Spanish-American WarSpanish-American War
Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill
by Frederic RemingtonDate April 25– August 12, 1898Location Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Puerto Rico; Pacific Ocean: Guam, Philippine IslandsResult Treaty of Paris: Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over Cuba, ceded Guam, Puerto Rico, and other islands to the United States, and ceded the Philippinesto the United States for a payment of $20 million.
Start of the Philippine-American War
Republic of Cuba
Puerto Rico Kingdom of Spain
Cuban Loyalists to Spain
Puerto Rico Under Spain
Filipino Loyalists Commanders Nelson A. Miles
William R. Shafter
Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo
Manuel Macías y Casado
Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA
5,000 Killed from Disease USA
5,000 Cubans KIA
5,000 Filipinos KIA  2,159 KIA
53,000 Killed from Disease  v • d • eSpanish American WarPacific– Puerto Rico– Cuba
The Spanish-American War was a military conflict between Spain and the United States that began in April 1898. Hostilities halted in August of that year, and the Treaty of Paris was signed in December.
The war began after the American demand for Spain's peacefully resolving the Cuban fight for independence was rejected, though strong expansionist sentiment in the United States may have motivated the government to target Spain's remaining overseas territories: Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and the Caroline Islands.
Riots in Havana by pro-Spanish "Voluntarios" gave the United States a reason to send in the warship USS Maine to indicate high national interest. Tension among the American people was raised because of the explosion of the USS Maine, and "yellow journalism" that accused Spain of extensive atrocities, agitating American public opinion. The war ended after decisive naval victories for the United States in the Philippines and Cuba.
- 1 Background
- 2 Theaters of operations
- 3 Peace treaty
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Spanish-American War in film and television
- 6 Military decorations
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
The historical background for the war was the growing Cuban struggle for independence from Spain that had been simmering off and on for over thirty years, which had captured the American imagination. American newspapers had been agitating for intervention with sensational stories of Spanish atrocities against the native Cuban population even though Spain had removed the general behind the harsh policies that had displaced thousands of Cubans in the countryside, Valeriano Weyler, and had placed them between 30,000 Spanish troops and the insurrectos, or Cubans fighting for independence. In January 1898, a riot broke out in Havana by Cuban Spanish loyalists leading to the destruction of the printing presses of four local newspapers for publishing articles critical of Spanish Army atrocities. Since this riot was largely also anti-American, because of the growing support in the US for Cuban independence, the US Consul-General, nephew of Robert E. Lee and former Civil War Confederate general Fitzhugh Lee, cabled Washington with fears for the lives of Americans living in Havana, the United States wasted no time sending a tepid response. It was into this explosive situation of an ongoing independence struggle that the USS Maine was sent to Havana, Cuba, to protect U.S. interests. With insurrection and civil disturbances the rule of the day, the mysterious sinking of the battleship USS Maine on February 15, 1898, at 9:40 p.m. in Havana Harbor was attributed, by Spanish scientists, to an internal and accidental explosion; but in 1898 a Naval inquiry reported that it was caused by submarine mine and one month later the war was declared.
A total of four investigations looked into the causes of the explosion with the investigators coming to different conclusions. However, US Naval History Center would say several scientists refuted Rickover's thesis, and the Spanish and USA versions would carry on with divergences.  A 1999 investigation commissioned by National Geographic Magazine and carried out by Advanced Marine Enterprises disagreed, concluding that “it appears more probable than was previously concluded that a mine caused the inward bent bottom structure and the detonation of the magazines.” Spanish and Cuban opinions included a theory that would point that the USA government would have caused intentionally the detonation ., in order to have an excuse to enter the war, which, in their opinion, would agree with his strategic interests at the time, and with the pre-war tension between the countries.
When the Maine blew up causing the deaths of 266 men, newspaper owners such as William R. Hearst leapt to the conclusion that Spanish officials in Cuba were to blame, and they widely publicized the conspiracy. Such publications practiced what was called "yellow journalism", which originated in New York. Yellow journalism fueled American anger by publishing astonishing "atrocities" committed by Spain in Cuba. Hearst when informed by Frederic Remington, whom he had hired to furnish illustrations for his newspaper, that conditions in Cuba were not bad enough to warrant hostilities, allegedly replied, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." Lashed to fury by the yellow journalism, the American cry of the hour became, Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain! President William McKinley, Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed and the business community opposed the growing public demand for war.
