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Parachuting

To comply with Wikipedia's quality standards, this article may need to be rewritten.
Please help improve this article. The discussion pagemay contain suggestions. "Skydiver" redirects here. For other uses, see Skydiver (disambiguation). "Sky dive" redirects here. For the fictional character, see Skydive (Transformers). Tandem Exiting a Super Twin Otter over Chicagoland Skydiving Center Hybrid Formation Over Puerto Escondido, Mexico Tandem In Freefall Over Hinckley, IL

Parachuting is an activity involving a preplanned drop from a height using a deployable parachute.

The history of parachuting is not clear. It's known that Andre-Jacques Garnerin made successful parachute jumps from a hot-air balloon in 1797. The military developed parachuting technology first as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1951.

Today it is performed as a recreational activity and a competitive sport, as well as for the deployment of military personnel Airborne forces and occasionally forest firefighters.

Contents

Procedure

In the early days, a trained skydiver (or jumper) and a group of associates meet at an isolated airport, sometimes referred to as a "drop zone." A fixed base operator at that airport usually operates one or more aircraft, and takes groups of skydivers up for a fee. It was common for an individual jumper to go up in a Cessna light aircraft such as C-172 or C-185. These days, it is common for busier DZ's near populated areas to use multiple, larger aircraft such as the Cessna Caravan C208 or DeHavilland Twin Otter DHC6.

A typical jump involves individuals jumping out of an aircraft (usually an airplane, but sometimes a helicopter or even the gondola of a balloon), travelling at approximately 4,000 meters (around 13,000 feet) altitude, and free-falling for a period of time before activating a parachute to slow the landing down to safe speeds.

Super Twin Otter Departs With 23 Jumpers PAC 750XL Lands Empty After Dropping Jumpers at 14,000 Feet

Once the parachute is opened, (usually the parachute will be fully inflated by 2,500 ft). the jumper can control his or her direction and speed with "steering lines," with hand grips called "toggles" that are attached to the parachute, and so he or she can aim for the landing site and come to a relatively gentle stop in a safe landing environment. All modern sport parachutes are self-inflating "ram-air" wings that provide control of speed and direction similar to the related paragliders. Purists in either sport would note that paragliders have much greater lift and range, but that parachutes are designed to absorb the stresses of deployment at terminal velocity.

By manipulating the shape of the body—as a pilot manipulates the shape of his aircraft's wings—a skydiver can generate turns, forward motion, backwards motion, and even lift. Experienced skydivers will tell someone that in freefall, one can do anything a bird can do, except go back up.

Skydivers generally do not experience a "falling" sensation due to the fact that the resistance of the air to their body at speeds above about 50 MPH provides some feeling of weight and direction. At normal exit speeds for aircraft (approx 90 MPH) there is little feeling of falling just after exit, but jumping from a balloon or helicopter can create this sensation. They reach terminal velocity (around 120 mph (190 km/h) for belly to Earth orientations, 150-200 mph (240-320 km/h) for head down orientations) and are no longer accelerating towards the ground. At this point the sensation is as of a hard wind. When they leave the plane, their momentum from the plane causes their direction of travel to change from the direction of the airplane's flight (horizontal) to the direction pulled by the force of gravity (vertical). Skydivers call this transition period "the hill", and the amount of distance they fly with the plane due to the momentum is called "forward throw". For typical people, less than 1g of force along the body's long axis is what causes the "stomach in your throat" feeling on a roller-coaster or other amusement park rides. This is why skydivers in the armed forces are encouraged to eat a block of cheese about an hour before jumping to keep the acids from coming up in their mouths.[citation needed]

12-Way Formation With Video Over Chicagoland Skydiving Center

Most skydivers make their first jump with an experienced and trained instructor (this type of skydive may be in the form of a tandem skydive). During the tandem jump the jumpmaster is responsible for the stable exit, maintaining a proper stable freefall position, and activating and controlling the parachute. With training and experience, the fear of the first few jumps is supplanted by the tact of controlling fear so that one may come to experience the satisfaction of mastering aerial skills and performing increasingly complicated maneuvers in the sky with friends. Other training methods include static line, IAD (Instructor Assisted Deployment), and AFF (Accelerated Free fall) aka Progressive Free-Fall (PFF) in Canada.

