Rauf DenktaşRauf Denktaş
1st President of Northern CyprusIn office
15 November1983 – 20 April2005Preceded by New office Succeeded by Mehmet Ali TalatBorn January 27, 1924(1924-01-27) (age 84)
PaphosNationality Cypriot Political party Democratic Party
Rauf Raif Denktaş (in English often spelled Rauf Denktash) (born 27 January 1924) is the founder of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), a de facto state which is only recognized by Turkey. He was the first President of the TRNC and has served four five-year terms in that office.
- 1 Early career
- 2 Political career
- 3 Since 2000
- 4 Personal life and awards
- 5 Books by Denktaş
- 6 External links
- 7 References
Denktaş was born in Paphos, and graduated from The English School, Nicosia in Cyprus. Following his graduation he worked as a translator in Famagusta after that as a court clerk and then as a teacher for one year in the English School. He later went to London and trained first as a teacher and then as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn. He graduated in 1947 and returned home to practise as a lawyer.
In 1948 Denktaş served as a member of the Consultative Assembly in search of self-government for Cyprus and became a member of the Turkish Affairs Committee. In 1949 he started working as a crown prosecutor, where he remained until 1958. In that capacity, he prosecuted some EOKA members who were found guilty and were executed by hanging, or imprisoned.
In 1957, Denktaş helped found the Turkish Resistance Organization (TMT), an organization, that was formed to resist EOKA's struggle to proclaim Enosis (union with Greece) and worked for the partition of Cyprus. In 1958, he attended the U.N. General Assembly on behalf of the Turkish-Cypriots, and in December of that year he advised the Turkish Government on the rights of Turkish Cypriots during the preparation of the Zürich Agreement (signed 19 February 1959). In 1960, Cyprus won independence from Britain, and the Republic of Cyprus was established. Denktaş was elected as the President of the Turkish Communal Chamber.
In November 1963 President Makarios gave for review to Turkey, Greece and Britain a document with a series of constitutional amendments designed to facilitate the workings of the state. Then the paramilitary action against the Turks began in December 1963, after which Turkish-Cypriots withdrew from government. Upon these events, Denktaş went to Ankara for consultation with Turkish government. His entry to the island was prohibited by the Greek-Cypriot leadership in years 1964-68 due to his involvement with the Turkish underground organization TMT.
After the 15 July 1974 military coup in Cyprus, Turkey unilaterally invaded by landing troops on the north coast of Cyprus. Although during the military operation the dictatorship fell and constitutional order was restored to Cyprus, Turkey continued to advance. The Turkish Army took control 37% of the island by the time it completed its second advance on 14 August 1974 and reached Famagusta. In 1976 he was elected President of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus condemned by the U.N. and only recognized by Turkey.
He was elected as the President for a second term in 1981. He played a key role in the 1983 proclamation of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) which is recognized only by Turkey. He was elected as the President of TRNC in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000.
Denktaş has been the chief negotiator of Turkish Cypriots in the United Nations sponsored peace talks since 1968. Over the years, various attempts by the United Nations, the United States, the European Union and Britain to resolve failed, which is partly attributed to him.
By 2000, the desire of both Cyprus and Turkey to join the EU led to renewed efforts to reach a settlement. In 2002 there were large demonstrations in northern Cyprus by Turkish Cypriots demanding reunification of the island, which would give them EU citizenship when Cyprus joins the EU in 2004. In December 2003 Denktaş's party suffered heavy losses in legislative elections, suggesting that his days as the unchallenged leader of the Turkish Cypriots were coming to an end.
In February 2004 Denktaş embarked on a new round of UN sponsored talks with the Greek Cypriots, aimed at re-uniting Cyprus. Ultimately, as did the Greek Cypriot Leader Tassos Papadopulous, he opposed the final version of the settlement proposal drafted under the authority of the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan (the Annan Plan), which was voted on by the two Cypriot communities in a referendum on 24 April 2004. The plan was accepted by 65% of the Turkish community, but was rejected by a vast majority of the Greeks.
On 14 May 2004, Denktaş announced he would not be standing for a fifth term as President of the TRNC in the next elections. His tenure as President came to an end following the 17 April 2005 election of Mehmet Ali Talat, who formally assumed office on 25 April.
