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Use of capital punishment by nation

This article is part of the
Capital punishmentseries Issues

Religious views
Wrongful execution

By region

Australia Brazil Canada China
Europe France Germany India
Italy Iraq Japan Malaysia
New Zealand Pakistan Philippines
Russia Singapore Taiwan
United Kingdom United States


Firing squad
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Lethal injection

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At one time capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe, but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. Amnesty International classifies countries into four categories.

  • 62 countries still maintain the death penalty in both law and practice.
  • 92 countries have abolished it completely.
  • 10 retain it, but only for crimes committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war).
  • 33 countries maintain laws permitting the use of the death penalty for ordinary crimes, but have allowed the death penalty to fall into disuse for at least 10 years.

It is not unknown, however, for countries to practice extrajudicial execution sporadically or systematically outside their own formal legal frameworks. This list includes several unrecognized states with de facto control over their territory.


Death Penalty World Map
     Abolished for all crimes      Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war)      Abolished in practice      Legal form of punishment

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Note: The tables can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the "><" icon.


Executions in 2005: Libya (?), Somalia (?), Sudan (65)

#Country Last Execution Abolished Notes  Algeria1993, August Treasonand espionage; attempts to change the regime or actions aimed at incitement; destruction of territory, sabotageto public and economic utilities; massacres and slaughters; participation in armed bands or in insurrectionary movements; counterfeiting; murder; acts of torture or cruelty; kidnapping; aggravated theft  Angola1992 (by Constitution)  Benin1987 armed robbery[1]; Murder[2]; traffickers involved in "labor exploitation"[3] Botswana2003, September 19[4]Murder; Treason; Attempt on the life of the head of state; Mutiny; Desertion in the face of the enemy  Burkina Faso1988 Treason[5] Burundi2000 or later[6]Murder [7] Cameroon1997, January[8]Secession; espionage; incitement to war[9] Cape Verde1835 1981 (by Constitution)  Central African Republic1981 Treason; espionage; charlatanism; witchcraft; assassination; murder[10] Chad2003[11]Murder  Comoros1996 or later[12] Democratic Republic of the Congo2003[13] Congo1982  Côte d'IvoireNone since independence[14]2000  DjiboutiNone since independence 1995  Egypt2004 or later Rape, only if accompanied by kidnapping of the victim. Murder. Treason. Organized Drug Trafficking.  Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia2007, August[15]Murder  Gabon1981[16] Gambia1981 Treason. Abolished 1993 but was reinstated by Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council in August 1995[17] Ghana1993 Murder; Treason; Armed robbery[17] Guinea-Bissau1986 1993 (by Constitution)  Guinea2001[18]Murder  Kenya1984 Murder and armed robbery[13] Lesotho Liberia1995[17]September 16, 2005 Liberia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, completely abolishing the death penalty  Libya2005[19]High treason; attempt to forcibly change the form of government; premeditated murder[20] Madagascar1958  Malawi1992[21] Mali1980  Mauritania1987 Sodomy[22]; Apostasy[23](Although apostasy is a capital offense there are no recorded executions for it).  Mauritius1987 1995  Morocco1993 Terrorism[13]. An abolition law project is being presented to the Parliament of Moroccoin spring 2007. (see Human rights in Morocco#Capital punishment)  Mozambique1986 1990 (by Constitution)  Namibia1988 1990 (by Constitution)  Niger1976  Nigeria2001[17]Sodomy[24]. Each of the 36 states have their own laws. In the north of the country the legal system used is Sharia (Islamic law)  Rwanda1998 2007[25] Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1976 The Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republicexplicitly outlaws the death penalty; Article 13, from the 1991 revision reads "The death penalty is banned" (translated into Englishfrom the Arabic.)[26] São Tomé and PríncipeNone since independence 1990 (by Constitution)  Senegal1967 2004, December 10  SeychellesNone since independence 1993 (by Constitution)  Sierra Leone1998 Treason[27]; Murder; Aggravated robbery. Under the Special Court for Sierra Leonethe death penalty is not a punishment for war crimes Somalia2006, May 2[28]After the breakdown of de juregovernment, most regions reverted to Islamic law Somaliland South Africa1991, January 31[8]1997 On 25 May2005the Constitutional Courtordered that all remaining death sentences in the country be set aside and the prisoners resentenced. This last execution occurred in the internationally unrecognised Black"homelands". The last execution in Pretoria Central Prison was on November 14, 1989.  Sudan2005 Sodomy [29]; Waging war against the state[30]; Apostasy[23]; Prostitution; Treason; Acts which may endanger the independence or unity of the state; Murder; Armed robbery; Weapons possession and smuggling  Swaziland1983[31]Murder