- Further information: Propaganda of the Spanish American War
The decisive event was probably the speech of Republican Senator Redfield Proctor delivered on March 17, 1898, which thoroughly and calmly analyzed the situation and concluded war was the only answer. The business and religious communities, which had opposed war, switched sides, leaving President William McKinley and Thomas Brackett Reed almost alone in their opposition to the war. Thus, on April 11, McKinley asked Congress for authority to send American troops to Cuba for the purpose of ending the civil war there.
On April 19, Congress passed joint resolutions supporting Cuban independence and disclaiming any intention to annex Cuba, demanded Spanish withdrawal, and authorized the president to use as much military force as he thought necessary to help Cuban patriots gain independence from Spain. (This was adopted by resolution of Congress and included from Senator Henry Teller of Colorado the Teller Amendment, which passed unanimously.) The Senate passed the amendment, 42 to 35, on April 19, 1898, and the House concurred the same day, 311 to 6. President McKinley signed the joint resolution on April 20, 1898, and the ultimatum was forwarded to Spain. In response, Spain broke off diplomatic relations with the United States and declared war on April 23. On April 25, Congress declared that a state of war between the United States and Spain had existed since April 20 (later changed to April 21).
Theaters of operations
The first battle was the Battle of Manila Bay where, on May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey, commanding the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron aboard the USS Olympia, in a matter of hours, defeated the Spanish squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. Dewey managed this while sustaining only one fatality, and that because of a heart attack.
With the German seizure of Tsingtao in 1897, Dewey's Squadron had become the only naval force in the Far East without a local base of its own, and was beset with coal and ammunition problems. Despite his logistical problems, Dewey had not only destroyed a fleet but had also captured a harbor.
Following Dewey's victory, Manila Bay was filled with the warships of Britain, Germany, France, and Japan; all of which outgunned Dewey's force. The German fleet of eight ships, ostensibly in Philippine waters to protect German interests (a single import firm), acted provocatively—cutting in front of United States ships, refusing to salute the United States flag (according to customs of naval courtesy), taking soundings of the harbor, and landing supplies for the besieged Spanish. Germany, hungry for the ultimate status symbol, a colonial empire, was eager to take advantage of whatever opportunities the conflict in the islands might afford. Dewey called the bluff of the German admiral, threatening a fight if his aggressive activities continued, and the Germans backed down.
Commodore Dewey had transported Emilio Aguinaldo to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. U.S. land forces and the Filipinos had taken control of most of the islands by June, except for the walled city of Intramuros and, on June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo had declared the independence of the Philippines.
On August 13, with American commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between Spain and the United States on the previous day, American forces captured the city of Manila from the Spanish. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila, an action which was deeply resented by the Filipinos and which later led to the Philippine-American War.
Captain Henry Glass was on the cruiser USS Charleston when he opened sealed orders notifying him to proceed to Guam and capture it. Upon arrival on June 20, he fired his cannon at the island. A poorly equipped Spanish officer, not knowing that war had been declared, came out to the ship and asked to borrow some powder to return the American's salute. Glass responded by taking the officer prisoner and, after taking parole, ordered him to return to the island to discuss the terms of surrender. The following day, 54 Spanish infantry were captured, and the island became a possession of the United States.
CubaStaff of the 1st U.S. Volunteer Regiment, the "Rough Riders" in Tampa—Lt. Col. Roosevelt on right, Leonard Wood is next to him and former Civil War Confederate general, Joseph Wheeler is next to Wood. Taylor MacDonald is on the far left. Spanish armored cruiser Cristóbal Colón. Destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3rd of 1898. Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898 depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill.
Theodore Roosevelt actively encouraged intervention in Cuba and, while assistant secretary of the Navy, placed the Navy on a war-time footing and prepared Dewey's Asiatic Squadron for battle. He worked with Leonard Wood in convincing the Army to raise an all-volunteer regiment, the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Wood was given command of the regiment that quickly became known as the "Rough Riders".
The major port of Santiago de Cuba was the main target of naval operations during the war. The U.S. fleet attacking Santiago needed shelter from the summer hurricane season. Thus Guantánamo Bay with its excellent harbor was chosen for this purpose. The 1898 invasion of Guantánamo Bay happened June 6–June 10, with the first U.S. naval attack and subsequent successful landing of U.S. Marines with naval support.
