PennsylvaniaThis article is about the U.S. state. For other uses, see Pennsylvania (disambiguation). Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Flag of PennsylvaniaSealNickname(s): Keystone State, Quaker State,
Coal State, Oil State, State of Independence Motto(s): Virtue, Liberty and Independence
(119,283 km²) - Width 280 miles (455 km) - Length 160 miles (255 km) - % water 2.7 - Latitude 39°43′ N to 42°16′ N - Longitude 74°41′ W to 80°31′ W Population Ranked 6th in the US - Total 12,281,054 - Density 274.02/sq mi
105.80/km² (10th in the US) Elevation - Highest point Mount Davis
3,213 ft (979 m) - Mean 1,099 ft (335 m) - Lowest point Delaware River
0 ft (0 m) Admission to Union December 12, 1787 (2nd) Governor Ed Rendell (D) Lieutenant Governor Catherine Baker Knoll (D) U.S. Senators Arlen Specter (R)
Bob Casey, Jr. (D) Congressional Delegation List Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4 Abbreviations PA Penna. US-PA Website www.pa.gov
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (IPA: /ˌpɛnsəlˈveɪnjə/), often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation) by natives and Northeasterners, is a state located in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States of America.
Pennsylvania has been known as the Keystone State since 1802, based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States. It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North, making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles, and the agriculture common to the South, producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco.
Another one of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the Quaker State; in colonial times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province, in recognition of Quaker William Penn's First Frame of Government constitution for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience. He knew of the hostility Quakers faced when they opposed religious ritual, taking oaths, violence, war and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious frippery.
Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Philadelphia is Pennsylvania's largest city and is home to a major seaport and shipyards on the Delaware River.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Climate
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Politics
- 7 Important cities and municipalities
- 8 Recreation
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Sports
- 11 Food
- 12 State symbols
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
GeographyMap of Pennsylvania, showing major cities and roads
Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km²), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km²) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km²) are inland waters and 749 square miles (1,940 km²) are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States. The highest point of 3,213 feet (979 m) above sea level is at Mount Davis, which was named for its owner, John Davis, a schoolteacher who fought for the Union Army at the Battle of Gettysburg. The lowest point is at sea level on the Delaware River, and the approximate mean elevation is 1,100 feet (335 m). Pennsylvania is in the Eastern time zone.Counties of Pennsylvania
The original southern boundary of Pennsylvania was supposed to be at 40° North latitude, but as a result of a bad faith compromise by Lord Baltimore during Cresap's War, the king's courts moved the boundary 20 miles (32 km) south to 39° 43' N. The city of Philadelphia, at 40°0'N 75°8'W, would have been split in half by the original boundary. While he was a captive, Cresap, a Marylander, was paraded through Philadelphia. He taunted the officers by announcing that Philadelphia was one of the prettiest towns in Maryland.
- Main article: Climate of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's diverse geography also produces a variety of climates. Straddling two major zones, the southeastern corner of the state has the warmest climate. Greater Philadelphia lies at the southernmost tip of the humid continental climate zone, with some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that lies in Delaware and Maryland to the south. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the climate becomes markedly colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and winter snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly cities near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful rainfall throughout the year.Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Scranton 34/18 37/20 47/28 59/38 71/48 78/57 83/61 81/60 72/53 61/42 49/34 39/24 Erie 33/20 36/21 45/28 56/38 67/49 76/59 80/64 79/63 72/56 61/46 49/36 39/27 Pittsburgh 37/20 39/21 50/29 62/38 71/48 80/56 85/62 83/60 76/53 64/41 53/33 42/25 Harrisburg 38/23 41/25 51/33 63/42 73/51 81/61 86/66 84/64 76/57 64/45 53/36 42/28 Philadelphia 39/25 42/28 51/35 62/44 72/55 81/64 86/70 84/69 77/61 66/49 55/40 44/31 
- Main article: History of Pennsylvania
In 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn, to repay a debt of £20,000 ($20,000,000 in today’s money) owed to William's father, Admiral Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history. It was called Pennsylvania, meaning "Penn's Woods", in honor of Admiral Penn.
Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission, and freedom of religious conviction.
Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. The Colony issued "bills of credit" which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also received the high praise of Adam Smith.
After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. The Congress was the first meeting of the thirteen colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates. Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.
When the Founding Fathers of the United States were to convene in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress. The First Continental Congress drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. There they drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent colonies into a new nation. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Nation.The "Redbrick Capitol", used from 1821 until it burned down in 1897
Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded in the United States. Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783. The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson.
For half a century, the Commonwealth's legislature met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia for 63 years. But it needed a more central location, as for example the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made them aware. So, in 1799 the legislature moved to the Lancaster Courthouse, and finally in 1812 to Harrisburg. The legislature met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821, when the Redbrick Capitol was finished. It burned down in 1897, presumably due to a faulty flue. The legislature met at Grace Methodist Church on State Street (still standing), until the present capitol was finished in 1907.
The new state Capitol drew rave reviews. Its dome was inspired by the domes of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and the United States Capitol. President Theodore Roosevelt called it the "the most beautiful state Capitol in the nation", and said "It's the handsomest building I ever saw" at the dedication. In 1989, the New York Times praised it as "grand, even awesome at moments, but it is also a working building, accessible to citizens ... a building that connects with the reality of daily life".
Pennsylvania accounts for 9% of all wooded areas in the United States.
James Buchanan, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, was the only bachelor President of the United States. The Battle of Gettysburg — the major turning point of the Civil War — took place near Gettysburg. An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces along with 8,600 African American military volunteers.
Pennsylvania was also the home of the first commercially drilled oil well. In 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, Edwin L. Drake successfully drilled the well, which led to the first major oil boom in United States history.
- Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania
As of 2006, Pennsylvania has an estimated population of 12,440,621, which is an increase of 35,273 from the previous year, and an increase of 159,567 since the year 2000. Net migration from other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 126,007. Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. In 2006, 5.00% of Pennsylvanians were foreign born (621,480 people). The state has an estimated 2005 poverty rate of 11.9%. The state also has the 3rd highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2005.Pennsylvania Population Distribution
Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics, especially among the Asian, Hawaiian and White races, has markedly increased in recent years. It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population, and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status.Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1790434,373 — 1800602,365 38.7% 1810810,091 34.5% 18201,049,458 29.5% 18301,348,233 28.5% 18401,724,033 27.9% 18502,311,786 34.1% 18602,906,215 25.7% 18703,521,951 21.2% 18804,282,891 21.6% 18905,258,113 22.8% 19006,302,115 19.9% 19107,665,111 21.6% 19208,720,017 13.8% 19309,631,350 10.5% 19409,900,180 2.8% 195010,498,012 6.0% 196011,319,366 7.8% 197011,793,909 4.2% 198011,863,895 0.6% 199011,881,643 0.1% 200012,281,054 3.4%
Pennsylvania's population was reported as 5.9% under 5 and 23.8% under 18, with 15.6% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.7% of the population.
Religion“ The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill–treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God. - Voltaire, speaking of William Penn”
Pennsylvania's population in 2000 was 12,281,054. Of these, 8,448,193 were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of religion data archives at Pennsylvania State University, reliable data exists for 7,116,348 religious adherents in Pennsylvania in 2000, following 115 different faiths. Their affiliations, including percentage of all adherents, were:
- Roman Catholic: 3,802,524 (53.43%)
- Orthodox: 75,354 (1.06%)
- Mainline Protestant: 2,140,682 (30%)
- Evangelical Protestant: 704,204 (10%)
- Other theology: 393,584 (5.53%)
- Jewish estimate: 283,000 (3.98%)
- Muslim estimate: 71,190 (1.00%)
- Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations: 6,778 (0.10%)
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: 31,032 (0.44%)
While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers and many of the older trappings of the Commonwealth are rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority today.
- Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's 2006 total gross state product (GSP) of $510.31 billion ranks the state 6th in the nation. If Pennsylvania were an independent country, its economy would rank as the 17th largest in the world, ahead of Belgium and behind the Netherlands. On a per-capita basis, Pennsylvania's per-capita GSP of $34,619 ranks 26th among the 50 states.Bethlehem Steel's closed manufacturing facility in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. This site will become the site of the new multi-million dollar Sands BethWorks casino in 2007.
Philadelphia in the southeast corner and Pittsburgh in the southwest corner are urban manufacturing centers, with the "t-shaped" remainder of the Commonwealth being much more rural; this dichotomy affects state politics as well as the state economy. Philadelphia is home to eight Fortune 500 companies, with more located in suburbs like King of Prussia; it's a leader in the financial and insurance industry. Pittsburgh is home to seven Fortune 500 companies, including U.S. Steel, PPG Industries, H.J. Heinz, and Alcoa. In all, Pennsylvania is home to fifty Fortune 500 companies.
Pennsylvania's factories and workshops manufacture 16.1% of the Gross State Product (GSP); only 10 states are more industrialized. While Educational Services is only 1.8% of the Commonwealth's GSP, that's twice the national average; only Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont outrank Pennsylvania. Although Pennsylvania is known as a coal state, mining only amounts to 0.6% of the Commonwealth's economy, compared to 1.3% for the country as a whole.Farming near Klingerstown, Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania ranks 19th overall in agricultural production, but 1st in mushrooms, 3rd in Christmas trees and layer chickens, 4th in nursery and sod, milk, corn for silage, grapes grown (including juice grapes), and horses production. It is also 8th in the nation for wine production, has the two highest wineries east of the Rocky Mountains and was home to the nation's first commercial grapevine nursery in Montgomery County. Only about 9,600 of the Commonwealth's 58,000 farmers have sales of $100,000 or more, and with production expenses equaling 84.9% of sales, most not only have a net farming income below the $19,806 that marks poverty for a family of four, but are liable for a 12.4% self-employment tax as well. The average farmer is 53 and getting older, as young Pennsylvanians find low farming income a tough row to hoe.
Many farms in the southeastern part of the Commonwealth have been sold to housing developers in the past years. This is largely due to rising taxes and land prices, reflecting high demand for land in the nation's fifth largest metropolitan area. Bucks and Montgomery counties were the first to suburbanize, but this trend is now extending to Chester, Lancaster, Berks, and Lehigh counties.
TourismPennsylvania state welcome sign
Pennsylvania draws 2.1% of the Gross State Product from Accommodation and Food Services. Only Connecticut, Delaware and Iowa have lower numbers. Philadelphia draws tourists to see the Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, the Franklin Institute and the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, while the Poconos attract honeymooners, golfers, and fishermen, and the Delaware Water Gap and Allegheny National Forest appeal to boaters, hikers, and nature lovers. Another attraction are the many covered bridges in the state, as Pennsylvania has more covered bridges than any other state. Fourteen slots casinos, the majority of which are either in the process of being awarded licenses from the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board or are under construction, are expected to make up a good portion of tourism in the Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth launched an extensive tourism campaign in 2003 under the direction of the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development. An extensive website has been established to promote visits to the state and new license plates feature the VisitPA.com website.Recent PA state tourism campaign logo.
- Main article: Pennsylvania Dutch Country
The Pennsylvania Dutch region in south-central Pennsylvania is a favorite for sightseers. The Pennsylvania Dutch, including the Old Order Amish, the Old Order Mennonites and at least 35 other sects, are common in the rural areas around the cities of Lancaster, York, and Harrisburg, and Hershey with smaller numbers extending northeast to the Lehigh Valley and up the Susquehanna River valley.
The term "Dutch," when referring to the Pennsylvania Dutch, means "German" or "Teutonic" rather than "Netherlander." Germans, in their own language, call themselves "Deutsch," which in English became, misleadingly, "Dutch." The Pennsylvania Dutch language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. The language is only very rarely used as a first language among Pennsylvanians; however, in eastern and south central areas of the state it is a common second language and greatly influences dialect and accent.
