He believed the force that he measured was a distinct type of energy present in all life forms and later called it “orgone”.[21]

He was a prolific writer for psychoanalytic journals in Europe. Originally, psychoanalysis was focused on the treatment of neurotic symptoms. Reich's Character Analysis was a major step in the development of what today would be called “ego psychology”. In Reich's view, a person's entire character, not only individual symptoms, could be looked at and treated as a neurotic phenomenon. The book also introduced Reich's theory of “body armoring”. He argued that unreleased psychosexual energy could produce actual physical blocks within muscles and organs, and that these act as a “body armor”, preventing the release of the energy. An orgasm was one way to break through the armor. These ideas developed into a general theory of the importance of a healthy sex life to overall well-being, a theory compatible with Freud's views.

Reich agreed with Freud that sexual development was the origin of mental illness. They both believed that most psychological states were dictated by unconscious processes; that infant sexuality develops early but is repressed, and that this has important consequences for mental health. At that time a Marxist (see article Freudo-Marxism), Reich argued that the source of sexual repression was bourgeois morality and the socio-economic structures that produced it. As sexual repression was the cause of the neuroses, the best cure would be to have an active, guilt-free sex life. He argued that such a liberation could come about only through a morality not imposed by a repressive economic structure.[22] In 1928, he joined the Austrian Communist Party and founded the Socialist Association for Sexual Counseling and Research, which organized counseling centers for workers — in contrast to Freud, who was perceived as treating only the bourgeoisie.

Reich used touch to accompany the talking cure, taking an active role in sessions, feeling his patients' chests to check their breathing, repositioning their bodies, and sometimes requiring them to remove their clothes, so that men were treated wearing shorts and women in bra and panties. These methods caused a split between Reich and the rest of the psychoanalytic community.[21]

Fleeing Nazi Germany

In 1930, he moved his practice to Berlin and joined the Communist Party of Germany. His best-known book, The Sexual Revolution, was published at this time in Vienna. He again set up clinics in working-class areas and taught sex education, but became too outspoken even for the communists; after his book, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, was published, he was expelled from the party in 1933.

In this book, Reich categorized fascism as a symptom of sexual repression. The book was banned by the Nazis when they came to power. He realized he was in danger and hurriedly left Germany disguised as a tourist on a ski trip to Austria. Reich was expelled from the International Psychological Association in 1934 for political militancy.[23] He spent some years in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, before leaving for the United States in 1939.

Later career

Reich was a respected analyst for much of his life, focusing on character structure, rather than on individual neurotic symptoms.[1] He promoted adolescent sexuality, the availability of contraceptives and abortion, and women's economic independence.[24] Synthesizing material from psychoanalysis, cultural anthropology, economics, sociology, and ethics, his work influenced writers such as Alexander Lowen, Fritz Perls, Paul Goodman, Saul Bellow, Norman Mailer, A. S. Neill, and William Burroughs.[25]

He was also a controversial figure, who came to be viewed by the psychoanalytic establishment as having gone astray or as having succumbed to mental illness.[24][26] His work on the link between human sexuality and neuroses emphasized “orgastic potency” as the foremost criterion for psycho-physical health. He said he had discovered a form of energy, which he called “orgone,” that permeated the atmosphere and all living matter, and he built “orgone accumulators,” which his patients sat inside to harness the energy for its reputed health benefits. It was this work, in particular, that cemented the rift between Reich and the psychoanalytic establishment.[17][24][5]

In 1947, following a series of critical articles about Reich's “psychofascism”[27] in The New Republic and his “dubious professional standing”[28] in Harper's, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began an investigation into his claims, and won an injunction against the interstate sale of orgone accumulators. Charged with contempt of court for violating the injunction, Reich conducted his own defense, which involved sending the judge all his books to read, and arguing that a court was no place to decide matters of science. He was sentenced to two years in prison, and in August 1956, several tons of his publications were burned by the FDA.[5][17] He died of heart failure in jail just over a year later, days before he was due to apply for parole.[6]

The bion experiments

From 1934-37, based for most of the period in Oslo, Reich conducted experiments seeking the origins of life.

He examined protozoa, single-celled creatures with nuclei. He grew cultured vesicles using grass, sand, iron, and animal tissue, boiling them, and adding potassium and gelatin. Having heated the materials to incandescence with a heat-torch, he noted bright, glowing, blue vesicles, which, he said, could be cultured, and which gave off an observable radiant energy. This he called “orgone”. He named the vesicles “bions” and believed they were a rudimentary form of life, or halfway between life and non-life.[citation needed]

When he poured the cooled mixture onto growth media, bacteria were born. Based on various control experiments, Reich dismissed the idea that the bacteria were already present in the air, or in the other materials used. Reich's The Bion Experiments on the Origin of Life was published in Oslo in 1938, leading to attacks in the press that he was a “Jew pornographer” who was daring to meddle with the origins of life.[21]

