United States Department of Homeland Security"DHS" redirects here. For other uses, see DHS (disambiguation). United States
Department of Homeland Security
Motto: "Preserving our Freedoms" Agency overview Formed November 25, 2002Headquarters Nebraska Avenue Complex Employees 208,000 (2007) Annual Budget United States Dollar$44.9 Billion(2007) Agency Executives Michael Chertoff, Secretary
Paul A. Schneider, Deputy Secretary
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), commonly known in the United States as "Homeland Security", is a Cabinet department of the U.S. federal government with the responsibility of protecting the territory of the U.S. from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters.
Whereas the Department of Defense is charged with military actions abroad, the Department of Homeland Security works in the civilian sphere to protect the United States within, at, and outside its borders. Its goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism. On March 1, 2003, the DHS absorbed the now defunct United States Immigration and Naturalization Service and assumed its duties. In doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies -- U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.
With over 200,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department in the U.S. federal government, after the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Energy.
- 1 Establishment
- 2 Creation of DHS
- 3 Headquarters
- 4 Ready.gov
- 5 National Incident Management System
- 6 National Response Framework
- 7 Criticism
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) to coordinate "homeland security" efforts. The office was headed by former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge, who assumed the title of Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. The name is reminiscent of the British WW2-era Ministry of Home Security. The official announcement stated:
- The mission of the Office will be to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office will coordinate the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.
On March 12, 2002, the Homeland Security Advisory System, a color-coded terrorism risk advisory scale, was created as the result of a Presidential Directive to provide a "comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." Many procedures at government facilities are tied in to the alert level; for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. Since January 2003, it has been administered in coordination with DHS; it has also been the target of frequent jokes and ridicule on the part of the administration's detractors about its ineffectiveness. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he didn't always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies.
In January 2003, the office was merged into the Department of Homeland Security and the White House Homeland Security Council, both of which were created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The Homeland Security Council, similar in nature to the National Security Council, retains a policy coordination and advisory role and is led by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.
Creation of DHS
The department was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. It was intended to consolidate U.S. executive branch organizations related to "homeland security" into a single Cabinet agency.
Prior to the signing of the bill, controversy about its adoption centered on whether the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency should be incorporated in part or in whole (neither were included). The bill itself was also controversial for the presence of unrelated "riders", as well as for eliminating certain union-friendly civil service and labor protections for department employees (which would provide expedited ability to reassign or dismiss an employee for security reasons, incompetence, or insubordination). Congress ultimately passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002 without the union-friendly measures and President Bush signed the bill into law on November 25, 2002. It was the largest U.S. government reorganization in 50 years (since the United States Department of Defense was created).
Tom Ridge was named secretary on January 24, 2003 and began naming his chief deputies. DHS officially began operations on January 24, 2003, but most of the department's component agencies were not transferred into the new Department until March 1.President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004.
After establishing the basic structure of DHS and working to integrate its components and get the department functioning, Ridge announced his resignation on November 30, 2004, following the re-election of President Bush. Bush initially nominated former New York City Police Department commissioner Bernard Kerik as his successor, but on December 10, Kerik withdrew his nomination, citing personal reasons and saying it "would not be in the best interests" of the country for him to pursue the post. On January 11, 2005, President Bush nominated federal judge Michael Chertoff to succeed Ridge. Chertoff was confirmed on February 15, 2005, by a vote of 98–0 in the U.S. Senate. He was sworn in the same day.
In 2006, a federal court injunction blocked many aspects of the department's new personnel system (named "MaxHR") related to employee pay and discipline. DHS announced in early 2007 that it was retooling its pay and performance system and retiring the name "MaxHR".
Since its inception, the Department has had its temporary headquarters in Washington, D.C.'s "Nebraska Avenue Complex", a former naval facility. The 38 acre site has 32 buildings comprising of 566,000 square feet (52,600 m²) of administrative space. In early 2007, the Department submitted a $4.1 billion plan to Congress to consolidate its 60-plus Washington-area offices into a single headquarters complex at the St. Elizabeths Hospital campus in Southeast Washington. The earliest DHS would begin moving to St. Elizabeths is 2012.
The move is being championed by District of Columbia officials because of the positive economic impact it will have on historically depressed Southeast Washington, which is also the venue for the new Washington Nationals baseball stadium, which opened in 2008. The move has been criticized by historic preservationists, who claim the revitalization plans will destroy dozens of historic buildings on the campus. Community activists have criticized the plans because the facility will remain walled off and have little interaction with the surrounding area.