Government of the Commonwealth
Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood: 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, and 1968. Prior to that, the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government, of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683, 1696, and 1701. The capital of the Commonwealth is Harrisburg. The legislature meets in the State Capitol there.The current Pennsylvania State Capitol in downtown Harrisburg.
The current Governor is Ed Rendell, a former head of the Democratic National Committee who began as a popular District Attorney and mayor in Philadelphia. The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor Catherine Baker Knoll, Attorney General Tom Corbett, Auditor General Jack Wagner, and State Treasurer Robin Weissman.
- See also: List of Pennsylvania state agencies
Pennsylvania has a bicameral legislature set up by Commonwealth's constitution in 1790. The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature. The General Assembly includes 50 Senators and 203 Representatives. Joseph B. Scarnati III is currently President Pro Tempore of the State Senate, Dominic Pileggi the Majority Leader, and Robert J. Mellow the Minority Leader. Dennis M. O'Brien is Speaker of the House of Representatives, with H. William DeWeese as Majority Leader and Samuel Smith as Minority Leader. The 2006 election resulted in the Democrats regaining control of the House and the balance remaining unchanged in Republicans' favor in the Senate.
Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts, most of which (except Philadelphia and Allegheny Counties) have magisterial district judges (formerly called district justices and justices of the peace), who preside mainly over minor criminal offenses and small civil claims. Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which also serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions. The Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court. It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance. The Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the final appellate court. All judges in Pennsylvania are elected; the chief justice is determined by seniority. The state holds 21 electoral votes.
Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income. Generally, the total wage tax rate is capped at 1% of income but some municipalities with home rule charters may charge more than 1%. Thirty-two of the Commonwealth's sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings.
Representation in the 110th Congress
Pennsylvania's U.S. Congressmen for the term beginning January 2007 are Robert Brady (1st), Chaka Fattah (2nd), Phil English (3rd), Jason Altmire (4th), John E. Peterson (5th), Jim Gerlach (6th), Joe Sestak (7th), Patrick Murphy (8th), Bill Shuster (9th), Chris Carney (10th), Paul E. Kanjorski (11th), John Murtha (12th), Allyson Schwartz (13th), Michael F. Doyle (14th), Charlie Dent (15th), Joe Pitts (16th), Tim Holden (17th), Tim Murphy (18th), and Todd Russell Platts (19th).
In the past decade, no political party has been clearly dominant in Pennsylvania. This, combined with Pennsylvania's rank of 6th in the country in population, has made it one of the most important swing states. Democrats are strong in urban Philadelphia and the areas of Pittsburgh, Reading, Allentown, Erie, Johnstown, and Scranton/Wilkes-Barre. Republicans are generally dominant in the vast rural areas that make up the balance of the Commonwealth. Traditionally, Republicans have also fared well in the densely populated and wealthy suburbs of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, but in the 1990s and 2000s many of these suburbs began to associate more with the Democratic Party.
Since 1992, Pennsylvania has been trending Democratic in Presidential elections, voting for Bill Clinton twice by large margins, and slightly closer in 2000 for Al Gore. Most recently, in the 2004 Presidential Election, Senator John F. Kerry beat President George W. Bush in Pennsylvania 2,938,095 (50.92%) to 2,793,847 (48.42%).
Important cities and municipalitiesThe skyline of Philadelphia, the largest city in Pennsylvania and the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States. The skyline of Pittsburgh, second largest city in Pennsylvania and 21st largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Municipalities in Pennsylvania are incorporated as cities of several classes, as boroughs, as townships of several classes, or under home rule charters. A "village," often identified by a roadside sign, is unincorporated, and is merely a locale without distinct boundaries. There are 2,567 municipalities in the state.