At larger dropzones, mostly in the Sun Belt region of the United States, training in the sport is often conducted by full-time instructors and coaches at commercial establishments. Commercial centers often provide year-round availability, larger aircraft, and staff who are current in both their sport and their instructional skills.

In the other latitudes, where winter (or monsoons) gets in the way of year-round operation, commercial skydiving centers are less prevalent and much of the parachuting activity is carried on by clubs. These clubs tend to support smaller aircraft. Training may be offered (by instructors who are tested and certified in exactly the same way as their commercial counterparts) in occasional classes or as demand warrants. These clubs tend to be weekend only operations as the majority of the staff have full-time jobs during the week. Club members will often visit larger centers for holidays, events, and for some concentrated exposure to the latest techniques.

Skills

Tandem and Camera Flyer Exit a Twin Otter

Parachuting has complex skills that can take thousands of jumps to master, but the basics are often fully understood and useful during the first few jumps. There are four basic areas of skill: basic safety, free fall maneuvers, parachute operation, and landing.

Free-fall manoeuvres

In freefall most skydivers start by learning to maintain a stable belly to earth "arch" position[1]. In this position the average fall rate is around 190 km/h (120 mph). Learning a stable arch position is a basic skill essential for a reliable parachute deployment. Next, jumpers learn to move or turn in any direction while remaining belly to earth. Using these skills a group of jumpers can create sequences of formations on a single jump, a discipline known as relative work (RW). In the late 1980s more experienced jumpers started experimenting with freeflying, falling in any orientation other than belly to earth. Today many jumpers start freeflying soon after they earn their license, bypassing the RW (deployment-position flying) stepping stone.

Parachute operation and landing

White sand circular target at a drop zone

The decision of when to deploy the parachute is a matter of safety. A parachute should be deployed sufficiently high to give the parachutist time to handle a malfunction, should one occur. 600 metres (1,970 ft) is the practical minimum for advanced skydivers.[2] Skydivers monitor their altimeters during freefall to decide when to break off from the formation (if applicable) and when to open their parachutes. Many skydivers open higher to practice their parachute flying skills. During a "hop-and-pop", a jump in which the parachute is deployed immediately upon exiting the aircraft, it is not uncommon to be under canopy as high as 1200 to 1500 meters (4000 to 5000 ft).

Parachute flying involves two basic challenges. Firstly to avoid injury and secondly to land where planned, often on a designated target. Some experienced skydivers enjoy performing aerobatic maneuvers with parachutes, the most notable being the "Swoop". This is a thrilling, but dangerous maneuver entailing a steep, high speed landing approach, before leveling off a couple of feet above the ground to maintain a fast glide parallel to the surface. Swoops as far as 180 metres (590 ft) have been achieved.

A modern parachute or canopy "wing" can glide substantial distances. Elliptical canopies go faster and farther, and some small, highly loaded canopies glide faster than it is possible to run, which can make them very challenging to land. A highly experienced skydiver using a very small canopy can achieve over 100 km/h (60 mph) horizontal speeds in landing.

Today, the majority of skydiving related injuries and deaths happen under a fully opened and functioning parachute. The most common cause being poorly-executed, radical maneuvers near to the ground, such as hook turns, or landing flares performed either too high or too low.

Safety

Despite the perception of danger, fatalities are rare. However, each year a number of people are hurt or killed parachuting world-wide.[3][4] About 30 skydivers are killed each year in the US; roughly one death for every 100,000 jumps.[5]

In the US and in most of the western world skydivers are required to carry a second reserve parachute which has been inspected and packed by a certificated parachute rigger (in the US, an FAA certificated parachute rigger). Many skydivers use an automatic activation device (AAD) that opens the reserve parachute at a safe altitude in the event of failing to activate the main canopy themselves. Most skydivers wear a visual altimeter, but some go as far as using audible altimeters as well.

In recent years, one of the most common sources of injury is a low turn under a high-performance canopy and while swooping. Swooping is the advanced discipline of gliding parallel to the ground during landing.

A military parachutist about to jump above Dakar, Senegal

Changing wind conditions are another risk factor. In conditions of strong winds, and turbulence during hot days the parachutist can be caught in downdrafts close to the ground. Shifting winds can cause a crosswind or downwind landing which have a higher potential for injury due to the wind speed adding to the landing speed.