Ready.govReady.gov program logo
Soon after the formation of Department of Homeland Security, the Martin Agency of Richmond, Virginia provided pro bono work to create "Ready.gov", a readiness website. The site and materials were conceived in March 2002 and launched in February 2003, just before the launch of the Iraq War. One of the first announcements that garnered widespread public attention to this campaign was one by Tom Ridge in which he stated that in the case of a chemical attack, citizens should use duct tape and plastic sheeting to build a homemade bunker, or "sheltering in place" to protect themselves. As a result, the sales of duct tape skyrocketed and DHS was criticized for being too alarmist. The site was promoted with banner ads containing automatic audio components on commercial web sites.
National Incident Management System
On March 1, 2004, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was created. The stated purpose was to provide a consistent incident management approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments. Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, all federal departments were required to adopt the NIMS and to use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation program and activities.
National Response Framework
In December 2004 the National Response Plan (NRP) was created, in an attempt to align Federal coordination structures, capabilities, and resources into a unified, all-discipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incident management. The NRP was built on the template of the NIMS.
Computer security management
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) has been an interest of the United States National Security Agency since 2001. In an undated paper, NSA authors had hoped that operating systems would be the answer to a problem they described: "Public awareness of the need for security in computing systems is growing as critical services are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected computing systems. National infrastructure components such as the electric power, telecommunication and transportation systems can no longer function without networks of computers." Threats to computer security have outpaced the Department of Homeland Security's ability to manage such an environment. According to F-Secure, "As much malware [was] produced in 2007 as in the previous 20 years altogether."
Excess, waste, and ineffectiveness
The Department of Homeland Security has been dogged by persistent criticism over excessive bureaucracy, waste, and ineffectiveness. In 2003, the department came under fire after the media revealed that Laura Callahan, Deputy Chief Information Officer at DHS with responsibilities for sensitive national security databases, had obtained her advanced computer science degrees through a diploma mill in a small town in Wyoming. The department was blamed for up to $2 billion of waste and fraud after audits by the Government Accountability Office revealed widespread misuse of government credit cards by DHS employees, with purchases including beer brewing kits, $70,000 of plastic dog booties that were later deemed unusable, boats purchased at double the retail price (many of which later could not be found), and iPods ostensibly for use in "data storage".
Data Mining (ADVISE)
The Associated Press reported on September 5, 2007 that DHS had scrapped an anti-terrorism data mining tool called ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight and Semantic Enhancement) after the agency's internal Inspector General found that pilot testing of the system had been performed using data on real people without required privacy safeguards in place. The system, in development at Lawrence Livermore and Pacific Northwest national laboratories since 2003, has cost the agency $42 million to date. Controversy over the program is not new; in March 2007, the Government Accountability Office stated that "the ADVISE tool could misidentify or erroneously associate an individual with undesirable activity such as fraud, crime or terrorism". Homeland Security's Inspector General later said that ADVISE was poorly planned, time-consuming for analysts to use, and lacked adequate justifications.
Employee moraleDick Cheney (center), Vice President of the United States, and Michael Chertoff (right), United States Secretary of Homeland Security, listening with Saxby Chambliss (to Cheney's left), a U.S. senator from Georgia, to a presentation by a U.S. Customs and Border Protection agent in 2005
In July 2006, the Office of Personnel Management conducted a survey of federal employees in all 36 federal agencies on job satisfaction and how they felt their respective agency was headed. DHS was last or near to last in every category including;
- 33rd on the talent management index
- 35th on the leadership and knowledge management index
- 36th on the job satisfaction index
- 36th on the results-oriented performance culture index
The low scores were attributed to major concerns about basic supervision, management and leadership within the agency. Examples from the survey reveal most concerns are about promotion and pay increase based on merit, dealing with poor performance, rewarding creativity and innovation, leadership generating high levels of motivation in the workforce, recognition for doing a good job, lack of satisfaction with various component policies and procedures and lack of information about what is going on with the organization.