The Battle of Santiago de Cuba on July 3, 1898, was the largest naval engagement of the Spanish-American War and resulted in the destruction of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron (also known as the Flota de Ultramar). In May 1898, Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete, was first spotted in Santiago Harbor where his fleet had taken shelter for protection from sea attack. For two months there was a stand-off between the Spanish naval forces and American. When the Spanish squadron attempted to leave the harbor on July 3, the American forces destroyed or grounded five of the six ships. Only one Spanish vessel, the speedy new armored cruiser Cristobal Colón, survived, but her captain hauled down his flag and scuttled her when the Americans finally caught up with her. The 1,612 Spanish sailors captured, including Admiral Cervera, were sent to Seavey's Island at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, where they were confined at Camp Long as prisoners of war from July 11 until mid-September.
During the stand-off, United States Assistant Naval Constructor Richmond Pearson Hobson had been ordered by Rear Admiral William T. Sampson to sink the collier Merrimac in the harbor to bottle up the Spanish fleet. The mission was a failure, and Hobson and his crew were captured. They were exchanged on July 6, and Hobson became a national hero; he received the Medal of Honor in 1933 and became a Congressman.
The Americans planned to capture the city of Santiago de Cuba in order to destroy Linares' army and Cervera's fleet. To reach Santiago they had to pass through concentrated Spanish defenses in the San Juan Hills and a small town in El Caney. The American forces were aided in Cuba by the pro-independence rebels led by General Calixto García.
Between June 22 and June 24, the U.S. V Corps under General William R. Shafter landed at Daiquirí and Siboney, east of Santiago, and established the American base of operations. A contingent of Spanish troops, having fought a skirmish with the Americans near Siboney on June 23, had retired to their lightly entrenched positions at Las Guasimas. An advance guard of U.S. forces under former Confederate General Joseph Wheeler ignored Cuban scouting parties and orders to proceed with caution. They caught up with and engaged the Spanish rear guard who effectively ambushed them, in the Battle of Las Guasimas on June 24. The battle ended indecisively in favor of Spain and the Spanish left Las Guasimas on their planned retreat to Santiago.
The U.S. army employed Civil War-era skirmishers at the head of the advancing columns. All four U.S. soldiers who had volunteered to act as skirmishers walking point at head of the American column were killed, including Hamilton Fish, from a well-known patrician New York City family and Captain Alyn Capron, whom Theodore Roosevelt would describe as one of the finest natural leaders and soldiers he ever met. The Battle of Las Guasimas showed the U.S. that the old linear Civil War tactics did not work effectively against Spanish troops who had learned the art of cover and concealment from their own struggle with Cuban insurgents, and never made the error of revealing their positions while on the defense. The Spaniards were also aided by the then new smokeless powder, which also aided their remaining concealed even while firing. American soldiers were only able to advance against the Spaniards in what are now called "fireteam" rushes, four-to-five man groups advancing while others laid down supporting fire.
On July 1, a combined force of about 15,000 American troops in regular infantry, cavalry and volunteer regiments, including Roosevelt and his "Rough Riders", notably the 71st New York, 1st North Carolina, 23rd and 24th Colored, and rebel Cuban forces attacked 1,270 entrenched Spaniards in dangerous Civil War style frontal assaults at the Battle of El Caney and Battle of San Juan Hill outside of Santiago. More than 200 U.S. soldiers were killed and close to 1,200 wounded in the fighting. Supporting fire by Gatling guns was critical to the success of the assault. Cervera decided to escape Santiago two days later.
The Spanish forces at Guantánamo were so isolated by Marines and Cuban forces that they did not know that Santiago was under siege, and their forces in the northern part of the province could not break through Cuban lines. This was not true of the Escario relief column from Manzanillo, which fought its way past determined Cuban resistance but arrived too late to participate in the siege.
After the battles of San Juan Hill and El Caney, the American advance ground to a halt. Spanish troops successfully defended Fort Canosa, allowing them to stabilize their line and bar the entry to Santiago. The Americans and Cubans forcibly began a bloody, strangling siege of the city. During the nights, Cuban troops dug successive series of "trenches" (actually raised parapets), toward the Spanish positions. Once completed, these parapets were occupied by U.S. soldiers and a new set of excavations went forward. American troops, while suffering daily losses from Spanish fire and sniper rifles, suffered far more casualties from heat exhaustion and mosquito-borne disease. At the western approaches to the city Cuban general Calixto Garcia began to encroach on the city, causing much panic and fear of reprisals among the Spanish forces.
Puerto RicoU.S. 1st Kentucky Volunteers in Puerto Rico, 1898.