[32]; treason

 Tanzania1994 Murder; Treason  Togo1978[33]Premeditated murder; plots against the security of the State  Tunisia1991 Murder; violence and aggression; attacks against the internal security of the State; attacks against the external security of the State  Uganda2003[34]Treason; Terrorism; Murder[35]; Rape; Defilement; Aggravated robbery; Aggravated kidnapping. On June 14, 2005the Constitutional courtruled that although the death penalty was constitutional, its use as a mandatory punishment for certain crimes was not.[36] Zambia1997 Murder; Aggravated robbery; High treason. President Levy Mwanawasastated in 2004 that "For as long as I remain President, I will not execute a death warrant."[21] Zimbabwe2003, June[37]Treason; Murder; Mutiny


Executions in 2006: Bahrain (?), Bangladesh (?), People's Republic of China (1,010), Indonesia (?), Iran (177), Iraq (65), Japan (9), Malaysia (?), Singapore (?)

#Country Last Execution Abolished Notes  Afghanistan2007, October 8[38]Murder; child smuggling in order to use the victim's body parts; Apostasy (see Abdul Rahman (convert))  Armenia1991[39]2003  Azerbaijan1992 1998  Bahrain2006 premeditated murder; plotting to topple the regime; collaborating with a foreign hostile country; threatening the life of the Emir; defiance of military orders in time of war or martial law Bangladesh2007 Murder [40]; drug offences [41]; Trafficking in children for immoral or illegal purposes; Trafficking in women for purposes of prostitution[42] Bhutan1974[21]2004  Brunei1957 Murder; unlawful possession of firearms and explosives; possession of heroin or morphine of more than 15 grams, Cocaine of more than 30 grams, Cannabis of more than 500 grams, Syabu or methamphetamine of more than 50 grams, or Opium of more than 1.2 kg[43] Cambodia1989 (by Constitution)  China2008 Embezzlement[44]; Rape of children[45]; Fraud[34]Bombing[46]; People trafficking[47]; Piracy; Theft[48]; Corruption; Arson[49]; Murder; "Endangering national security"; Terrorism[50](see Capital punishment in the People's Republic of China) (The two special administrative regions, namely Hong Kongand Macau, have abolished death penalty.)  Taiwan2005 Since 2004, most death sentences have been informally given moratorium by President Chen Shui-bianexcept serious murders.
(see Capital punishment in Taiwan)  Timor-Leste1999  Hong Kong1966 1993* *when Hong Kong was under British rule, and remains so after the handoverto the People's Republic of China.  India2004, August 14[51]Murder, instigating a child's suicide, treason, acts of terrorism, or a second conviction for drug trafficking. For more information see Capital punishment in India Indonesia2006[52]Drug trafficking[53]; Terrorism[52] Iran2008 Sodomy [54]; Armed Robbery[34]; Terrorism[55]; Drug trafficking[46]; Kidnapping & rape[56]; Murder[57]; Apostasy[23] Iraq2007, March 20 murder; endangering national security; distributing drugs; rape; attacks on transport convoys; financing and execution of terrorism[58]. Suspended in April 2003 after 2003 invasion; reinstated May 2005. Last execution against Taha Yassin Ramadan on 20th March 2007.  Israel1962 1954 (for other crimes) Crimes against humanity[59], high treason. Only one execution after 1954 (high-ranking Nazi Adolf Eichmann).  Japan2008, April 10[60]Prosecutors only push for the death penalty in the case of multiple murders, or single murder with aggravating circumstances.[61]Judges usually impose death penalty in case of multiple homicides. Between 1946 and 2003, Japanese courts sentenced 766 people to death, 608 of whom were executed. For 40 months from 1989 to 1993 the successive ministers of justice refused to authorise executions, which amounted to informal moratorium.  Jordan2005 Murder[62] Kazakhstan2003[63]Terrorism, crimes in wartime[64]. Moratorium since 17 December2003 North Korea2008[65]Plots against national sovereignty; terrorism ; treason against the Motherland by citizens; treason against the people; murder[66] South Korea1997, December 30[67]Murder [68]. There has been an unofficial moratorium on executions since PresidentKim Dae-jungtook office in February 1998.[69] Kuwait2005[70]Drugs Trafficking; Rape & Murder[71] Kyrgyzstan2007[72][73]Kyrgyz authorities had extended a moratorium on executions each year since 1998.  