Equipment failure rarely causes fatalities and injuries. Exact numbers are difficult to estimate but approximately one in several hundred sports main parachute openings malfunction and must be cut away, although some skydivers have many thousands of jumps and never cut away, (either they pack their mains more carefully than average or they are just lucky). Reserve parachutes are packed and deployed differently, they are also designed more conservatively and built & tested to more exacting standards so they are more reliable than main parachutes, but the real safety advantage comes from the probability of an unlikely main malfunction multiplied by the even less likely probability of a reserve malfunction. This yields an even smaller probability of a double malfunction although the possibility of a main malfunction that cannot be cutaway causing a reserve malfunction is a very real risk. In the U.S., the average fatality rate is considered to be about 1 in 80,000 jumps. Most injuries and fatalities in sport skydivng occur under a fully functional main parachute because the skydiver performed unsafe maneuvers or made an error in judgement while flying their canopy typically resulting in a high speed impact with the ground or other hazards on the ground.

Parachuting disciplines such as BASE jumping or those that involve equipment such as wing suit flying and sky surfing have a higher risk factor due to the lower mobility of the jumper and the greater risk of entanglement. For this reason these disciplines are generally practiced by experienced jumpers.

It is worth noting that depictions in commercial films — notably Hollywood action movies — usually understate the dangers of the sport. Often, the characters in such films are shown performing feats that are physically impossible without special effects assistance. In other cases, their practices would cause them to be grounded or shunned at any safety-conscious drop zone or club. USPA member drop zones in the US and Canada are required to have an experienced jumper act as a "safety officer" (in Canada DSO - Drop Zone Safety Officer; in the U.S. S&TA - Safety and Training Advisor) who is responsible for dealing with the jumpers who violate rules, regulations, or otherwise act in a fashion deemed unsafe by the appointed individual.

In many countries, either the local regulations or the liability-conscious prudence of the dropzone owners require that parachutists must have attained the age of majority before engaging in the sport.

Parachuting and weather

Parachuting in poor weather, especially with thunderstorms nearby, can be a dangerous activity. Lt. Col. William Rankin is the only person ever to survive parachuting from the top of a cumulonimbus cloud, after an airplane emergency forced him to eject. His fall was from 47,000 ft. (14.3 km), taking 40 minutes to make his descent.[6]

Types

There are several different disciplines to embrace within parachuting. Each of these is enjoyed by both the recreational (weekend) and the competitive participants. There is even a small group of professionals who earn their living with parachuting. They win competitions having cash prizes or are employed or sponsored by skydiving related manufacturers.

Parachutists can participate both in competitive and in purely recreational skydiving events. World championships are held regularly in locations offering flat terrain and clear skies. An exception is Paraski, where winter weather and ski-hill terrain are required.

Types of parachuting include:

Wingsuit Jumpers in Freefall

Training

Tandem Skydiving

There are ways to practice different aspects of skydiving, without actually jumping. Vertical wind tunnels can be used to practice skills for free fall ("indoor skydiving" or "bodyflight"), while virtual reality parachute simulators can be used to practice parachute control.

Beginning skydivers seeking training have a few different options available to them:

A unique program where students accomplish their very first jump as a solo freefall is offered at the United States Air Force Academy. The program is called AM490, one in a series of airmanship courses at the school. While typically open only to cadets, Winfield W. Scott Jr., the school's superintendent, went through this program when he was nearly 60 years old.

Parachute deployment

At a skydiver's designated deployment altitude the individual pulls the pilot chute from a pocket at the bottom of the rig (the backpack holding both canopies). This is known as a bottom of container (B.O.C.) deployment system. This small parachute is connected to the main parachute by a line known as the "bridle" which feeds through a grommet on a small bag - the deployment bag (or d-bag) which has the folded parachute inside and the lines stowed in rubber bands across the top. At the bottom of the container's tray which holds the main parachute is a loop which, in the closing sequence of the parachute system, is fed through grommets on each of four flaps that closes the container.