Personal life and awards
His favourite pastimes include photography and writing. His photographs have been in exhibitions in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Italy, former republics of the Soviet Union, Poland, France, Austria and Turkey. He has written about fifty books in English and Turkish. Between the years 1949 and 1957 he wrote many articles for the newspaper Halkın Sesi (Voice of the Nation), published by Dr Fazil Küçük, the first Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus.
Denktaş has been the recipient of many awards and honorary doctorates given by various universities in Turkey, the TRNC and the United States. He is married and has one son and two daughters. He lost one son in a traffic accident and another son in a tonsillectomy. His surviving son Serdar Denktaş is also a politician, and as of 2004, he is the Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the TRNC.
Denktaş is an honorary member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation.
Books by Denktaş
- Saadet Sırları - Secrets of Happiness, 1941
- Ateşsiz Cehennem - Hell without Fire, 1944
- Criminal Cases, 1953-54
- A Handbook of Criminal Cases, 1955
- 12'ye 5 Kala - 5 to 12, 1964-66
- The Cyprus Problem, 1968
- The Akritas Plan, 1968
- A Short Discourse on Cyprus, 1972
- Gençlerle Başbaşa - Alone with Youngsters, 1981
- The Cyprus Triangle, 1982
- Gençlerle Hasbihal - Conversation with the Youth, 1982
- Cyprus Problem in a Nutshell, 1983
- Gençlere Öğütler - Advice to the Youth, 1985
- Kadın ve Dünya - Woman and The World, 1985
- Kuran'dan İlhamlar - Inspiration from The Qur'an, 1986
- İmtihan Dünyası - A World of Examination, 1986
- Yarınlar İçin - For Tomorrow, 1986
- UN Speeches on Cyprus, 1986
- Seçenekler ve Kıbrıs Türkleri - The Options and The Turkish Cypriots, 1986
- Cyprus, An Indictment and Defence, 1987
- The Cyprus Problem 23rd Year, 1987
- My Vision for Cyprus, 1988
- Atatürk, Din ve Laiklik - Atatürk, Religion and Laïcité, 1989
- Gençlerle Sohbet - Discussion with Youth, 1990
- Kıbrıs'ta Bitmeyen Kavga - Unending Fight in Cyprus, 1991
- Kıbrıs Davamız - Our Cyprus Issue, 1991
- İlk Altı Ay - The First Six Months, 1991
- What is the Cyprus Problem, 1991
- A Challenge on Cyprus, 1990-91
- Denktaş As A Photographer, Images From Northern Cyprus, 1991
- The Cyprus Problem and the Remedy, 1992, Nicosia (Lefkoşa)
- From My Album, 1992
- O Günler - Those days, 1993, Nicosia
- Images From Northern Cyprus, 1993
- Vizyon - The Vision, 1994, Nicosia
- Kapılar - The Doors, 1995, Nicosia
- Observations on the Cyprus Dispute, 1996
- Kıbrıs Meselesinde Son Durum - The Latest Situation in Cyprus Issue, 1996, Nicosia
- Rum Yunan İkilisi: İstenmeyen Cumhuriyetten Nereye? - Rum Yunan Duo: Where to from the Unwanted Republic, 1996, Nicosia
- Karkot Deresi - Karkot Stream, 1996
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, I. cilt (1964) - Memoirs of Rauf Denktaş, 1964-74, volume I (1964), 1996
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, II. cilt (1965), 1997
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, III. cilt (1966), 1997
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, IV. cilt (1967), 1997
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, V. cilt (1968), 1997
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, VI. cilt (1969), 1997
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, VII. cilt (1970), 1997
- Kalbimin Sesi - The voice of my heart, 1997
- In Search of Justice, 1997
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, VIII. cilt (1971-72), 1998
- Rauf Denktaş'ın Hatıraları, 1964-74, IX. cilt (1973-74), 1999
- Hatıralar, Toplayış, X. cilt - Memoirs, Putting It Together, vol X, 2000
Note: The translations of the titles in Turkish is not necessarily the actual English title
- Biography of Denktaş in TRNC Presidency pages.
- ^ North Cyprus: People & Life - Rauf Raif Denktaş
- ^ Radikal-çevrimiçi / Dış Haberler / Rauf Denktaş vedalaştı
None President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
1983–2005 Succeeded by
Mehmet Ali Talat
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