A Norwegian biologist named Kreyberg was allowed to see one of Reich's bion preparations under the microscope, and also observed that the "broth" Reich had used as his culture medium was indeed sterile. He concluded that the bacteria were, in fact, ordinary staphylococci, and that Reich's control measures to prevent infection from such airborne bacteria were therefore not as foolproof as Reich believed.[29]

T-bacilli

In 1936, Reich wrote that “[s]ince everything is antithetically arranged, there must be two different types of single-celled organisms: (a) life-destroying organisms or organisms that form through organic decay, (b) life-promoting organisms that form from inorganic material that comes to life.”[30]

This idea of spontaneous generation led him to believe he had found the cause of cancer. He called the life-destroying organisms “T-bacilli“, with the T standing for Tod, German for death. He described in The Cancer Biopathy how he had found them in a culture of rotting cancerous tissue obtained from a local hospital. He wrote that T-bacilli were formed from the disintegration of protein; they were 0.2 to 0.5 micrometer in length, shaped like lancets, and when injected into mice, they caused inflammation and cancer. He concluded that, when orgone energy diminishes in cells through aging or injury, the cells undergo “bionous degeneration” or death. At some point, the deadly T-bacilli start to form in the cells. Death from cancer, he believed, was caused by an overwhelming growth of the T-bacilli.

Orgone accumulators and cloudbusters

Reich built “orgone accumulators” to harness orgone, which he believed was responsible for emotions and sexuality. Wild rumors spread that his “sex boxes” caused uncontrollable erections.

In March 1938, Hitler annexed Austria. Reich's ex-wife and daughters had already left for the U.S., and in August 1939, Reich sailed out of Norway on the last boat to leave before the war began.[citation needed] He settled in Forest Hills, Queens, and in 1946, married Ilse Ollendorf, with whom he had a son, Peter.

It was during this period, according to some researchers, that Reich appeared to suffer a breakdown. They say that he became paranoid and revised parts of his earlier works to remove references to Marxist theory.[31] Reich's defenders say that Reich's revisions were minor, confined only to the English-speaking American period of his work, and were primarily sexological, clinical, or scientific in nature. Reich was one of the first of the European socialists to break ranks completely with the Communist Party; for example, in his book Mass Psychology of Fascism, which he wrote after a trip to Russia, he identified communism as “Red Fascism”. His defenders say that the charge of paranoia is intended to discredit Reich's critique of Marxism. American writer Jim Martin alleges that many of those who have attacked Reich's biophysical research — on the orgone accumulator, for example — were themselves leftist and Marxist.[32]

Reich designed a “cloudbuster”, which he said could manipulate streams of orgone energy to produce rain.

In 1940, Reich built boxes called orgone accumulators to concentrate atmospheric orgone energy; some were for lab animals, and some were large enough for a human being to sit inside. Reich said orgone was the “primordial cosmic energy”, blue in color, which he claimed was omnipresent and responsible for such things as weather, the color of the sky, gravity, the formation of galaxies, and the biological expressions of emotion and sexuality. Composed of alternating layers of ferrous metals and organic insulators with a high dielectric constant, his orgone accumulators had the appearance of a large, hollow capacitor. He believed that sitting inside the box might provide a treatment for cancer and other illnesses. It was the construction of these boxes that caught the attention of the press, leading to wild rumors that they were “sex boxes” which caused uncontrollable erections.[21] Based on experiments with the orgone accumulator, he argued that orgone energy was a negatively-entropic force in nature which was responsible for concentrating and organizing matter. Reich posited a conjugate, life-annulling energy in opposition to orgone, which he dubbed Deadly Orgone or DOR. Reich claimed that accumulations of DOR played a role in desertification and designed a “cloudbuster” with which he said he could manipulate streams of orgone energy in the atmosphere to induce rain by forcing clouds to form and disperse. Reich reported observing UFOs over Orgonon, Maine and also in the Arizona skies during his drought-relief expedition into the American Southwest. Reich even claimed to have done battle with the UFOs, convinced that his “cloudbuster” could be deployed to extinguish the anomalous “stars” from the sky.

According to Reich's theory, illness was primarily caused by depletion or blockages of the orgone energy within the body. He conducted clinical tests of the orgone accumulator on people suffering from a variety of illnesses. The patient would sit within the accumulator and absorb the “concentrated orgone energy”. He built smaller, more portable accumulator-blankets of the same layered construction for application to parts of the body. The effects observed were claimed to boost the immune system, even to the point of destroying certain types of tumors, though Reich was hesitant to claim this constituted a “cure”. The orgone accumulator was also tested on mice with cancer, and on plant-growth, the results convincing Reich that the benefits of orgone therapy could not be attributed to a placebo effect. He had, he believed, developed a grand unified theory of physical and mental health.[33]

Orgone experiment with Einstein

Reich discussed orgone accumulators with Albert Einstein in 1941.