Laos1989 Drugs trafficking[74] Lebanon2004 Murder[75] MacauDeath penalty and life imprisonment are prohibited, even after the handoverto the People's Republic of China.[76]The maximum possible sentence is imprisonment for 30 years.[77] Malaysia2006[78]Mandatory for Trafficking in dangerous drugs; Discharging a firearm in the Commission of a scheduled offence; Accomplices in case of discharge of firearm; Offences against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong’s person; Murder. Discretionary for Kidnapping; Consorting with person carrying or having possession of arms or explosives; Waging or attempting to wage war or abetting the waging of war against the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Ruler or Yang di-Pertua Negeri[79] Maldives1952 Murder[80] Mongoliaterrorist acts committed for political purposes; terrorist acts against representatives of a foreign State for political purposes; sabotage; premeditated murder committed with aggravating circumstances; and rape with aggravating circumstances ; Armed Robbery[81]. According to Amnesty International, executions were carried out in secret and there are no official statistics[82] Burma1993 High treason[83] Nagorno-Karabakh RepublicNever de facto moratorium on executions since 1997  Nepal1979 1997 (by Constitution)  Oman2001[84]Murder; Drug trafficking[85] Pakistan2005[86]Murder[70]; Sodomy[87]; Gang rape; Mutiny[88](see Capital punishment in Pakistan)  Palestinian Authority2005[89]Murder; Rape; Collaborating with Israeli forces to assassinate Palestinians[90]. There had been an unofficial moratorium since 2002 after PresidentYasser Arafatstopped authorising executions.  Philippines2000 2006, June 24 Abolished in 1987 under the present constititution, re-introduced in 1993, re-abolished on June 24, 2006under Republic ActNo. 9346.  Qatar2001 Espionage[91]; Threat to national security[92]; Apostasy[23]. Although apostasy is a capital offense there are no recorded executions for it  Saudi Arabia2008[93]Many violent and nonviolent offenses including murder, apostasy, drug offenses, witchcraft and sexual misconduct.[94]. Method most often used is beheading by a sword  Singapore2007 murder, kidnapping, treason, certain firearm offenses, trafficking in more than 15 grams (half an ounce) of heroin or morphine, 30 grams of cocaine or 500 grams of cannabis[95](see capital punishment in Singapore)  Sri Lanka1976, June 23 Murder, Perjury causing an innocent person to be executed, rape, drug trafficking. Moratorium from 1976 to 2003; reinstated in 2004[citation needed], however no executions have been carried out.  Syria2004[96]treason; murder; political acts such as bearing arms against Syria in the ranks of the enemy, desertion of the armed forces to the enemy and acts of incitement under martial law or in wartime; violent robberies; rape; verbal opposition to the government; and membership in the Muslim Brotherhood Tajikistan2004 Murder with aggravating circumstances; rape with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; biocide; genocide[97]. Moratorium introduced 30 April2004by President Emomalii Rahmon Thailand2003, December 12 Offenses include Regicide; Sedition or Rebellion; Offences committed against the external security of Thailand; Murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state; Bribery; Arson; Rape; Murder with intent; Kidnapping; Robbery resulting in death. For a full list see here (PDF) Turkmenistan1999 (by Constitution)  United Arab Emirates2002[98]Murder; Drug offences[99]; homosexuality[100][101]; Rape; Treason; Aggravated robbery; Apostasy; Environmental pollution; Terrorism  Uzbekistan2005[102]2008 PresidentIslom Karimovsigned a decree on 1 August2005that replaced the death penalty with life imprisonment on 1 January2008[103][104] Vietnam2005[70]treason; taking action to overthrow the government; espionage; rebellion; banditry; terrorism; sabotage; hijacking; destruction of national security projects; undermining peace; war crimes; crimes against humanity; manufacturing, concealing and trafficking in narcotic substances; murder; rape; robbery; embezzlement; fraud[105] Yemen2005[106]Murder [107]; Adultery[108]; homosexuality[100][109]; Apostasy[23]. Although apostasy is a capital offense there are no recorded executions for it


