Administration CountryFranceRegionHaute-Normandie(capital) DepartmentSeine-Maritime(préfecture) ArrondissementRouenCantonChief town of 7 cantons IntercommunalityCommunauté de l'agglomération RouennaiseMayorValérie Fourneyron (PS)
(2008-2014) Statistics Elevation2 m–152 m
(avg. 10 m) Land area¹ 21.38 km² Population²
(1999) 106,592 - Density4,986/km² Miscellaneous INSEE/Postal code 76540/ 760001 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km²(0.386 sq mior 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g.students and military personnel) only counted once.
Rouen (pronounced [ʁwɑ̃] in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. Once one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy in the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th century to the 15th century. It was in Rouen where Joan of Arc was burnt in 1431. People from Rouen are called Rouennais.
The population of the metropolitan area (in French: aire urbaine) at the 1999 census was 518,316 inhabitants and 541,410 inhabitants at the 2007 estimate. The city proper has an estimated population of 109,000 in 2007.
- 1 Administration
- 2 History
- 3 Ecclesiastical history
- 4 Sights
- 5 Transport
- 6 Education
- 7 Births
- 8 Twin towns
- 9 In fiction and popular culture
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 External links
Rouen and 36 suburban communes of the metropolitan area form the Community of Agglomeration of Rouen Haute-Normandie, with 393,621 inhabitants in it at the 1999 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, and Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000 inhabitants.
Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of the Veliocassi, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley. They called it Ratumacos; the Romans called it Rotomagus. Roman Rotomagus was the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis after Lugdunum (Lyon) itself. Under the reorganization of Diocletian, Rouen was the chief city of the divided province Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae of which foundations remain. In the fifth century it became the seat of a bishopric, though the names of early bishops are purely legendary and later a capital of Merovingian Neustria.
From their first incursion in the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Normans overran Rouen; from 912 Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and residence of the dukes until William the Conqueror established his castle at Caen.
In 1150 Rouen received its founding charter, permitting self-government. During the twelfth century Rouen was the site of a yeshiva; at that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the population, in addition to a large number of Jews scattered about another 100 communities in Normandy. The well-preserved remains of the yeshiva were discovered in the 1970s under the Rouen Law Courts, and the community has begun a project to restore them.
In 1200 a fire destroyed the old cathedral and the present Gothic cathedral of Rouen was begun. On June 24, 1204 Philippe Auguste entered Rouen and definitively annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom. He demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre. A textile industry developed, based on wool imported from England, for which the cities of Flanders and Brabant were constantly competitors, and finding its market in the Champagne fairs. Rouen depended for its prosperity also on the river traffic of the Seine, of which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris. Wine and wheat were exported to England, as tin and wool received in return. In the fourteenth century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291 the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. [[Philip IV of France}Philip IV]] reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic; but he was quite willing for the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306 he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen, then numbering some five or six thousands. In 1389 another urban revolt of the underclass occurred, the Harelle; it was part of widespread rebellion in France that year and was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's charter and river-traffic privileges once more.
During the Hundred Years' War, on January 19, 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, who made Normandy once again a part of the Plantagenet domains. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in Rouen on May 30, 1431. The French recaptured the town in 1449.
The city was heavily damaged during World War II on D-day and its famed cathedral was almost destroyed by Allied bombs. During the Nazi occupation, the German Navy had its headquarters located in a chateau on the École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen campus.
- Main article: Archbishop of Rouen
The chapter of Rouen, (which consists of the archbishop, a dean, fifty canons, and ten prebendaries), have, ever since the year 1156, enjoyed the annual privilege of pardoning, on Ascension day, some individual confined within the jurisdiction of the city for murder. On the morning of Ascension day, the chapter, having heard many examinations and confessions read, proceed to the election of the criminal who is to be pardoned; and, the choice being made, his name is transmitted in writing to the parliament, which assemble on that day at the palace. The parliament then walk in procession to the great chamber, where the prisoner is brought before them in irons, and placed on a stool; he is informed that the choice has fallen upon him, and that he is entitled to the privilege of St. Romain.