On December 30, 1940, Reich wrote to Albert Einstein saying he had a scientific discovery he wanted to discuss, and on January 13, 1941 went to visit Einstein in Princeton. They talked for five hours,[34] and Einstein agreed to test an orgone accumulator, which Reich had constructed out of a Faraday cage made of galvanized steel and insulated by wood and paper on the outside. Einstein agreed that if, as Reich suggested, an object's temperature could be raised without an apparent heating source, it would be “a bomb” in physics.[35] This heating effect would be an amazing result since it would allow the construction of a perpetual motion machine,[36] which would violate the laws of thermodynamics.[37]

Reich supplied Einstein with a small accumulator during their second meeting, and Einstein performed the experiment in his basement, which involved taking the temperature atop, inside, and near the device. He also stripped the device down to its Faraday cage to compare temperatures. In his attempt to replicate Reich's findings, Einstein observed a rise in temperature,[38] which according to Reich was the result of a novel form of energy—orgone energy—that had accumulated inside the Faraday cage.[39] However, one of Einstein's assistants pointed out that the temperature was lower at the floor than that on the ceiling.[40] Following that remark, Einstein modified the experiment and, as a result, concluded that the effect was simply due to the temperature gradient inside the room.[41] He then wrote back to Reich, describing his experiments and expressing the hope that Reich would develop a more skeptical approach.[42]

Reich responded with a 25-page letter to Einstein, expressing concern that “convection from the ceiling” would join “air germs” and “Brownian movement” to explain away new findings, according to Reich's biographer, Myron Sharaf. Sharaf writes that Einstein conducted some more experiments, but then regarded the matter as “completely solved”.[39]

The correspondence between Reich and Einstein was published by Reich's press as The Einstein Affair in 1953, possibly without Einstein's permission.[43]

Controversy

The Brady article and the FDA

Reich was investigated by the FBI when he arrived in the U.S. because he was an immigrant with a communist background. The FBI released 789 pages of its files on Reich in 2000; a State Department press release stated:

This German immigrant described himself as the Associate Professor of Medical Psychology, Director of the Orgone Institute, President and research physician of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation and discoverer of biological or life energy. A 1940 security investigation was begun to determine the extent of Reich's communist commitments. A board of Alien Enemy Hearing judged that Dr. Reich was not a threat to the security of the U.S. In 1947, a security investigation concluded that neither the Orgone Project nor any of its staff were engaged in subversive activities or were in violation of any statute within the jurisdiction of the FBI.[44]

On May 26, 1947, an article appeared in The New Republic entitled “The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich” by Mildred Edie Brady. The subhead was “The man who blames both neuroses and cancer on unsatisfactory sexual activities has been repudiated by only one scientific journal.”[45]

Brady wrote:

Orgone, named after the sexual orgasm, is, according to Reich, a cosmic energy. It is, in fact, the cosmic energy. Reich has not only discovered it; he has seen it, demonstrated it and named a town — Orgonon, Maine — after it. Here he builds accumulators of it which are rented out to patients, who presumably derive 'orgastic potency' from it.[45]

Sharaf writes that the implication was clear: the accumulators gave orgastic potency, the lack of which causes cancer. Therefore, the claim for the accumulators was that they cured cancer. Brady argued that the “growing Reich cult” had to be dealt with.[46]

On July 23, Dr. J.J. Durrett, director of the Medical Advisory Division of the Federal Trade Commission, wrote to the FDA asking them to look into Reich's claims about the health benefits of orgone.[47] The FDA assigned an investigator named Wood to the case, who learned that Reich had built 250 accumulators; the FDA concluded that they were dealing with a “fraud of the first magnitude”.[48] Sharaf writes that the FDA suspected a “sexual racket” of some kind; questions were asked about the women associated with orgonomy and “what was done with them”.[49]

“ I would like to plead for my right to investigate natural phenomena without having guns pointed at me. I also ask for the right to be wrong without being hanged for it. — Wilhelm Reich.[50]

In November, Reich wrote in Conspiracy. An Emotional Chain Reaction: “I would like to plead for my right to investigate natural phenomena without having guns pointed at me. I also ask for the right to be wrong without being hanged for it … I am angry because smearing can do anything and truth can do so little to prevail, as it seems at the moment.”[51] Sharaf writes that Reich came to believe that Brady was a Stalinist acting under orders from the Communist Party, a “communist sniper“, as Reich called her.[52][53]

On February 10, 1954, the U.S. Attorney for Maine, acting on behalf of the FDA, filed a complaint seeking a permanent injunction under Sections 301 and 302 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to prevent interstate shipment of orgone-therapy equipment and literature.[54] Reich refused to appear in court, apparently believing that no court was in a position to evaluate his work. In his cover letter for the response he submitted to the court, he wrote to Judge Clifford:

My factual position in the case as well as in the world of science of today does not permit me to enter the case against the Food and Drug Administration, since such action would, in my mind, imply admission of the authority of this special branch of the government to pass judgment on primordial, pre-atomic cosmic orgone energy. I, therefore, rest the case in full confidence in your hands.[55]

Because of Reich's failure to appear, Clifford granted the injunction on March 19, 1954.[56] His ruling ordered that all written materials that mentioned “orgone energy” — including papers and pamphlets, and ten of Reich's books — were to be destroyed. It further stated that additional copies of his books, including revised editions of The Mass Psychology of Fascism, could not be published unless all references to “orgone energy” were deleted.