Main article: Capital punishment in Europe

Executions in 2004: Belarus (5)

#Country Last Execution Abolished Notes  Albania1995[39]2007 Ratification of Protocol No. 13 of ECHR took place on February 6th and in effect by June 1st, 2007. [110] Andorra1943 1990 (by Constitution)  Austria1950 1968 (by Constitution)  BelarusFebruary 2008 [111]acts of aggression; murder of a representative of a foreign state or international organization with the intention to provoke international tension or war; international terrorism; genocide; crimes against the security of humanity; murder with aggravating circumstances; terrorism; terrorist acts; treason that results in loss of life; conspiracy to seize power; sabotage; murder of a police officer; use of weapons of mass destruction; and violations of the laws and customs of war[112](see Capital punishment in Belarus)  Belgium1863 for common law crimes; 1950 for war crimes 1996 (by Constitution)  Bosnia and HerzegovinaNever 1995 (by Constitution)  Bulgaria1989 1998  Croatia1973[39]1990 (by Constitution)  Cyprus1962 2002 Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1983.  Czech Republic1989 1990 (by Constitution) For more info see Capital punishment in the Czech Republic.  Denmark1892 for common law crimes; 1950 for war crimes 1930; reinstated 1952-1978 Capital punishment was reinstated 1952-1978 in the civil penalty law for crimes committed under extreme circumstances and related to war or high treason. For more info see Capital punishment in Denmark.  Estonia1991 1998  Finland1944 1972 (by Constitution)  France1977 1981 Forbidden by law in 1981 and by Constitutionin 2007.  Georgia1995[39]1997  Germanynone by authorities of the FRG 1949 (FRG)/1987 (GDR) Last execution in West Germany: 1956 (by US Military Authorities), last execution in East Germany: 1981 (by GDR authorities). Prohibited by the Basic Lawsince 1949.  Greece1972 2004  Hungary1989 1990  Iceland1830 1928 Abolished in 1928; reintroduction made unconstitutional in 1995 by unanimous vote of parliament  Ireland1954 1990 21st Amendment to the Constitution (2001)passed by national referendum made reintroduction unconstitutional without a further constitutional amendment (and referendum). Until recently it was still technically lawful to execute the murderer of a police officer; however, in practice this never occurred, likely due to widespread moral objection.  Italy1947 1994 Already abolished, except in time of war, in 1948 (by the Constitution). Abolished from the military penal code in 1994. Constitution amended in 2007 to make reintroduction unconstitutional without a further constitutional amendment.  Latvia1996[39]1999 (for other crimes) murder with aggravating circumstances if committed during wartime[113] Liechtenstein1785 1987  Lithuania1995 1998  Luxembourg1949 1979 (by Constitution)  Republic of Macedonia1988[39]1991 (by Constitution)  Malta1943 2000 Capital punishment for murder abolished in 1971; continued to be part of the country's military code until 2000.  Isle of Man1872 1993  Moldova1985[39]1995 On September 23, 2005the Moldovan Constitutional Court approved constitutional amendments that explicitly abolished the death penalty[114].  Monaco1847 1962 (by Constitution)  Montenegronone since independence New Constitution in preparation that will ban the death penalty  Netherlands1952 1982 (by Constitution) Abolished for peacetime offences in 1870, last execution for peacetime offences 1860  Norway1948 1979 Abolished for peacetime offences in 1902, last execution for peacetime offences 1876  Poland1988 1997 A criminal law reform including reintroducion of death penalty was proposed in 2004 by Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, but lost in the first reading in the Sejm(vote of 198 against to 194 for with 14 abstentions).[21] Portugal1849 (last woman in 1763) 1976 (by Constitution) Abolished for political crimes in 1852 (per Additional Act to the Constitutional Charter); abolished for all crimes except in time of war in 1867; abolished in time of war in 1911.  Romania1989 1990[39](by Constitution)  Russia1999 murder with aggravating circumstances; assassination attempt against a state or public figure; attempt on the life of a person administering justice or preliminary investigations; attempt on the life of a law-enforcement officer; genocide[115]. On 16 April1997Russia signed the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, but has yet to ratify it. There has been a moratorium on executions since 1996; no executions in the Russian Federation since August 1996, though one took place in 1999 in the Chechen Republic San Marino1468 1865  Serbia1992 1995 Abolished in 1995 on Federal level, local legislation adjusted in 2002[116] Slovakia1989 1990 (by Constitution)  Slovenia1957 1989 (by Constitution)  Spain1975, September 27 1995 Abolished in 1978 by constitution except for military laws during wartime.  Sweden1910, November 23 1972 Peacetime offences 1921, Wartime offences 1973. Constitutionally prohibited since 1975.  Switzerland1944 1874/1938/1992 First abolishment in 1874, later permitted again and practiced by a few states(9 executions until 1940). Definite abolishment by popular vote in 1938, except for wartime military crimes, for which it was eliminated in 1992.  Transnistrianever murder; attempt to murder a state or public official; armed rebellion; attempt to murder a magistrate or investigator; attempt to murder a law enforcement agent; genocide. Moratorium since January 1, 1999 Turkey1984, October 25 2004, July 21 (by Constitution)  Northern CyprusNever Treason during wartime, acts of terrorism and piracy jure gentium, and for repeated murders[117] Ukraine1997, March[118]2000 Abolished February 2000 after the Ukrainian Constitutional Courtruled the death penalty unconstitutional in December 1999. New criminal code passed in April 2001.  United Kingdom1964, August 13 1998 Abolished for murder in 1969 (the punishment being officially suspended for five years in 1965) in Great Britainand 1973 in Northern Ireland. Abolished for arson in royal dockyardsin 1971. Abolished for all remaining offences (high treason, piracy with violence and offences under military jurisdiction) in 1998. European Convention ratified in 2003 confirming total abolition. See Capital punishment in the United Kingdom Vatican City1870, July 9 (Papal States[119]) 1969