After these preliminaries, he is delivered into the hands of the chaplain, who, accompanied by fifty armed men, conveys him to a chamber, where the chains are taken from his legs and bound about his arms; and in this condition he is conducted to a place named the Old Tower, where he awaits the coming of the procession. After some little time has elapsed, the procession sets out from the cathedral; two of the canons bear the shrine in which the relics of St. Romain are presumed to be preserved. When they have arrived at the Old Tower, the shrine is placed in the chapel, opposite to the criminal, who appears kneeling, with the chains on his arms. Then one of the canons, having made him repeat the confession, says the prayers usual at the time of giving absolution; after which service, the prisoner kneeling still, lifts up the shrine three times, amid the acclamations of the people assembled to behold the ceremony. The procession then returns to the cathedral, followed by the criminal, wearing a chaplet of flowers on his head, and carrying the shrine of the saint. After mass has been performed, he has a very serious exhortation addressed to him by a monk; and, lastly, he is conducted to an apartment near the cathedral, and is supplied with refreshments and a bed for that night. In the morning he is dismissed.
This privilege was justified by the legend of the Gargouille, a fearsome dragon, and how St. Romain defeated him with the help of a prisoner.
SightsRouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral The Church of Jeanne d'Arc Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rue St-Romain on a rainy day in Rouen
Rouen is known for its Notre Dame cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre (butter tower). The cathedral was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.
The Gros Horloge is an astronomical clock (dating back to the16th century) though the movement is considerably older (1389). It is located in the Gros Horloge street.
Other famous structures include the Gothic Church of Saint Maclou (15th century); the Tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture (contrary to popular belief, she was not imprisoned there); the Church of Saint Ouen (12th–15th century); the Palais de Justice, which was once the seat of the Parlement (French court of law) of Normandy and the Museum of Fine Arts and Ceramics which contains a splendid collection of faïence and porcelain for which Rouen was renowned during the 16th to 18th centuries.
Rouen is noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings.
There are many museums in Rouen: Musée des beaux-arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Monet, Musée maritime fluvial et portuaire, a museum on the history of the port of Rouen and navigation, Musée des antiquités, an art and history museum with antic or gothic works, Musée de la céramique, Musée Le Secq des Tournelles...
In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché is the modern church of Saint Joan of Arc. This is a large, modern structure which dominates the square. The form of the building represents the pyre on which Joan of Arc was burnt.
Rouen is served by a light rail system opened in 1994, the Métro. It branches into two lines out of a metro tunnel running through the city center. Rouen is also served by buses run in conjunction with the tramway by the local transport authority, Metrobus.
Rouen was the birthplace of:
- Edward IV (1442-1483), king of England
- Isaac Oliver (c.1560-1617), French-born English portrait miniature painter
- Samuel Bochart (1599-1667), theologian and Orientalist
- Pierre Corneille (1606-1684), tragedian
- Guillaume Couture (1617-1701-04-04), Lay Missionary and diplomat who moved to Quebec around 1640
- Adrien Auzout (1622-1691), astronomer
- Thomas Corneille (1625-1709), dramatist, brother of Pierre Corneille
- Noel Alexandre (1630-1724), theologian and ecclesiastical historian
- Marie Champmeslé (1642-1698), actress
- René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1643-1687), cleric and explorer
- Gabriel Daniel (1649-1728), Jesuit historian
- Nicolas Lemery (1645-1715), chemist
- Jean Jouvenet (1647-1717), painter
- Jacques Basnages (1653-1723), Protestant divine
- Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle (1657-1757), author
- Pierre Antoine Motteux (1663-1718), English translator and dramatist