Imprisonment and death

In May 1956, Reich was arrested for violation of the injunction when an associate[57] moved some orgone-therapy equipment across a state line. Reich was charged with contempt of court. Once again, he refused to arrange a legal defense. He was brought in chains to the courthouse in Portland, Maine. Representing himself, he admitted to having violated the injunction and arranged for the judge to be sent copies of his books. He was sentenced to two years' imprisonment.

Dr. Morton Herskowitz, a fellow psychiatrist and friend of Reich's, wrote of the trial: “Because he viewed himself as a historical figure, he was making a historical point, and to make that point he had conducted the trial that way. If I had been in his shoes, I would have wanted to escape jail, I would have wanted to be free, etc. I would have conducted the trial on a strictly legal basis because the lawyers had said, 'We can win this case for you. Their case is so weak, so when you let us do our thing we can get you off.' But he wouldn't do it.”[58]

On June 5, 1956, FDA officials traveled to Orgonon, Reich's 200-acre (80-hectare) estate near Rangeley, Maine, where they destroyed the accumulators, and on June 26, burned many of his books. On August 25, 1956 and again on March 17, 1960,[59] the remaining six tons of his books, journals and papers were burned in the 25th Street public incinerator in New York's lower east side (Gansevoort incinerator). In March 1957, he was sent to Danbury Federal Prison, where a psychiatrist examined him, recording: “Paranoia manifested by delusions of grandiosity and persecution and ideas of reference.”[21]

Reich died in his sleep of heart failure on November 3, 1957 in the federal penitentiary in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, shortly before he was due to apply for parole. Not one psychiatric or established scientific journal carried an obituary. Time Magazine noted on November 18, 1957:

Died. Wilhelm Reich, 60, once-famed psychoanalyst, associate, and follower of Sigmund Freud, founder of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation, lately better known for unorthodox sex and energy theories; of a heart attack in Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary, Pa; where he was serving a two-year term for distributing his invention, the “orgone energy accumulator” (in violation of the Food and Drug Act), a telephone-booth-size device which supposedly gathered energy from the atmosphere, and could cure, while the patient sat inside, common colds, cancer and impotence

– Time magazine.[5]

Reich was buried in Orgonon. Next to the grave stands a replica of Reich's invention, the “cloudbuster”. The Wilhelm Reich Museum now sits at the top of Orgonon, in the building which housed Reich's laboratory, teaching, and psychiatric treatment facilities.

Status of his work

New research journals devoted to Reich's work began to appear in the 1960s. Physicians and natural scientists with an interest in Reich organized small study groups and institutes, and new research efforts were undertaken. James DeMeo undertook research while a graduate student at the University of Kansas into Reich's atmospheric theories.[60] A later study by DeMeo subjected Reich's sex-economic theory to cross-cultural evaluations,[61] later included in DeMeo's book Saharasia.[62]

Skeptics continue to believe his orgone theories are pseudoscience.[63][64][65].

There is some use of orgone accumulator therapy by psychotherapists in Europe, particularly in Germany.[66] A double-blind, controlled study of the psychological and physical effects of the orgone accumulator was carried out by Stefan Müschenich and Rainer Gebauer at the University of Marburg and appeared to validate some of Reich's claims.[67] The study was later reproduced by Günter Hebenstreit at the University of Vienna.[68] William Steig, Robert Anton Wilson, Norman Mailer, William S. Burroughs, Jerome D. Salinger and Orson Bean have all undergone Reich's orgone therapy. Benjamin Creme - founder of Share International - used this device early in his searchings for spiritual enlightenment. This device was used by Creme to assist him in learning to contact the so-called "ascended masters". Creme claims his primary contact today with these beings is with one known as Maitreya who is "soon" to appear as a world-wide saviour preparing the way for his master also known as Lucifer.

Reich was a pioneer of body psychotherapy and several emotions-based psychotherapies, influencing Fritz Perls' Gestalt therapy and Arthur Janov's primal therapy. (See also Neo-Reichian massage). His pupil Alexander Lowen, the founder of bioenergetic analysis, Charles Kelley, the founder of Radix therapy, and DeMeo ensure that his research receives widespread attention. Many practising psychoanalysts give credence to his theory of character, as outlined in his book Character Analysis (1933, enlarged 1949). The American College of Orgonomy,[69] founded by the late Elsworth Baker M.D., and the Institute for Orgonomic Science,[70] led by Dr. Morton Herskowitz, still use Reich's original therapeutic methods.