During May 1898, Lt. Henry H. Whitney of the United States Fourth Artillery was sent to Puerto Rico on a reconnaissance mission, sponsored by the Army's Bureau of Military Intelligence. He provided maps and information on the Spanish military forces to the U.S. government prior to the invasion. On May 10, U.S. Navy warships were sighted off the coast of Puerto Rico. On May 12, a squadron of 12 U.S. ships commanded by Rear Adm. William T. Sampson bombarded San Juan. During the bombardment, many government buildings were shelled. On June 25, the Yosemite blockaded San Juan harbor. On July 25, General Nelson A. Miles, with 3,300 soldiers, landed at Guánica and invaded the island with little resistance in the brief Puerto Rican Campaign.
With both of its fleets incapacitated, Spain sued for peace.
Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898 with the signing in Washington of a Protocol of Peace between the United States and Spain. The formal peace treaty was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898 and was ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, 1899. It came into force on April 11, 1899. Cubans participated only as observers.
The United States gained almost all of Spain's colonies, including the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba, having been occupied as of July 17, 1898, and thus under the jurisdiction of the United States Military Government (USMG), formed its own civil government and attained independence on May 20, 1902, with the announced end of USMG jurisdiction over the island. However, the United States imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved for itself the right of intervention. The US also established a perpetual lease of Guantanamo Bay.
On August 14, 1898, 11,000 ground troops were sent to occupy the Philippines. When U.S. troops began to take the place of the Spanish in control of the country, warfare broke out between U.S. forces and the Filipinos. See Philippine-American War.
AftermathWith the end of the war, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt musters out of the U.S. Army after the required 30 day quarantine period at Montauk, Long Island, in 1898.
The war lasted only four months. Ambassador (later Secretary of State) John Hay, writing from London to his friend Theodore Roosevelt declared that from start to finish it had been “a splendid little war.” The press showed Northerners and Southerners, blacks and whites fighting against a common foe, helping to ease the scars left from the American Civil War.
The war marked American entry into world affairs: over the course of the next century, the United States had a large hand in various conflicts around the world. The Panic of 1893 was over by this point, and the United States entered a lengthy and prosperous period of high economic growth, population growth, and technological innovation which lasted through the 1920s.
The war marked the effective end of the Spanish empire. Spain had been declining as a great power over most of the 19th century, especially since the Napoleonic Wars and had already lost the rest of its colonies. The defeat caused a national trauma because of the affinity of peninsular Spaniards with Cuba, which was seen as another province of Spain rather than as a colony. Only a handful of African territories remained of Spain's overseas holdings.
The Spanish military man Julio Cervera Baviera, involved in the Puerto Rican Campaign, blamed the natives of that colony for its annexation by the Americans: "I have never seen such a servile, ungrateful country [i.e. Puerto Rico]... In twenty-four hours, the people of Puerto Rico went from being fervently Spanish to enthusiastically American... They humiliated themselves, giving in to the invader as the slave bows to the powerful lord." He was challenged to a duel by a group of young Puerto Ricans for writing this pamphlet.
Culturally a new wave called the Generation of 1898 originated as a response to this trauma, marking a renaissance of the Spanish culture. Economically, the war actually benefited Spain, because after the war, large sums of capital held by Spaniards not only in Cuba but also all over America were brought back to the peninsula and invested in Spain. This massive flow of capital (equivalent to 25% of the gross domestic product of one year) helped to develop the large modern firm in Spain in industrial sectors (steel, chemical, mechanical, textiles and shipyards among others), in the electrical power industry and in the financial sector. However, the political consequences were serious. The defeat in the war began the weakening of the fragile political stability that had been established earlier by the rule of Alfonso XII.1898 political cartoon: "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip" meaning the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States 100 years earlier in 1798.
Congress had passed the Teller Amendment prior to the war, promising Cuban independence. However, the Senate passed the Platt Amendment as a rider to an Army appropriations bill, forcing a peace treaty on Cuba which prohibited it from signing treaties with other nations or contracting a public debt. The Platt Amendment was pushed by imperialists who wanted to project U.S. power abroad (this was in contrast to the Teller Amendment which was pushed by anti-imperialists who called for a restraint on U.S. hegemony). The amendment granted the United States the right to stabilize Cuba militarily as needed. The Platt Amendment also provided for the establishment of a permanent American naval base in Cuba; it is still in use today at Guantánamo Bay. The Cuban peace treaty of 1903 governed Cuban-American relations until 1934.
The United States annexed the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. The notion of the United States as an imperial power, with colonies, was hotly debated domestically with President McKinley and the Pro-Imperialists winning their way over vocal opposition led by Democrat William Jennings Bryan, who had supported the war. The American public largely supported the possession of colonies, but there were many outspoken critics such as Mark Twain, who wrote The War Prayer in protest.1900 Campaign poster.