- Pierre François le Courayer (1681-1776), Catholic theological writer
- François d'Agincourt (1684-1758), composer, harpsichordist and organist
- Jean Restout (1692 - 1768), painter
- Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont (1711-1780), novelist
- Jacques-François Blondel (1705 - 1774), architect, urbanist
- Jacques Duphly (1715-1789), harpsichordist and composer
- François-Adrien Boïeldieu (1775-1834), composer, mainly of operas
- Pierre Louis Dulong (1785-1838), physicist and chemist
- Théodore Géricault (1791-1824), painter, painted The Raft of the Medusa
- Armand Carrel (1800-1836), writer
- Pierre Adolphe Chéruel (1809-1891), historian
- Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), novelist, who wrote Madame Bovary
- Eugène Ketterer (1831-1870), composer and pianist
- Maurice Leblanc (1864-1941), novelist, creator of the character Arsène Lupin
- Charles Nicolle (1866-1936), bacteriologist who earned the 1928 Nobel Prize in Medicine
- Georges Guillain (1876-1961), neurologist
- Marcel Dupré (1886-1971), organist and composer
- Philippe Étancelin (1896-1981), Grand Prix motor racing
- Roger Apéry (1916–1994), mathematician
- Jacques Rivette (born 1928), film director
- Anny Duperey (born 1947), actress and novelist
- François Hollande (born 1953), politician and
Parti Socialiste's first secretary
- Élise Lucet (born 1963), journalist
- Stéphan Caron (born 1966), freestyle swimmer
- Karin Viard (born 1966), actress
- Vincent Delerm (born 1976), singer-songwriter, pianist
- David Trezeguet (born 1977), French-Argentine football striker
Rouen is twinned with:
In fiction and popular culture
Fine ArtRouen Cathedral, Full Sunlight, by Claude Monet, 1894
- The Rouen Cathedral was the subject for a series of paintings by the Impressionist painter Claude Monet, who painted the same scene at different times of the day. Two paintings are in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; one is in the National Museum of Serbia in Belgrade. The estimated value of one painting is over $40 million.
- The character Erik, or The Opera Ghost of Gaston Leroux's novel The Phantom of the Opera was supposedly born in Rouen.
Rouen also played a major part in the Flaubert novel "Madame Bovary."
- The British band Supergrass named their fifth studio album Road to Rouen, punning on an Anglicised version of the city's pronunciation.
- In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist William Thatcher played by Heath Ledger poses as a noble and competes in his first jousting tournament at Rouen.
- The game Call of Duty 3 features a map set in Rouen. The map, entitled Rouen, is mainly city and offers fierce city fighting, much like that seen in World War II.
- In the Soul Calibur series of fighting games, Raphael, a playable character, is explained as being born in Rouen. Interestingly, his fighting style involves an English rapier.
- Rouen appears as an important location to protagonist Alice Elliot in the game Shadow Hearts.
See alsoWikimedia Commons has media related to: Rouen
- ^ Ratu- is not well explained; -macus, magus is a familiar toponymic suffix signifying "plain".
- ^ As in Ammianus Marcellinus and the Notitia dignitatum; other variants: Ratomagos (Ptolemy, Geography), Ratomagos (Antonine Itinerary, Tabula Peutingeriana).
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "Diocese of Rouen" records that Saint Mellon[ius] was credited with being the first bishop until a Nicaise, linked to Denis of Paris was inserted to precede him: see Diocese of Rouen.
- ^ Recorded in the chronicle of Fontenelle Abbey.
- ^ It was destroyed at the end of the fifteenth century, its stones quarried for other construction, except for the tower associated with Joan of Arc, restored by Viollet-le-Duc.
- ^ See Popular revolt in late medieval Europe for broad context.
- Site of the Tourist Board
- City council website
- (French) Rouen Activities
- (French) Télévision de l'agglomération rouennaise
- Objectif Rouen : Pictures and descriptions of the most famous monuments
- The Catholic Encyclopedia 1908 detailed ecclesiastical history
- Photo galleries (free of rights):  
- Photos of Eglise Saint Maclou
- Joan of Arc's execution
- Photo gallery of Rouen
- Rouen, Its History and Monuments, by Théodore Licquet, 1840, from Project Gutenberg
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