- Brian Doyle
- Container Security Initiative
- Jake Brahm
- National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Ft Detrick, MD
- National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive
- US-VISIT (United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology)
- Project Hostile Intent
- Transportation Security Administration
- ^ a b c d e "National Strategy For Homeland Security". pdf file. DHS. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Remarks by Governor Ridge Announcing Homeland Security Advisory System
- ^ Statement of Secretary Tom Ridge. DHS. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Losey, Stephen. "Homeland Security plans move to hospital compound", Federal Times, 2007-3-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Most Endangered Places. 5/2007. National Trust. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Holley, Joel. "Tussle Over St. Elizabeths", Washington Post, 2007-6-17, p. C01. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Forbes, Daniel. "$226 Million in Govt Ads Helped Pave the Way for War", Antiwar.com, 2004-5-28. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Homeland Security: Ready.Gov. 12/29/2003. Outdoor Advertising Association of America. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ CNN Live at daybreak. Aired February 20, 2003. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Homeland Security Frequently Asked Questions. ready.gov. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Clean Air. ready.gov. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Are You Ready.gov?. February 21st, 2003. lies.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ SELinux Documentation. Retrieved on 2007-12-11. and Loscocco, Peter A., Stephen D. Smalley, Patrick A. Muckelbauer, Ruth C. Taylor, S. Jeff Turner, John F. Farrell. The Inevitability of Failure: The Flawed Assumption of Security in Modern Computing Environments. U.S. National Security Agency. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
- ^ F-Secure Corporation (December 4, 2007). "F-Secure Reports Amount of Malware Grew by 100% during 2007". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
- ^ Lipton, Eric. "Homeland Security Department Is Accused of Credit Card Misuse", The New York Times, 2006-7-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Jakes Jordan, Lara. "Credit Card Fraud at DHS", Homeland Security Weekly, 2006-7-19. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ "Government’s Katrina credit cards criticized", Associated Press, 2005-9-15. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ ADVISE Could Support Intelligence Analysis More Effectively. pdf file. DHS. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Singel, Ryan. "Homeland Data Tool Needs Privacy Help, Report Says", Wired, 2007-3-20. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Sniffen, Michael J.. "DHS Ends Criticized Data-Mining Program", The Associated Press, Washington Post, 2007-9-5. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ "Homeland Security employees rank last in job satisfaction survey", ABC Inc., WLS-TV Chicago, 2007-2-8. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ^ Conroy, Bill. "DHS memo reveals agency personnel are treated like "human capital"", narco news, 2007-1-31. Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
- ANSI Homeland Security Standards Panel
- Department of Homeland Security
- Ready.gov - DHS website to promote readiness to defend against attack
- DHS First Responder Training
- Federal Emergency Management Agency
- House Committee on Homeland Security
- The White House - Homeland Security
- US-VISIT Program
- DHS Organizational ChartPDF (144 KB)
Agriculture • Commerce • Defense • Education • Energy • Health and Human Services • Homeland Security • Housing and Urban Development • Interior • Justice • Labor • State • Transportation • Treasury • Veterans AffairsPast departments: Commerce and Labor• Health, Education, and Welfare• Navy• Post Office• War
of Homeland SecurityCoast Guard · Immigration and Customs Enforcement · Citizenship and Immigration Services · Customs and Border Protection · Federal Emergency Management Agency · Federal Law Enforcement Training Center · Secret Service · Office of Operations Coordination · Transportation Security AdministrationUnder Secretary of
Homeland Security for
National Protection and Programs National Communications System · National Cyber Security Division · US-VISITUnder Secretary of
Homeland Security for
Science and TechnologyInnovation Division (Including Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency) · Explosives Division · Chemical and Biological Division · Border and Maritime Security Division · Command, Control, and Interoperability Division · Human Factors Division · Infrastructure/Geophysical DivisionUnder Secretary of
Homeland Security for
Intelligence and AnalysisOffice of Intelligence and AnalysisUnder Secretary of Homeland Security for Management
</noinclude>v • d • eDepartment of Homeland Security – Leadership
Chief of Staff
Executive Secretary / Executive Director for Operations and Administration
Fred L. Schwien
Gus P. Coldebella
Deputy Under Secretary, Management Directorate
Elaine C. Duke ● Official DHS site
Chief Administrative Services Officer
Donald G. Bathurst ● Official DHS site
Chief Financial Officer
David L. Norquist
Chief Human Capital Officer
Marta Brito Perez ● Official DHS site
Chief Information Officer
Scott Charbo ● Official DHS site
Acting Chief Procurement Officer
Thomas Essig ● Official DHS site
Under Secretary, National Protection & Programs Directorate
Robert D. Jamison ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Infrastructure Protection
Robert B. Stephan ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Office of Intergovernmental Programs
Anne P. Petera
Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy
Stewart A. Baker ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Office of International Relations
Marisa R. Lino
Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy Development
Richard C. Barth ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Office of Strategic Plans
Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman
Prakash I. Khatri ● Official DHS site
Director of the Office of Counternarcotics Enforcement
Uttam Dhillon ● Official DHS site
Director of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office
Vayl Oxford ● Official DHS site
Director, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
Connie L. Patrick ● Official DHS site
Federal Coordinator, Recovery and Rebuilding of Gulf Coast Region
Donald E. Powell ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Office of Health Affairs/Chief Medical Officer
Dr. Jeffrey W. Runge ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Office of Legislative Affairs
Donald H. Kent Jr.
Director Operations Coordination
Roger T. Rufe, Jr. (USCG Ret) ● Official DHS site
Assistant Secretary, Office of Public Affairs
J. Edward Fox ● Official DHS site
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