North America and Caribbean

Executions in 2006: United States (53)[120]

#Country Last Execution Abolished Notes  Antigua and Barbuda1991, February 2 Murder  Bahamas2000, January 6 Treason; Piracy; Murder  Barbados1984, October 10[8]Murder; Treason  Belize1985, June [8]murder, except where extenuating circumstances can be proved[121] Bermuda1977 2000  Canada1962, December 11 1976[122]For more information see Capital punishment in Canada Costa Rica1859[123]1877 (by Constitution)  Cuba2003 2008 Commuted to prison terms of 30 years to life  Dominica1986, August 8 or later  Dominican Republic1966 (by Constitution)  El Salvador1973 1983 (for other crimes) The death penalty may be imposed only in cases provided by military laws during a state of international war[124] Grenada1978  Guatemala2000[125] Haiti1972 1987 (by Constitution)  Honduras1940 1956(by Constitution)  Jamaica2003[126]Murder[127] Mexico1937 2005 Death penalty was abolished by Constitution since 1917, but remained for military crimes; abolished after a controversy.  Nicaragua1930 1979 (by Constitution)  Panama1903 1903 (by Constitution)  Saint Kitts and Nevis1998, July 20 Murder  Saint Lucia1995, October 17 Murder; Treason  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1995, February 13 Murder; Treason  Trinidad and Tobago1999, July 28 Murder; Treason[128] Turks and Caicos Islands2002[129] United States2008, May 21[130]Federal Law provides death penalty for many homicide-related crimes, as well as espionage, treason, and trafficking large quantities of drugs.[131]Many states have their own laws regarding the death penalty. As of 2007, the Death Penalty has been abolished or found unconstitutional in 13 states and another 12 states do not currently have death penalty laws.[132], although the remaining 25 still exercise the death penalty. Although legally a punishment of several crimes, it has not been applied for any crime other than murder, conspiracy to murder, or treason since 1964. It is now only used in cases of murder accompanied by previously identified special circumstances (e.g., murder and rape, murder and kidnapping, etc.) Some states also allow it to be imposed for some cases of sexual assaultagainst children. Sentences of death must be handed down by a jury, not by a judge alone; the jury must hand down the sentence at the conclusion of a separate penalty phase of the trial (at least implying the jurors who sentence the person to death were the same jurors who convicted him or her of the crime). For more information see Capital punishment in the United States.


