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Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

Québec
Province of Quebec British colony
1763 – 1791
 

 

Flag

A portion of eastern North America in 1775 after the Quebec Act; Quebec extends all the way to the Mississippi River. Capital Quebec Language(s) French, English Religion Roman Catholicism, Protestantism Government Constitutional monarchy King George III Governor See list of Governors History  - Royal Proclamation October 7, 1763  - Quebec Act 1774  - Treaty of Paris 1783  - Constitutional Act December 26, 1791 Currency Canadian pound

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. Great Britain acquired Canada by the Treaty of Paris (1763) when King Louis XV of France and his advisors chose to keep the territory of Guadeloupe for its valuable sugar crops instead of New France. By the Royal Proclamation of 1763, Canada (part of New France) was renamed the Province of Quebec.

In 1774, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act that allowed Quebec to maintain the French Civil Code as its judicial system and sanctioned the freedom of religious choice, allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain. The act also enlarged the boundaries of Quebec to include the Ohio Country and Illinois Country, from the Appalachian Mountains on the east, south to the Ohio River, west to the Mississippi River and north to the southern boundary of lands owned by the Hudson's Bay Company, or Rupert's Land.

Through Quebec, the British Crown retained access to the Ohio and Illinois Countries even after the Treaty of Paris (1783), which was meant to have ceded this land to the United States. By well-established trade and military routes across the Great Lakes, the British continued to supply not only their own troops but a wide alliance of Native American nations through Detroit, Fort Niagara, Fort Michilimackinac, and so on, until these posts were turned over to the United States following the Jay Treaty (1794).

Quebec retained its seigneurial system after the conquest. Owing to an influx of Loyalist refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the demographics of Quebec came to shift and now included a substantial English-speaking, Anglican or Protestant element from the former Thirteen Colonies. These United Empire Loyalists settled mainly in the Eastern Townships, Montreal, and what was known then as the pays d'en haut (high country) west of the Ottawa River. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the country in two at the Ottawa River, so that the western part (Upper Canada) could be under the British legal system, with English speakers in the majority. The eastern part was named Lower Canada.

Governors of the Province of Quebec 1763-1791

After the capitulation of Montreal in 1760, New France was placed under military government. Civil government was instituted in 1764.

Counsellors to the Governor

The Province of Quebec did not have an elected legislature and was ruled directly by the Governor with advise from counsellors.

The Legislative Council served as an advisory council to the Governor until a legislative assembly was established after 1791.

A partial list of advisors from both Councils:

  • Chief Justice William Gregory
  • Chief Justice William Hey
  • Attorney General George Suckling
  • Attorney General Francis Maseres
  • Paulus Aemilius Irving - acting President of the Council
  • H. T. Cramahé
  • Adam Mabane - 1775; physician and judge
  • Walter Murray
  • Samuel Holland - served as first Surveyor General of British North America
  • Thomas Dunn - colonial administrator and soldier
  • François Mounier
  • James Cuthbert

Bibliography

  • Burt, Alfred LeRoy. The Old Province of Quebec. Toronto: Ryerson Press; Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1933. Reprinted Toronto : McClelland and Stewart, 1968.
  • Lahaise, Robert and Vallerand, Noël. Le Québec sous le régime anglais : les Canadiens français, la colonisation britannique et la formation du Canada continental. Outremont, Québec : Lanctôt, 1999.
  • Neatby, Hilda. Quebec : the revolutionary age 1760-1791. Toronto : McClelland and Stewart, 1966.
v • d • eFormer Coloniesand Territories in CanadaNorse: HellulandMarklandVinlandPortuguese: LabradorNewfoundlandNova ScotiaFrench: New France  (Acadia • Canada • Terre Neuve) Scottish: Nova ScotiaCape BretonRed River ColonySpanish: Nootka Sound  (Fort San Miguel) English and British: NewfoundlandRupert's LandNova ScotiaQuebecLowerand UpperCanadaNew BrunswickPrince Edward IslandCape BretonUnited CanadaNew CaledoniaColumbia DistrictColony of the Queen Charlotte IslandsColony of Vancouver IslandColony of British ColumbiaStikine TerritoryUnited Colonies of Vancouver Island and British ColumbiaNorth-Western Territory v • d • eBritish Empireand Commonwealth of Nations

Legend
Current territory  ·   Former territory
* now a Commonwealth Realm  ·   now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations

Europe 

18th century
1708-1757  Minorca
since 1713  Gibraltar
1782-1802  Minorca

19th century
1800-1964  Malta
1807-1890  Heligoland
1809-1864  Ionian Islands
1878-1960  Cyprus

20th century
since 1960  Akrotiri and Dhekelia

North America 

16th century
1583-1907  Newfoundland

17th century
1607-1776  Thirteen Colonies
since 1619  Bermuda
1670-1870  Rupert's Land

18th century
Canada (British Imperial)
   1763-1791  Quebec
   1791-1841  Lower Canada
   1791-1841  Upper Canada

19th century
Canada (British Imperial)
   1841-1867  Province of Canada
   1849-1866  Vancouver Island
   1858-1871  British Columbia
   1859-1870  North-Western Territory
   1862-1863  Stikine Territory
*Canada (post-Confederation)
   1867-1931  Dominion of Canada1

20th century
*Canada (post-Confederation)
   1907-1934  Dominion of Newfoundland2

1 In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. 'Dominion' remains Canada's legal title; see Canada's name.
2 Remained a de jure dominion until 1949 (when it became a Canadian province); from 1934 to 1949, Newfoundland was governed by the Commission of Government.