The war served to further cement relations between the American North and South. The war gave both sides a common enemy for the first time since the end of the Civil War in 1865, and many friendships were formed between soldiers of both northern and southern states during their tours of duty. This was an important development since many soldiers in this war were the children of Civil War veterans on both sides.Segregation in the U.S. Military, 1898.
The black American community strongly supported the rebels in Cuba, supported entry into the war, and gained prestige from their wartime performance in the Army. Spokesmen noted that 33 black American seamen had died in the Maine explosion. The most influential black leader, Booker T. Washington, argued that his race was ready to fight. War offered them a chance "to render service to our country that no other race can", because, unlike whites, they were "accustomed" to the "peculiar and dangerous climate" of Cuba. One of the black units that served in the war was the Buffalo Soldiers. In March 1898, Washington promised the Secretary of the Navy that war would be answered by "at least ten thousand loyal, brave, strong black men in the south who crave an opportunity to show their loyalty to our land and would gladly take this method of showing their gratitude for the lives laid down and the sacrifices made that Blacks might have their freedom and rights."
In 1904, the United Spanish War Veterans was created from smaller groups of the veterans of the Spanish American War. Today, that organization is defunct, but it left an heir in the form of the Sons of Spanish American War Veterans, created in 1937 at the 39th National Encampment of the United Spanish War Veterans. According to data from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the last surviving U.S. veteran of the conflict, Nathan E. Cook, died on September 10, 1992, at age 106. (If the data is to be believed, Cook, born October 10, 1885, would have been only 12 years old when he served in the war.)
Finally, in an effort to pay the costs of the war, Congress passed an excise tax on long-distance phone service. At the time, it affected only wealthy Americans who owned telephones. However, the Congress neglected to repeal the tax after the war ended four months later, and the tax remained in place over 100 years until, on August 1, 2006, it was announced that the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the IRS would no longer collect the tax.
Spanish-American War in film and television
- The Rough Riders, a 1927 silent film
- Rough Riders, a 1997 television mini-series directed by John Milius, and featuring Tom Berenger (Theodore Roosevelt), Gary Busey (Joseph Wheeler), Sam Elliott (Bucky O'Neill), Dale Dye (Leonard Wood), Brian Keith (William McKinley), George Hamilton (William Randolph Hearst), and R. Lee Ermey (John Hay)
- The Spanish-American War: First Intervention, a 2007 docudrama from The History Channel
Military decorationsU.S. Army War with Spain campaign streamer.
United States awards and decorations of the Spanish-American War were as follows:
- Wartime service and honors
- Medal of Honor
- Specially Meritorious Service Medal
- Spanish Campaign Medal — upgradeable to include the Silver Citation Star to recognize those U.S. Army members who had performed individual acts of heroism.
- West Indies Campaign Medal
- Sampson Medal, West Indies service under Admiral William T. Sampson
- Dewey Medal, service during the Battle of Manila Bay under Admiral George Dewey
- Spanish War Service Medal, U.S. Army homeland service
- Postwar occupation service
The governments of Spain and Cuba also issued a wide variety of military awards to honor Spanish, Cuban, and Philippine soldiers who had served in the conflict.
- ^ a b Matthew White, Statistics of Wars, Oppressions and Atrocities of the Nineteenth Century (the 1800s), self-published, <http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/wars19c.htm>. Retrieved on 2008-530 [unreliable source?]
- ^ The Price of Freedom: Americans at War — Spanish American War. National Museum of American History (2005).
- ^ The Advocate of Peace, American Peace Society, 1898, pp. 36,
Retrieved on 22 January 2008
This contemporary remark claims that no attacks were made on the American consulate, etc.
- ^ a b Javier Figuero - Carlos García Santa Cecilia (15 de febrero de 1998). España y EEUU aún discrepan (in Spanish). El Mundo, major Spanish Newspaper.
- ^ Campbell, W. Joseph (2001), Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 135 (see item no. 99), ISBN 0275966860, <http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=1u4ZBA-P1IQC>
- ^ Miguel Leal Cruz (2001). Voladura del Maine (15 febrero 1898) (in Spanish). Avizora Publishers.
- ^ Casualties on USS Maine, Naval Historical Center, <http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq71-2.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-12-20
- ^ W. Joseph Campbell (summer 2000). Not likely sent: The Remington-Hearst "telegrams". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly.