There is some confusion about the number of "towns" in Pennsylvania. In 1870, Bloomsburg, the county seat of Columbia County was incorporated as a town, and is recognized by state government publications as "the only incorporated town" in Pennsylvania. However, in 1975, McCandless Township, in Allegheny County adopted a home rule charter under the name "Town of McCandless".
Pennsylvania is home to the nation's first zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo.  Other notable zoos include the Allentown Zoo, Claws 'n Paws, Erie Zoo, Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium, and ZOOAMERICA. The Commonwealth boasts some of the finest museums in the country. One of the unique museums is the Houdini Museum  in Scranton, the only building in the world devoted to the legendary magician. It is also home to the National Aviary, located in Pittsburgh.
All 121 state parks in Pennsylvania feature free admission.
Pennsylvania offers a number of notable amusement parks, including Camel Beach, Conneaut Lake Park, Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Dutch Wonderland, DelGrosso Amusement Park, Hershey Park, Idlewild Park, Kennywood, Knoebels, Lakemont Park, Sandcastle Waterpark, Sesame Place, Great Wolf Lodge and Waldameer Park. Pennsylvania also is home to the largest indoor waterpark resort on the East Coast, Splash Lagoon in Erie.
There are also notable music festivals that take place in Pennsylvania. These include Musikfest in Bethlehem (which featured the rock band The Black Crowes in 2007 and routinely draws major music acts), the Philadelphia Folk Festival, Creation Festival, the Great Allentown Fair (which lasts slightly longer than a week in Allentown annually in early September) and Purple Door.
There are nearly one million licensed hunters in Pennsylvania. Whitetail deer, cottontail rabbits, squirrel, turkey, and grouse are common game species. Pennsylvania is considered one of the finest wild turkey hunting states in the Union, alongside Texas and Alabama. Sport hunting in Pennsylvania is a massive boost for the Commonwealth's economy. A report from The Center for Rural Pennsylvania (A Legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly) reported that hunting, fishing, and furtaking generated a total of $9.6 billion statewide.
The Boone and Crockett Club shows that five of the ten largest (skull size) black bear entries came from the state. The state also has a tied record for the largest hunter shot black bear in the Boone & Crockett books at 733 lb (332 kg) and a skull of 23 3/16 tied with a bear shot in California in 1993. The largest bear ever found dead was in Utah in 1975 and second largest was shot by a poacher in the state in 1987. Pennsylvania holds the second most number of Boone & Crockett recorded record black bears at 183 second only to Wisconsin's 299.
There are 69 railroads in the state and 5,100 miles (8,200 km) of railways which is 5th in the nation. There is 134 public-use airports and 6 international airports. The port of Pittsburgh is the 2nd largest inland port in the United States. There are 120,000 miles (190,000 km) of highways in the state.
Pennsylvania is home to many professional sports teams, including the Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia Eagles and Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League, the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association, the Philadelphia Flyers and Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia Soul of the Arena Football League. Among them, these teams have accumulated 6 World Series Championships (Pirates 5, Phillies 1), 14 National League Pennants, 3 pre-Super Bowl era NFL Championships (Eagles), 5 Super Bowl Championships (Steelers), 2 NBA Championships (76ers), and 4 Stanley Cup winners (Flyers 2, Penguins 2).
In baseball, the Phillies moved their Triple A-level team from Ottawa, Ontario, in Canada, to a newly-constructed stadium, Coca-Cola Park in Allentown, beginning with the 2008 season. Because the Lehigh Valley is a core fan base for both the Phillies and the Philadelphia Eagles (who conduct their pre-season training camp on the practice fields of Lehigh University), there are understandably lofty expectations that the new team, called the Lehigh Valley IronPigs (after pig iron, which is an instrumental part in the construction of steel which has been a large part of the local economy for decades), is likely to prove hugely popular among Allentown and Lehigh Valley Phillies fans. The Phillies' AA team is located in Reading, and one of their A-level affiliates is also located in Williamsport. The Pirates' AA team is located in Altoona, and the Nationals' AA affiliate is in the capital of Harrisburg. The Yankees' AAA team is also located in Scranton, in the northeastern part of the state. Two independent-league teams, the Lancaster Barnstormers and York Revolution of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, are located in south-central Pennsylvania.