Nearly all Reich's publications have been reprinted, apart from his research journals which are available as photocopies from the Wilhelm Reich Museum. The first editions are not available: Reich continuously amended his books throughout his life, and the owners of Reich's copyright actively forbid anything other than the latest revised versions to be reprinted. In the late 1960s, Farrar, Straus & Giroux republished Reich's major works. Reich's earlier books, particularly The Mass Psychology of Fascism, are regarded as historically valuable.[71]

Reich in popular culture

Reich's life and work continue to influence popular culture, with references to orgone and cloudbusting found in songs by Clutch, Hawkwind, Pop Will Eat Itself, Turbonegro, Bob Dylan, and Patti Smith ("Birdland" on Horses). An article about the female orgasm by Reich provided the inspiration for "Little Man Within" by Welsh singer / songwriter Karl Wallinger of World Party.

Kate Bush's song “Cloudbusting” describe Reich's arrest and incarceration through the eyes of Reich's son, Peter, who wrote his father's story in A Book of Dreams, published in 1973.

The philosopher and science fiction author Robert Anton Wilson wrote a play, Wilhelm Reich in Hell, based on his life. This play was also published as a book with an added long introduction. A film about Reich's teachings called W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism was made in 1971 by Yugoslavian director Dušan Makavejev, and was listed by film critic Roger Ebert in his "Great Movie" series in 2007.

A short drama film about Reich by Jon East (entitled IT CAN BE DONE) was nominated for a Silver Lion at the 1999 Venice Film Festival.

Reich appeared in 2000 as the superhero “Orgone Lad”, a member of the League of Infinity, in Supreme by Alan Moore.

"He did ten years in Attica, reading Nietzsche and Wilhelm Reich" ---from the song "Joey" on the album Desire by Bob Dylan.

In Jack Kerouac's autobiographical novel On the Road written in 1951, Old Bull Lee (modelled on William Burroughs) extols the benefits of the orgone accumulator he owns and considers how it may be improved by building it from 'more organic' wood. Burroughs makes several references to Orgone energy in his own novels and essays as well.

Reich is the subject, along with real estate developer Del Webb, of the 2008 documentary Wasteland Utopias by filmmaker David Sherman.