- ^ Offner 1992 pp 131–35; Michelle Bray Davis and Rollin W. Quimby, "Senator Proctor's Cuban Speech: Speculations on a Cause of the Spanish-American War", Quarterly Journal of Speech 1969 55(2): 131–141. ISSN 0033-5630.
- ^ Hakim, Joy (1994). A History of US: Book Eight, An Age of Extremes. New York: Oxford University Press, 144 - 149.
- ^ Battle of Manila Bay, 1 May 1898, Department of the Navy — Naval Historical Center. Retrieved on October 10, 2007
- ^ The Battle of Manila Bay by Admiral George Dewey, The War Times Journal. Retrieved on October 10, 2007
- ^ a b c James A. Field, Jr. (1978), “American Imperialism: The Worst Chapter in Almost Any Book”, The American Historical Review 83 (3): 659, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-8762%28197806%2983%3A3%3C644%3AAITWCI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W>
- ^ Seekins, Donald M. (1991), “Historical Setting—Outbreak of War, 1898”, in Dolan, Philippines: A Country Study, Washington: Library of Congress, <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ph0023)>. Retrieved on 25 December 2007
- ^ Augusto V. de Viana
(September 21, 2006), What ifs in Philippine history, Manila Times, <http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/sept/21/yehey/top_stories/20060921top9.html>.
Retrieved on 19 October 2007
What ifs in Philippine history, Conclusion, September 22, 2006, <http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2006/sept/22/yehey/top_stories/20060922top9.html>. Retrieved on 19 October 2007
- ^ The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War, U.S. Library of Congress, <http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html>. Retrieved on 10 October 2007
- ^ Philippine History. DLSU-Manila. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
- ^ The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War, U.S. Library of Congress, <http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html>. Retrieved on 10 October 2007
- ^ Lacsamana, Philippine History and Government, p. 126
- ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1899), “Raising the Regiment”, The Rough Riders, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, <http://bartleby.com/51/1.html>. Retrieved on 8 February 2008
- ^ The Battles at El Caney and San Juan Hills at HomeOfHeroes.com.
- ^ The Crowded Hour: The Charge at El Caney & San Juan Hills at HomeOfHeroes.com.
- ^ The Gatlings at Santiago, John H. Parker.
- ^ History of the Gatling Gun Detachment, John Henry Parker at Project Gutenberg.
- ^ Escario's Column, Francisco Jose Diaz Diaz.
- ^ Daley 2000, pp. 161–71
- ^ McCook 1899
- ^ Protocol of Peace Embodying the Terms of a Basis for the Establishment of Peace Between the Two Countries, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., August 12, 1898, <http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/pr980812.html>. Retrieved on 17 October 2007
- ^ John Bethell (1998), "A Splendid Little War"; Harvard and the commencement of a new world order, Harvard magazine, <http://harvardmagazine.com/1998/11/war.html>. Retrieved on 2007-12-11
- ^ Hugh Thomas (1998),
Cuba Or the Pursuit of Freedom, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0306808277, <http://books.google.com/books?id=FC8vFXEbIJIC&pg=PA404&lpg=PA404&dq=%22it+has+been+a+splendid+little+war+begun+with+the+highest+motives%22&source=web&ots=rIfgPOqgoq&sig=u7uhuEa-8ZqDSfAHcmzOesH1E28>.
Retrieved on 2007-12-11
This source provides a more complete quote:
It has been a splendid little war; begun with the highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by the fortune which loves the brave. It is now to be concluded, I hope, with that firm good nature which is after all the distinguishing trait of our American character.
- ^ Bailey, Thomas Andrew (1961), The American Pageant: A History of the Republic, Heath, p. 657, <http://books.google.com/books?id=dnRGAAAAMAAJ>
- ^ Frances Negrón-Muntaner, Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture (New York: NYU Press, 2004), 11.
- ^ Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte II — Comandante Julio Cervera Baviera, 1898 La Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico, <http://home.coqui.net/sarrasin/pers2.htm#anchor134043>. Retrieved on 6 February 2008
- ^ Albert Carreras & Xavier Tafunell: Historia Económica de la España contemporánea, p. 200–208, ISBN 84-8432-502-4.
- ^ Confederate & Federal Veterans of '98: Civil War Veterans who served in the Spanish American War, Philippine Insurrection, and China Relief Expedition by Micah J. Jenkins. Retrieved on October 13, 2007
- ^ Gatewood 1975, pp. 23-29; there were some opponents, ibid. p. 30–32.