College football is also very popular in Pennsylvania. The Penn State University Nittany Lions are coached by Joe Paterno who led Penn State to two national championships (1982 & 1986) as well as five undefeated seasons (1968, 1969, 1973, 1986 and 1994). Penn State plays its home games in the second largest stadium in the United States, Beaver Stadium, that seats 107,282. In addition, the University of Pittsburgh Panthers have won nine national championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937 and 1976) and have played eight undefeated seasons (1904, 1910, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1937 and 1976). Pitt plays its home games at Heinz Field, a facility it shares with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Other Pennsylvania schools that have won national titles in football include Lafayette College (1896) and the University of Pennsylvania (1895, 1897, 1904 and 1908).
College basketball is also popular in the state, especially in the Philadelphia area where five universities, collectively termed the Big Five, have a rich tradition in NCAA Division I basketball. National titles in college basketball have been won by the following Pennsylvania universities: La Salle University (1954), Temple University (1938), University of Pennsylvania (1920 and 1921), University of Pittsburgh (1928 and 1930) and Villanova University (1985).
In motorsports, the Mario Andretti dynasty of race drivers is from Nazareth. Notable Racetracks in Pennsylvania include the Jennerstown Speedway in Jennerstown, the Lake Erie Speedway in North East, the Mahoning Valley Speedway in Lehighton, the Motordome Speedway in Smithton, the Mountain Speedway in St. Johns, the Nazareth Speedway in Nazareth; and the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, which is home both the Pennsylvania 500 and the Pocono 500.
Also, the Little League World Series is held in Williamsport, where it was founded. Also the first World Series between the Boston Pilgrims (now Boston Red Sox) and Pittsburgh Pirates was played in Pittsburgh.
There are also two motocross race tracks that host a round of the AMA Toyota Motocross Championships in Pennsylvania. [High Point Raceway]High Point in located in Mt. Morris, PA, and Steel City is located in Delmont, PA.
Race courses for horses in Pennsylvania consist of The Meadows Racetrack, south of Pittsburgh, Mohegan Sun at Pocono Downs, in Wilkes-Barre and Harrah's Chester Casino and Racetrack in Chester which offer harness racing, and Penn National Race Course in Grantville and Philadelphia Park, in Bensalem which offer thoroughbred racing. Smarty Jones, the 2004 Kentucky Derby winner, had Philadelphia Park as his home course.
Arnold Palmer, one of the leading 20th century pro golfers, comes from Latrobe, and Jim Furyk, one of the leading 21-century pro golfers, grew up near in Lancaster. PGA tournaments in Pennsylvania include the 84 Lumber Classic, played at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, in Farmington and the Northeast Pennsylvania Classic, played at Glenmaura National Golf Club, in Moosic.
In his book Yo Mama Cooks Like a Yankee, author Sharon Hernes Silverman calls Pennsylvania the snack food capital of the world. It leads all other states in the manufacture of pretzels and potato chips. The Sturgis Pretzel House introduced the pretzel to America, and companies like Anderson Bakery Company, Intercourse Pretzel Factory, and Snyder's of Hanover are leading manufacturers in the Commonwealth. The three companies that define the U.S. potato chip industry are Utz Quality Foods, Inc., which started making chips in Hanover, Pennsylvania in 1921, Wise Snack Foods which started making chips in Berwick in 1921, and Lay's Potato Chips, a Texas company. Other companies such as Herr Foods, Martin's Potato Chips, and Troyer Farms Potato Products are popular chip manufacturers. The U.S. chocolate industry is centered in Hershey, Pennsylvania, with Mars and Wilbur Chocolate Company nearby, and smaller manufacturers such as Asher's near Lansdale and Gertrude Hawk of Dunmore. Other notable companies include Just Born in Bethlehem, PA, makers of Hot Tamales, Mike and Ikes, and the Easter favorite marshmallow Peeps, Benzel's Pretzels and Boyer Candies of Altoona, PA, which is well known for its Mallow Cups. Auntie Anne's Pretzels originated in Gap, but their corporate headquarters is now located in Lancaster, PA. Traditional Pennsylvania Dutch foods include chicken potpie, schnitz un knepp (dried apples, hame, and dumplings), fasnachts (raised doughnuts), scrapple, pretzels, bologna, and chochow. Shoofly is another traditional Pennsylvanian Dutch food. Yuengling Brewery, America's Oldest Brewery, has been brewing beer in Pottsville, PA since 1829.