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Wilhelm Reich," Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  2. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, pp. 4, 5.
  3. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, pp. 4, 8; see also Obituary notice for Wilhelm Reich, Time Magazine, November 18, 1957.
  4. ^ Frederic Wertham, Calling all Couriers, The New Republic, Dec 2, 1946; Brady, Mildred Edie. The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich, The New Republic, May 26, 1947; Brady, Mildred Edie. The New Cult of Sex and Anarchy, Harper's, April 1947
  5. ^ a b c d Obituary notice for Wilhelm Reich, Time Magazine, November 18, 1957.
  6. ^ a b Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 477.
  7. ^ Correct birth place according to Wilhelm Reich's military file held in Wien War Archives. (Over the years it has been erroneously listed as “Dobrzcynica”). Also written as Dobryanichi or Dobrjanici (in Ukrainian: Добряничі), and known in German as Dobzau, 49ºN34' 24ºE31', a village of roughly 379 (as of 2004) in Lviv Oblast (i.e., Lemberg Oblast) near Peremyshliany, now in Ukraine. See location at Google Maps. A Ukrainian map of the location and surroundings
  8. ^ a b Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 39.
  9. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 463.
  10. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. “Background and scientific development of Wilhelm Reich”, Orgone Energy Bulletin V, 1953, p. 6, cited in Sharaf 1994, p. 40 and p. 488, footnote 10.
  11. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. “Über einen Fall von Durchbruch der Inzestschranke in der Pubertät”, Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft, VII, 1920, 222-223, cited in and translated by Sharaf 1994, p. 43 and p. 448, footnote 12.
  12. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. “Über einen Fall von Durchbruch der Inzestschranke in der Pubertät”, Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft, VII, 1920, 222-223, cited in and translated by Sharaf 1994, p. 43 and p. 448, footnote 12.
  13. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 42-46.
  14. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. “Über einen Fall von Durchbruch der Inzestschranke in der Pubertät”, op cit, cited in Sharaf 1994, p. 47 and p. 489, footnote 21.
  15. ^ a b Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 48.
  16. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 58.
  17. ^ a b c Biography, The Wilhelm Reich Museum, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  18. ^ Born April 2, 1902, Vienna, died January 5, 1971, New York, Necrological note on Dr. Annie Reich-Rubinstein in the IJP.
  19. ^ Eva Reich became a doctor and applied orgonomical techniques to the care of newborns.
  20. ^ Lore Reich Rubin became a doctor and psychoanalyst: http://www.pitt.edu/~filmst/events/MysteryoftheOrganism.pdf
  21. ^ a b c d e Alan Cantwell, Jr., M.D. (2004). Dr. Wilhelm Reich. New Dawn Magazine. Retrieved on December 3, 2007.
  22. ^ D'Aloia, Alessandro. “Marxism and Psychoanalysis: Notes on Wilhelm Reich’s Life and Works”, Marxist.com, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  23. ^ According to his daughter Lore Reich, Anna Freud and Ernest Jones were behind the expulsion of Reich. (see also The Century of the Self)
  24. ^ a b c Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 4.
  25. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 5.
  26. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 8.
  27. ^ Frederic Wertham, Calling all Couriers, The New Republic, Dec 2, 1946
  28. ^ Brady, Mildred Edie, The New Cult of Sex and Anarchy, Harper's, April 1947
  29. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994
  30. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. Beyond Psychology: Letters and Journals 1934-1939. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1994, p. 66
  31. ^ Marxism and Psychoanalysis – Notes on Wilhelm Reich’s Life and Works
  32. ^ Martin, Jim. Wilhelm Reich and the Cold War, Flatland Books, Mendocino, CA, 2000.
  33. ^ Klee, Gerald D. “What ever happened to orgone therapy?”, The Maryland Psychiatric Society, Summer 2001; Vol. 28, No. 1; Pg 13-15, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  34. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. De Capo Press, 1994, p. 285.
  35. ^ Brian, Denis. 1996. Einstein: A Life, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p.326.
  36. ^ “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) About New Energy Science and Technology”, New Energy Foundation, Inc., 2003, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  37. ^ Perpetual Motion Machines at The British Columbia Institute of Technology
  38. ^ “I have now investigated your apparatus (…). In the beginning I made enough readings without any changes in your arrangements. The box-thermometer showed regularly a temperature of about 0.3-0.4 higher then the one suspended freely”, Einstein's letter to Reich, February 7th, 1941, English translation, in The Einstein Affair, Orgone Institute Press, 1953
  39. ^ a b Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. De Capo Press, 1994, p. 286.
  40. ^ “One of my assistants now drew my attention to the fact that in the room (…) the temperature on the floor is always lower than the one on the celing” Einstein to Reich, February 7th, 1941, op.cit.
  41. ^ “Through these experiments I regard the matter as completely solved”. Einstein to Reich, February 7th, 1941, op.cit.
  42. ^ “Ich hoffe, dass dies Ihre Skepsis entwickeln wird” in Einstein to Reich, February 7th, 1941, op.cit.. In English “I hope that this will develop your skepsis”. This sentence is missing in the original English translation.
  43. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. De Capo Press, 1994, p. 288.
  44. ^ “FBI adds new subjects to electronic reading room”, U.S. State Department, March 2, 2000.
  45. ^ a b Brady, Mildred. “The Strange case of Wilhelm Reich“, The New Republic, May 26, 1947 cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 360.
  46. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 361.
  47. ^ FDA file on Reich, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 363 and footnote 6, p. 513.
  48. ^ FDA file on Reich, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 364 and footnote 11, p. 513.
  49. ^ Greenfield, Jerome. Wilhelm Reich Vs. the U.S.A.. W.W. Norton, 1974, p. 69, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 364 and footnote 13, p. 513.
  50. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. Conspiracy. An Emotional Chain Reaction, item 386A, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 367 and footnote 14, p. 513.
  51. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. Conspiracy. An Emotional Chain Reaction, item 386A, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 367 and footnote 14, p. 513.
  52. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 367.
  53. ^ Jim Martin writes that Michael Straight, a former member of the Cambridge Apostles and friend of some of those involved in the Soviet-Cambridge spy ring, was the publisher of the Brady articles, and that the attack on Reich may have been prompted by Reich's turning his back on Marxism. (Martin, Jim. Wilhelm Reich and the Cold War, Flatland Books, Mendocino, CA, 2000.)
  54. ^ COMPLAINT FOR INJUNCTION by FDA Feb 10, 1954 -part1 - - USA vs WILHELM REICH 1954-1957
  55. ^ “Wilhelm Reich's Response to FDA's Complaint for Injunction”, February 25, 1954, posted on orgone.org.
  56. ^ DECREE OF INJUNCTION ORDER (USA vs Wilhelm Reich) by JUDGE CLIFFORD MARCH 19, 1954 - USA vs WILHELM REICH 1954-1957
  57. ^ Dr. Michael Silvert (1906-1958), born Meyer Silverzweig in Poland. He was arrested with Reich and committed suicide in 1958 when he was released from prison. http://family.silvert.org/anne/mike.htm
  58. ^ The Trial
  59. ^ DECREE OF INJUNCTION ORDER (USA vs Wilhelm Reich) by JUDGE CLIFFORD MARCH 19, 1954 - USA vs WILHELM REICH 1954-1957
  60. ^ DeMeo, James. “Preliminary Analysis of Changes in Kansas Weather Coincidental to Experimental Operations with a Reich Cloudbuster”, KU Geography-Meteorology Dept, Thesis, 1979.
  61. ^ DeMeo, James. “On the Origins and Diffusion of Patrism: The Saharasian Connection”, KU Geography-Meteorology Dept, Dissertation, 1986
  62. ^ DeMeo, James: “Saharasia: The 4000 BCE Origins of Child Abuse, Sex-Repression, Warfare and Social Violence in the Deserts of the Old World. The Revolutionary Discovery of a Geographic Basis to Human Behavior”. Greensprings OR, 1986
  63. ^ Steven Lower, PhD (21st March 2007). H20 dot con.
  64. ^ DECREE OF INJUNCTION ORDER (MARCH 19, 1954).
  65. ^ Gardner, Martin (1952). "Chapter 21: Orgonomy", Fads and Fallacies in the name of Science. Dover. 
  66. ^ For example: Kavouras, Jorgos: “Heilen mit Orgonenergie: Die Medizinische Orgonomie”, Turm Verlag, Bietigheim, Germany, 2005; Lassek, Heiko: “Orgon-Therapie: Heilen mit der reinen Lebensenergie”, Scherz Verlag, 1997, München, Germany; Müschenich, Stefan: Der Gesundheitsbegriff im Werk des Arztes Wilhelm Reich (The Concept of Health in the Works of Wilhelm Reich, MD), med. Diss., Marburg, Görich & Weiershauser, 1995.
  67. ^ Müschenich, Stefan & Gebauer, Rainer: Der Reich'sche Orgonakkumulator. Naturwissenschaftliche Diskussion, praktische Anwendung, experimentelle Untersuchung. Frankfurt/Main: Nexus-Verlag 1987
  68. ^ Hebenstreit, Günter: Der Orgonakkumulator nach Wilhelm Reich. Eine experimentelle Untersuchung zur Spannungs-Ladungs-Formel. Univ. Wien, Dipl.-Arbeit, 1995
  69. ^ The American College of Orgonomy
  70. ^ Institute for Orgonomic Science
  71. ^ A good overview of Reich's work is Wilhelm Reich: The evolution of his work by David Boadella. A bibliography on orgonomy gives full citations to university dissertations, and to controlled experiments replicating Reich's work on bions, the orgone accumulator, and the cloudbuster.