- ^ Reardon, Marguerite (June 30, 2005). Senators want to nix 1898 telecom tax. CNET. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
- ^ Reardon, Marguerite (August 1, 2006). Telecom tax imposed in 1898 finally ends. CNET. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
Please help improve this articleby adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challengedand removed. (August 2007)
- Benjamin R. Beede, ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898–1934 (1994). An encyclopedia.
- Dyal, Donald H (1996), Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313288526, <http://books.google.com/books?id=PvxFKPI6q_oC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Historical+Dictionary+of+the+Spanish+American+War%22&ei=6llPR6bwHojssQPIxKHXAg&sig=rdK74uWDbQy08oH3CbZyKxy2qXw#PPP1,M1>
- Gatewood, Willard B. (1975), Black Americans and the White Man's Burden, 1898–1903, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0252004752
- Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. The Spanish-American War Greenwood, 2003. short summary
Diplomacy and causes of the war
- James C. Bradford, ed., Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War and Its Aftermath (1993), essays on diplomacy, naval and military operations, and historiography.
- Lewis Gould, The Spanish-American War and President McKinley (1982)
- Philip S. Foner, The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1902 (1972)
- Richard Hamilton, President McKinley, War, and Empire (2006).
- Kristin Hoganson, Fighting For American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars (1998)
- Paul S. Holbo, "Presidential Leadership in Foreign Affairs: William McKinley and the Turpie-Foraker Amendment," The American Historical Review 1967 72(4): 1321-1335.
- Walter LaFeber, The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1865-1898 (1963)
- Ernest May, Imperial Democracy: The Emergence of America as a Great Power (1961)
- Paul T. McCartney, American National Identity, the War of 1898, and the Rise of American Imperialism (2006)
- Richard H. Miller, ed., American Imperialism in 1898: The Quest for National Fulfillment (1970)
- Walter Millis, The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with Spain (1931)
- H. Wayne Morgan, America's Road to Empire: The War with Spain and Overseas Expansion (1965)
- John L. Offner, An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895–1898 (1992).
- John L. Offner, "McKinley and the Spanish-American War" Presidential Studies Quarterly 2004 34(1): 50–61. ISSN 0360-4918
- Louis A. Perez, Jr., "The Meaning of the Maine: Causation and the Historiography of the Spanish-American War," The Pacific Historical Review 1989 58(3): 293-322.
- Julius W. Pratt, The Expansionists of 1898 (1936)
- Thomas Schoonover, Uncle Sam's War of 1898 and the Origins of Globalization. (2003)
- John Lawrence Tone, War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895–1898 (2006)
- Fareed Zakaria, From Wealth to Power: The Unusual Origins of America’s World Role (1998)
- Donald Barr Chidsey, The Spanish American War (New York, 1971)
- Cirillo, Vincent J. Bullets and Bacilli: The Spanish-American War and Military Medicine (2004)
- Graham A. Cosmas, An Army for Empire: The United States Army and the Spanish-American War (1971)
- Philip Sheldon Foner, The Spanish-Cuban-American war and the birth of American imperialism (1972)
- Frank Freidel, The Splendid Little War (1958), well illustrated narrative by scholar
- Allan Keller, The Spanish-American War: A Compact History (1969)
- Gerald F. Linderman, The Mirror of War: American Society and the Spanish-American War (1974), domestic aspects
- Joseph Smith, The Spanish-American War: Conflict in the Caribbean and the Pacific (1994)
- G. J. A. O'Toole, The Spanish War: An American Epic—1898 (1984)
- John Tebbel, America's Great Patriotic War with Spain (1996)
- David F. Trask, The War with Spain in 1898 (1981)
- Duvon C. Corbitt, "Cuban Revisionist Interpretations of Cuba's Struggle for Independence," Hispanic American Historical Review 32 (August 1963): 395-404.