Among the regional foods associated with Pennsylvania are the pierogies, cheesesteak and the hoagie, the soft pretzel, the lemur on a stick, Italian water ice, scrapple, Tastykake, and the stromboli. In Pittsburgh, tomato ketchup was improved by Henry John Heinz from 1876 to the early 1900s. Famous to a lesser extent than Heinz ketchup are the Pittsburgh's Primanti Brothers Restaurant sandwiches. Outside the city of Scranton, in the Borough of Old Forge there are dozens of Italian restaurants specializing in pizza made unique by thick, light crust and American cheese. Sauerkraut along with pork and mashed potatoes is a common meal on New Year's Day in Pennsylvania.
Multi-ethnic cuisine is common, especially in the Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and Coal Region areas. Amish, Chinese, Italian, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Mexican, Pakistani, Persian, Polish, Russian, Thai, Turkish cuisine and many others can be found not only in specialty restaurants but at hundreds of community or religious festivals.
State symbolsThe Ruffed Grouse US Brig Niagara in Port Pennsylvania state insignia and historical facts State treeEastern HemlockState birdRuffed grouseState flowerMountain laurelState insectPhoturis pennsylvanica (Pennsylvania Firefly)State animalWhite-tailed deerState dogGreat DaneState fishBrook troutState fossilthe trilobitePhacops ranaState beverageMilkState capitalHarrisburgUnion admission rank2nd State songPennsylvania(Formerly Hail, Pennsylvania!, until 1990)State toy SlinkyState shipUnited States Brig NiagaraState electric locomotive Pennsylvania RailroadGG1#4849 Locomotive State steam locomotive Pennsylvania RailroadK4sLocomotive State beautification plant Crown vetchState soilHazleton
See alsoPennsylvania Portal
- ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l PHMC: State Symbols
- ^ Lowell Tribune, March 26, 2002
- ^ Lancaster rifle
- ^ PHMC: Agriculture in Pennsylvania
- ^ The Quaker Province
- ^ William Penn, Quaker
- ^ Frame of Government
- ^ Pennsylvania translates to "Penn's Woods" and was named after the father of William Penn, the founder of the colony. Digital History: Persecution of the Quakers
- ^ The Quaker Province 1681–1776
- ^ National Parks Service: Our Fourth Shore
- ^ NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources
- ^ Philadelphia Regional Port Authority: History. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
- ^ a b Pennsylvania geography
- ^ a b 2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment: Land and Land Use
- ^ 2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment:Extreme and Mean Elevations
- ^ Pennsylvania Time Zone
- ^ Penn's Charter
- ^ a b Cecil County, Maryland
- ^ Places Named: Philadelphia
- ^ Pennsylvania Indian tribes
- ^ Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania
- ^ a b Quakers and the political process
- ^ Library of Congress timeline 1764–1765
- ^ Dickinson Letters
- ^ Library of Congress timeline 1773–1774
- ^ Library of Congress: Primary documents — The Declaration of Independence
- ^ Nine Capitals of the United States
- ^ Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution of 1787
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Pennsylvania's Capitals
- ^ James Buchanan White House biography
- ^ Battle of Gettysburg
- ^ a b Pennsylvania Facts. Pennsylvania State Data Center Penn State Harrisburg (2003). Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
- ^ Components of Population Change
- ^ a b c d e f g Pennsylvania Facts 2007. Pennsylvania State Data Center Penn State Harrisburg (2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
- ^ Annual Estimates of the Population
- ^ FactFinder: Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights
- ^ American Community Survey 2003 Multi-Year Survey for Pennsylvania
- ^ The Works of Voltaire, volume 19
- ^ Religious diversity in Pennsylvania
- ^ The ARDA
- ^ These statistics are based on 7,116,348 of the estimated 8,448,193 religious adherents in Pennsylvania, and only the largest of 115 different faiths are reported here. Data excludes most of the historically African-American denominations. Public Law 94-521 prevents the Census Bureau from collecting better data, so this information comes from the Association of religion data archives at Penn State.) Terms used to describe organizations are ARDA's, and may not be the group's own preferred name.