Latin America and the Caribbean 

17th century
1605-1979  *Saint Lucia
1623-1883  Saint Kitts (*Saint Kitts & Nevis)
1624-1966  *Barbados
1625-1650  Saint Croix
1627-1979  *St. Vincent and the Grenadines
1628-1883  Nevis (*Saint Kitts & Nevis)
1629-1641  St. Andrew and Providence Islands3
since 1632  Montserrat
1632-1860  Antigua(*Antigua & Barbuda)
1643-1860  Bay Islands
since 1650  Anguilla
1651-1667  Willoughbyland (Suriname)
1655-1850  Mosquito Coast (protectorate)
1655-1962  *Jamaica
since 1666  British Virgin Islands
since 1670  Cayman Islands
1670-1973  *Bahamas
1670-1688  St. Andrew and Providence Islands3
1671-1816  Leeward Islands

18th century
1762-1974  *Grenada
1763-1978  Dominica
since 1799  Turks and Caicos Islands

19th century
1831-1966  British Guiana (Guyana)
1833-1960  Windward Islands
1833-1960  Leeward Islands
1860-1981  *Antigua and Barbuda
1871-1964  British Honduras (*Belize)
1882-1983  *St. Kitts and Nevis
1889-1962  Trinidad and Tobago

20th century
1958-1962  West Indies Federation

3 Now the San Andrés y Providencia Department of Colombia.

Africa 

18th century
1792-1961  Sierra Leone
1795-1803  Cape Colony

19th century
1806-1910  Cape Colony
1816-1965  Gambia
1856-1910  Natal
1868-1966  Basutoland (Lesotho)
1874-1957  Gold Coast (Ghana)
1882-1922  Egypt
1884-1966  Bechuanaland (Botswana)
1884-1960  British Somaliland
1887-1897  Zululand
1888-1894  Matabeleland
1890-1980  Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
1890-1962  Uganda
1890-1963  Zanzibar (Tanzania)
1891-1964  Nyasaland (Malawi)
1891-1907  British Central Africa
1893-1968  Swaziland
1895-1920  British East Africa
1899-1956  Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

20th century
1900-1914  Northern Nigeria
1900-1914  Southern Nigeria
1900-1910  Orange River Colony
1900-1910  Transvaal Colony
1906-1954  Nigeria Colony
1910-1931  South Africa
1911-1964  Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
1914-1954  Nigeria Protectorate
1915-1931  South West Africa (Namibia)
1919-1960  Cameroons (Cameroon) 4
1920-1963  Kenya
1922-1961  Tanganyika (Tanzania) 4
1954-1960  Nigeria

4 League of Nations mandate.

Asia 

18th century
1757-1947  Bengal (West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh)
1762-1764  Philippines
1795-1948  Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1796-1965  Maldives

19th century
1819-1826  British Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore)
1826-1946  Straits Settlements
1839-1967  Colony of Aden
1841-1997  Hong Kong
1841-1941  Kingdom of Sarawak (Malaysia)
1858-1947  British India (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Burma)
1882-1963  British North Borneo (Malaysia)
1885-1946  Unfederated Malay States
1891-1971  Muscat and Oman protectorate
1892-1971  Trucial States protectorate
1895-1946  Federated Malay States
1898-1930  Weihai Garrison

20th century
1918-1961  Kuwait protectorate
1920-1932  Iraq4
1921-1946  Transjordan4
1923-1948  Palestine4
1946-1948  Malayan Union
1946-1963  Sarawak (Malaysia)
1948-1957  Federation of Malaya (Malaysia) since 1965  British Indian Ocean Territory

4 League of Nations mandate.

Oceania 

18th century
1788-1901  New South Wales

19th century
1803-1901  Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania
1807-1863  Auckland Islands6
1824-1980  New Hebrides (Vanuatu)
1824-1901  Queensland
1829-1901  Swan River Colony/Western Australia
1836-1901  South Australia
since 1838  Pitcairn Islands
1840-1907  *Colony of New Zealand
1850-1901  Victoria (Australia)
1874-1970  Fiji5
1877-1976  British Western Pacific Territories
1884-1949  Territory of Papua
1888-1965  Cook Islands6
1888-1984  Sultanate of Brunei
1889-1948  Union Islands (Tokelau)6
1892-1979  Gilbert and Ellice Islands7
1893-1978  British Solomon Islands8

20th century
1900-1970  Tonga (protected state)
1900-1974  Niue6
1901-1942  *Commonwealth of Australia
1907-1953  *Dominion of New Zealand
1919-1949  Territory of New Guinea
1949-1975  Territory of Papua and New Guinea9

5 Suspended member.
6 Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand.
7 Now Kiribati and *Tuvalu.
8 Now the *Solomon Islands.
9 Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic 

17th century
since 1659  St. Helena (On African Continent)

19th century
since 1815  Ascension Island9
(On African Continent)

since 1816  Tristan da Cunha9
(On African Continent)

since 1833  Falkland Islands11
(South America)

20th century
since 1908  British Antarctic Territory10
since 1908  South Georgia and
                    the South Sandwich Islands
10, 11

9 Dependencies of St. Helena since 1922 (Ascension Island) and 1938 (Tristan da Cunha).
10 Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).
11 Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April-June 1982.

Categories: Former countries in North America | Former British colonies | Former monarchies of North America | 1763 establishments | 1791 disestablishments | Province of Quebec (colony) | British North America