- Edward P. Crapol, "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16 (Fall 1992): 573-97;
- Hugh DeSantis, "The Imperialist Impulse and American Innocence, 1865–1900," in Gerald K. Haines and J. Samuel Walker, eds., American Foreign Relations: A Historiographical Review (1981), pp. 65-90
- James A. Field Jr., "American Imperialism: The Worst Chapter in Almost Any Book," American Historical Review 83 (June 1978): 644-68, past of the "AHR Forum," with responses
- Joseph A. Fry, "William McKinley and the Coming of the Spanish American War: A Study of the Besmirching and Redemption of an Historical Image," Diplomatic History 3 (Winter 1979): 77-97
- Joseph A. Fry, "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65 (May 1996): 277-303
- Thomas G. Paterson, "United States Intervention in Cuba, 1898: Interpretations of the Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War," History Teacher 29 (May 1996): 341-61;
- Louis A. Pérez Jr.; The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography University of North Carolina Press, 1998
- Ephraim K. Smith, "William McKinley's Enduring Legacy: The Historiographical Debate on the Taking of the Philippine Islands," in James C. Bradford, ed., Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War and Its Aftermath (1993), pp. 205-49
- Funston, Frederick. Memoirs of Two Wars, Cuba and Philippine Experiences. New York: Charles Schribner's Sons, 1911
- U.S. War Dept. Military Notes on Cuba. 2 vols. Washington, DC: GPO, 1898.
- Wheeler, Joseph. The Santiago Campaign, 1898. Lamson, Wolffe, Boston 1898.
- kaylaMagazine. The perils of Evangelina. Feb. 1968.
- Cull, N. J., Culbert, D., Welch, D. Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. Spanish-American War. Denver: ABC-CLIO. 2003. 378-379.
- Daley, L. (2000), “Canosa in the Cuba of 1898”, in Aguirre, B. E. & Espina, E., Los últimos días del comienzo: Ensayos sobre la guerra, Santiago de Chile: RiL Editores, ISBN 9562841154
- Ensayos sobre la Guerra Hispano-Cubana-Estadounidense. 2000.
- Davis, R. H. New York Journal. Does our flag shield women? 13 February 1897.
- Duval, C. New York Journal. Evengelina Cisneros rescued by The Journal. 10 October 1897.
- Kendrick M. New York Journal. Better she died then reach Ceuta. 18 August 1897.
- Kendrick, M. New York Journal. The Cuban girl martyr. 17 February 1897.
- Kendrick, M. New York Journal. Spanish auction off Cuban girls. 12 February 1897.
- McCook, Henry Christopher (1899), The Martial Graves of Our Fallen Heroes in Santiago de Cuba, G. W. Jacobs & Co.
- Muller y Tejeiro, Jose. Combates y Capitulacion de Santiago de Cuba. Marques, Madrid:1898. 208 p. English translation by US Navy Dept.
- Dirks, Tim. War and Anti-War Films. The Greatest Films. Retrieved on November 9, 2005.
- Adjutant General's Office Statistical Exhibit of Strength of Volunteer Forces Called Into Service During the War With Spain; with Losses From All Causes. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899.
- Harrington, Peter, and Frederic A. Sharf. "A Splendid Little War." The Spanish-American War, 1898. The Artists' Perspective. London: Greenhill, 1998.
External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Spanish-American War
- Operations of the US Signal Corps Cutting and Diverting Undersea Telegraph Cables from Cuba
- Library of Congress Guide to the Spanish-American War
- Spain to Use Privateers; An Official Decree Declares that She is Determined to Reserve This Right (Headline, NY Times, April 24, 1898)
- Emergence to World Power, 1898–1902 (an extract from Matloff's American Military History)
- Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army
- Emergence to World Power, 1898–1902 (an extract from American Military History — revised 2005)
- Buffalo Soldiers at San Juan Hill
- Impact on the Spanish Army by Charles Hendricks
- Black Jack in Cuba—General John J. Pershing’s service in the Spanish-American War, by Kevin Hymel
- Centennial of the Spanish-American War 1898–1998 by Lincoln Cushing
- The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War — Library of Congress Hispanic Division
- William Glackens prints at the Library of Congress
- Spanish-American War Centennial
- Points of Confusion over the Cuba Question and Cuba Sovereignty
- Images of Florida and the War for Cuban Independence, 1898 from the state archives of Florida
- Individual state's contributions to the Spanish-American War: Illinois, Pennsylvania
- Sons of Spanish American War Veterans
- From 'Dagoes' to 'Nervy Spaniards,' American Soldiers' Views of their Opponents, 1898 by Albert Nofi
- History of Negro soldiers in the Spanish-American War, and other items of interest, by Edward Augustus Johnston, published 1899, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
- Los ultimos de Filipinas
- The War of 98 (The Spanish-American War) The Spanish-American War from a Spanish perspective (in English).
- Army Nurse Corps in the war
- Art and images
- Name Index to New York in the Spanish-American War 1898
- 1898: El Ocaso de un Imperio Article in Spanish about naval operations during the Spanish-American war.
- Spanish-American War photographic collections, via Calisphere, California Digital Library
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