Bibliography

German-language books
  • Der triebhafte Charakter : Eine psychoanalytische Studie zur Pathologie des Ich, 1925
  • Die Funktion des Orgasmus : Zur Psychopathologie und zur Soziologie des Geschlechtslebens, 1927
  • Dialektischer Materialismus und Psychoanalyse, 1929
  • Geschlechtsreife, Enthaltsamkeit, Ehemoral : Eine Kritik der bürgerlichen Sexualreform, 1930
  • Der Einbruch der Sexualmoral : Zur Geschichte der sexuellen Ökonomie, 1932
  • Charakteranalyse : Technik und Grundlagen für studierende und praktizierende Analytiker, 1933
  • Massenpsychologie des Faschismus, 1933 (original Marxist edition, banned by the Nazis and the Communists)
  • Was ist Klassenbewußtsein? : Über die Neuformierung der Arbeiterbewegung, 1934
  • Psychischer Kontakt und vegetative Strömung, 1935
  • Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf : Zur sozialistischen Umstrukturierung des Menschen, 1936
  • Die Bione : Zur Entstehung des vegetativen Lebens, 1938
English-language books
  • American Odyssey: Letters and Journals 1940-1947 (posthumous)
  • Beyond Psychology: Letters and Journals 1934-1939 (posthumous)
  • The Bioelectrical Investigation of Sexuality and Anxiety
  • The Bion Experiments: On the Origins of Life
  • The Function of the Orgasm, 1942, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe
  • The Cancer Biopathy (1948)
  • Character Analysis (translation of the enlarged version of Charakteranalyse from 1933, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe)
  • Children of the Future: On the Prevention of Sexual Pathology
  • Contact With Space: Oranur Second Report (1957)
  • Cosmic Superimposition: Man's Orgonotic Roots in Nature (1951)
  • Early Writings
  • Ether, God and Devil (1949)
  • Genitality in the Theory and Therapy of Neuroses (translation of the original, unrevised version of Die Funktion des Orgasmus from 1927)
  • The Invasion of Compulsory Sex-Morality (translation of the revised and enlarged version of Der Eindruch der Sexualmoral from 1932)
  • Listen, Little Man! (1948, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe)
  • The Mass Psychology of Fascism (translation of the revised and enlarged version of Massenpsychologie des Faschismus from 1933, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe)
  • The Murder of Christ (1953)
  • The Oranur Experiment
  • The Orgone Energy Accumulator, Its Scientific and Medical Use (1948)
  • Passion of Youth: An Autobiography, 1897-1922 (posthumous)
  • People in Trouble (1953)
  • Record of a Friendship: The Correspondence of Wilhelm Reich and A.S. Neill (1936-1957)
  • Reich Speaks of Freud (Interview by Kurt R. Eissler, letters, documents)
  • Selected Writings: An Introduction to Orgonomy
  • Sexpol. Essays 1929-1934 (ed. Lee Baxandall)
  • The Sexual Revolution (translation of Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf from 1936, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe)
  • The Einstein Affair (1953)