- ^ The Amish and the Plain People of Lancaster County, PA
- ^ a b Bureau of Economic Analysis
- ^ Appeals court races wrap up with focus on voter mobilization
- ^ a b c Fortune 500
- ^ Philadelphia stock exchange
- ^ Tragedy of 9/11 pummels insurance industry
- ^ a b c Northeast-Midwest Institute calculations based on data from the BEA
- ^ Agricultural Census 2002
- ^ a b c PA Wine facts. Pennsylvania Wine & Wineries (2003). Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
- ^ Poverty levels
- ^ IRS: Tax Guide for farmers
- ^ Center for Rural Pennsylvania
- ^ Mid-Atlantic Farm Policy Leadership Forum
- ^ Philadelphia tourism
- ^ Poconos tourism
- ^ Delaware Water Gap
- ^ [http://www.tfhrc.gov/structur/pubs/04098/index.htm FHWA Covered Bridge Manual
- ^ Pa. gaming board awards 5 slots licenses - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
- ^ VisitPA
- ^ AAA: Favorite vacation spots
- ^ Page 10, The Riddle of Amish Culture, 2001. ISBN 0-8018-6772-X
- ^ Definition of "dutch"
- ^ a b 23 Pennsylvania Law Weekly 324 (March 27, 2000)
- ^ bio of Ed Rendell
- ^ State Elected Officials
- ^ Pennsylvania State Archives
- ^ Pennsylvania Senators
- ^ Pennsylvania House of Representatives
- ^ Pennsylvania Senate
- ^ David Brightbill
- ^ Robert Mellow
- ^ John Perzel
- ^ Samuel Smith
- ^ William DeWeese
- ^ a b c d e f Judicial districts
- ^ Revenue Department Releases August Collections (09/01/2006) http://www.revenue.state.pa.us/revenue/CWP/view.asp?Q=261929&A=208 Retrieved 25 September 2006.
- ^ Congressional Directory Online
- ^ Pennsylvania Manual 117
- ^ Pennsylvania Local Government Fact Sheet, 2005
- ^ "Local Government Entities in Pennsylvania" and "Municipal Statistics" in Legislator’s Municipal Deskbook for Pennsylvania
- ^ Bloomsburg
- ^ McCandless
- ^ a b c d Reilly, P. (2007-11-15). Bear facts favor Pennsylvania State remains home to North America’s biggest black bears. Intelligencer Journal. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
- ^ Pa. knack for snacks a Farm Show feature - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
- ^ a b State Symbols
- ^ Slinky history
External linksFind more about Pennsylvania on Wikipedia's sister projects: Dictionary definitionsTextbooksQuotationsSource textsImages and mediaNews storiesLearning resources
- Gov. Andrew Curtin's Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteer Corps, Civil War 1861–1864
- Official state government site
- Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
- USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Pennsylvania
- Pennsylvania State Facts
- Official state tourism site
- Biography of William Penn from 1829
- A History of Pennsylvania from 1905
- Free Original Documents Online: Pennsylvania State Archives 1600s to 1800s
- Miller, Randall M. and William Pencak, Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth
- Interactive Pennsylvania for Kids
- Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development
- National Association of Counties (information on each Pennsylvania County)
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