Executions in 2006: none

#Country Last Execution Abolished Notes  Australia1967, February 3[133]1922 - 1985 Queensland: 1922, Tasmania: 1968, the Commonwealth: 1973, Northern Territory: 1973, Victoria: 1975, South Australia: 1976, ACT: 1983, Western Australia: 1984, and New South Wales: 1985. For more information see Capital punishment in Australia.  Cook Islandsnone since self-government 2007[134]For more information see Capital punishment in the Cook Islands Fiji1964 1979 (for other crimes) Only for crimes under the Republic of Fiji Military Forces Act  Kiribatinone since independence 1979  Marshall Islandsnone since independence 1986 (by Constitution)  Federated States of Micronesianone since independence 1986 (by Constitution)  Naurunone since independence Treason; Piracy; Murder  New Zealand1957, February 17 1989 For more information see Capital punishment in New Zealand Niue Palaunone since independence probably 1994  Papua New Guinea1950 Treason; Piracy; Attempted piracy; willful murder  Samoa1950s 2004, January 21[135] Solomon Islandsnone since independence 1978  Tonga1982 Treason; Murder  Tuvalunone since independence 1978  Vanuatunone since independence 1980

South America

Executions in 2006: none

#Country Last Execution Abolished Notes  Argentina1916 1984 (for other crimes) 2007 (wartime) Constitution states "The penalty of death for political offences, all kinds of torture, and flogging, are forever abolished."[136]However, the death penalty could be used during wartime, till the Military code was changed in 2007[137].  Bolivia1974 1997 (for other crimes)  Brazil1855 1979 (for other crimes) "serious crime of a military nature committed during wartime"[138] Chile1985 2001 (for other crimes) Although it has been completely abolished from civil justice, it may still be applied for military justice and only for exceptional crimes. In practice, this doesn't occur. Last execution took place in 1985.  Colombia1909 1910 (by Constitution) Prohibited by the Colombian Constitution of 1991: "The right to life is inviolable. There will be no death penalty."  Ecuador1906 (by Constitution)  Guyanaterrorist acts[139]; Murder; Mass murder, rape, willful murder, treason and torture. Although the death penalty is a legal form of punishment against criminals committing those crimes, the constitution states that the penalty of death is not a mandatory punishment for all of those crimes.  Paraguay1928 1992 (by Constitution)  Peru1979 1979 (for other crimes) Treason in time of war; Terrorism[124] Suriname1982 aggravated murder; premeditated murder; treason[140] Uruguay1905 1907 (by Constitution)  Venezuela1863 (by Constitution)


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  111. ^ Parlamento bielorruso dispuesto a debatir la abolición de la pena de muerte
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  113. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  114. ^
  115. ^ Legislationline - free online legislation database
  116. ^
  117. ^ TRNC Public Information Office
  118. ^
  119. ^ Cover story: He executed justice
  120. ^ Executions in the United States in 2006
  121. ^ Belize: Death Penalty, Gilroy "Hooty" Wade, Oscar "Negro" Catzim Mendez, Glenford Baptist | Amnesty International
  122. ^ The Death Penalty In Canada: Facts, Figures And Milestones
  123. ^
  124. ^ a b Constitutional prohibitions of the death penalty | Amnesty International
  125. ^ Guatemala: Death Penalty/imminent execution | Amnesty International
  126. ^ Amnesty International
  127. ^ Comunità di Sant'Egidio - No to the Death Penalty - News
  128. ^ Links to documents
  129. ^,0.pdf (PDF)
  130. ^ Executions in the United States in 2007
  131. ^ Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty
  132. ^ Vu, Pauline. "Executions halted as doctors balk",, 2007-03-21. Retrieved on 2008-21-05. 
  133. ^
  134. ^ Cook Islands Government Online
  135. ^ Crimes (Abolition of Death Penalty) Amendment Act 2004
  136. ^ Section 18
  137. ^ Newspaper article (in Spanish)
  138. ^ Death penalty in Brazil
  139. ^ Amnesty International
  140. ^ HRC Concluding Observations: SURINAME

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