Further reading

  • Baker, Elsworth F., Man In The Trap, Macmillan, NY, 1967.
  • Bean, Orson, Me And The Orgone, St. Martin's Press, NY, 1971.
  • Boadella, David, Wilhelm Reich, The Evolution Of His Work, Henry Regnery, Chicago, 1973.
  • Boadella, David (ed.), In The Wake Of Reich, Coventure, London, 1976.
  • Brady, Mildred Edie, “The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich”, New Republic, May 26, 1947
  • Brady, Mildred Edie, “The New Cult of Sex and Anarchy”, Harper's, April 1947.
  • Corrington, Robert S., Wilhelm Reich: Psychoanalyst and Radical Naturalist, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, NY, 2003
  • DeMeo, James, The Orgone Accumulator Handbook: Construction Plans, Experimental Use and Protection Against Toxic Energy, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Oregon 1989.
  • DeMeo, James (ed.), “On Wilhelm Reich And Orgonomy” (Pulse of the Planet #4), Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Oregon 1993.
  • DeMeo, James. “Saharasia: The 4000 BCE Origins of Child-Abuse, Sex-Repression, Warfare and Social Violence, In the Deserts of the Old World”, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Oregon 1998.
  • DeMeo, James & Senf, Bernd (eds.), Nach Reich: Neue Forschungen zur Orgonomie: Sexualokonomie, Die Entdeckung Der Orgonenergie (After Reich: New Research in Orgonomy: Sex-Economy, Discovery of the Orgone Energy), Zweitausendeins Verlag, Frankfurt, 1998.
  • DeMeo, James (ed.), “Heretic's Notebook: Emotions, Protocells, Ether-Drift and Cosmic Life Energy, With New Research Supporting Wilhelm Reich”, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Oregon 2002.
  • Greenfield, Jerome, Wilhelm Reich Vs. The USA, W.W. Norton, NY, 1974.
  • Guillon, Claude, Pour en finir avec Reich, Alternative diffusion, 1978.
  • Herskowitz, Morton, Emotional Armoring: An Introduction to Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, Transactions Press, NY 1998.
  • Kendrick, William, “The Analyst as Outsider”, a review of Myron Sharaf's Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich, The New York Times, April 3, 1983.
  • Laska, Bernd A., “Sigmund Freud contra Wilhelm Reich” Auszug aus Wilhelm Reich. Bildmonographie, Rowohlt, Reinbek 1981, 1999
  • Mann, Edward, Orgone. Reich And Eros: Wilhelm Reich's Theory Of The Life Energy, Simon & Schuster, NY, 1973.
  • Mann, Edward & Hoffman (ed.), The Man Who Dreamed Of Tomorrow: A Conceptual Biography Of Wilhelm Reich, J.P. Tarcher, 1980.
  • Martin, Jim, Wilhelm Reich and the Cold War, Flatland Books, Mendocino, CA, 2000.
  • Meyerowitz, Jacob, Before the Beginning of Time, rRp Publishers, Easton, PA 1994.
  • Norris, Lance, www.lulu.com/content/734224 “Cloudhopping”, Dutchco International, 2007
  • Ollendorff, Ilse, Wilhelm Reich: A Personal Biography, St. Martin's Press, NY, 1969.
  • Raknes, Ola, Wilhelm Reich And Orgonomy, St. Martin's Press, NY, 1970; Penguin, Baltimore, 1970.
  • Reich, Peter, A Book Of Dreams, Harper & Row, NY, 1973.
  • Ritter, Paul (ed.), Wilhelm Reich Memorial Volume, Ritter Press, Nottingham, England, 1958.
  • Senf, Bernd, Die Wiederentdeckung des Lebendigen (The Rediscovery of the Living), Zweitausendeins Verlag, Frankfurt, 1996.
  • Wilson, Robert Anton, Wilhelm Reich in Hell, Aires Press, 1998.
  • Wyckoff, James, Wilhelm Reich: Life Force Explorer, Fawcett, Greenwich, CT, 1973.
The Einstein experiments
  • The Einstein Affair, Orgone Institute Press, 1953
  • Aspden, H (2001) “Gravity and its thermal anomaly: was the Reich-Einstein experiment evidence of energy inflow from the aether?”, Infinite Energy, 41:61.
  • Bearden, T (2002) “Energy from the vacuum”, Cheniere Press, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 333-337.
  • Brian, Denis. Einstein: A Life, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996. ISBN 0-471-11459-6 Reich is discussed on pages 325-327, 382, 399.
  • Clark, Ronald W. Einstein: The Life and Times, New York: Avon, 1971, ISBN 0-380-01159-X Reich is on pages 689-90 of the paperback edition.
  • Correa, P & Correa, A (1998, 2001) “The thermal anomaly in ORACs and the Reich-Einstein experiment: implications for blackbody theory”, Akronos Publishing, Concord, ON, Canada, ABRI monograph AS2-05.
  • Correa PN & Correa AN (2001) “The reproducible thermal anomaly of the Reich-Einstein experiment under limit conditions”, Infinite Energy, 37:12.
  • Mallove, E (2001) “Breaking Through: A Bombshell in Science”, Infinite Energy, 37:6.
  • Mallove, E (2001) “Breaking Through: Aether Science and Technology”, Infinite Energy, 39:6.
  • Smyth, W.B. “50 Years after Albert Einstein: The Failure of the Unified Field”, extracts from Gone Dark.

External links

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