Attached to the bridle is a curved pin which is inserted through the closing loop after it has been fed through each of these grommets. When the pilotchute is thrown out, it catches the wind and pulls the pin out of the closing loop, releasing the deployment bag from the container worn by the skydiver (who is ideally in the stable belly-towards-earth arched position). The parachute lines are pulled loose from rubber bands, through which they were stowed during packing, and extend as the canopy starts to open. To reduce the risk of injury, a rectangular piece of fabric called the "slider" (which separates the parachute lines into four main groups fed through grommets in the four respective corners of the slider) slows the opening of the parachute and works its way down until the canopy is fully open and the slider is just above the head of the skydiver. During a normal deployment, a skydiver will generally experience a few seconds of intense deceleration, in the realm of 3 to 4 G's, while the parachute slows the descent from 120 mph (190 km/h) to approximately 12 mph (19 km/h).

If a skydiver experiences a malfunction with their main parachute which they cannot correct, they have a "cut-away" handle on the front right-hand side of their harness (on the chest) which will release the main canopy from the harness/container. Once free from the malfunctioning main canopy, the reserve canopy can be activated by pulling a second handle on the front left (sometimes triggered by a Reserve Static Line (RSL) which, if present, opens the reserve container and allow the spring loaded pilotchute to extract the Reserve Canopy located in the top of the container immediately after the main is cut away). A new type of RSL has been developed called the Skyhook. This new system uses the "cut-away" main canopy to act as a very large pilot chute to more quickly extract the reserve canopy. The Skyhook is an incredibly fast system that has the jumper under the reserve canopy and flying within 2 seconds (compared to the 2-5 seconds of the old system).

Variations

In addition to the various disciplines, for which people actually train, purchase specialized equipment and get coaching, the recreational skydiver finds ways to just have fun.

Hit and rock

One example of this is "Hit and Rock", which is a variant of Accuracy landing devised to let people of varying skill levels "compete" for fun, while spoofing the age and abilities of some participants. "Hit and Rock" is originally from POPS (Parachutists Over Phorty Society). See the POPS main site

The object now becomes: to land as close as possible to the chair, remove the parachute harness, sprint to the chair, sit fully in the chair and rock back and forth at least one time. The contestant is timed from the moment that feet touch the ground until that first rock is completed. This event is considered a race.

Pond swooping

Pond swooping is a form of competitive parachuting wherein canopy pilots attempt to touch down at a glide across a small body of water, and onto the shore. Events provide lighthearted competition, rating accuracy, speed, distance and style. Points and peer approval are reduced when a participant "chows", or fails to reach shore and sinks into the water.

Swoop and Chug the Beer

Very similar to Hit and Rock, except the target is replaced by a case of beer. Each jumper is timed from the moment his feet touch the ground until he "chugs", or rapidly drinks the can of beer and places the empty can upside-down on his head.

Of course, it must be mentioned that dropzones enforce strict rules prohibiting anyone from jumping any more that day once alcohol has been consumed. Therefore, the Swoop & Chug (aka Hit & Chug) is usually reserved for the last load of the day.

Cross-Country

A cross-country jump refers to a skydive where the participants open their parachutes immediately after jumping, with the intention of covering as much ground under canopy as possible. Usual distance from Jump Run to the DZ is 10 miles (20 km).

Camera flying

In camera flying, a cameraman or camerawoman jumps with other skydivers and films them. The camera flyer often wears specialized equipment, such as a winged jumpsuit to provide a greater range of fallrates, helmet-mounted video and still cameras, mouth operated camera switches, and special optical sights. Some skydivers specialize in camera flying and a few earn significant fees for filming students on coached jumps or tandem-jumpers, or producing professional footage and photographs for the media.

There is always a demand for good camera flyers in the skydiving community, as many of the competitive skydiving disciplines are judged from a video record.

Night jumps

Skydiving is not always restricted to daytime hours. Experienced skydivers sometimes perform night jumps. For obvious safety reasons, this requires more equipment than a usual daytime jump and in most jurisdictions requires both an advanced skydiving license (at least a B-License in the U.S.) and specialized training (night rating). A lighted altimeter (preferably accompanied with an audible altimeter) is a must. Skydivers performing night jumps often take flashlights up with them so that they can check their canopies once they deploy, so they can be assured that the canopy has opened correctly and is safe to fly and land. Visibility to other skydivers and other aircraft is also a consideration; FAA regulations require skydivers jumping at night to be wearing a light visible for three miles (5 km) in every direction, and to turn it on once they are under canopy.

Stuff jumps

A skydiver sits in a rubber raft steadied by three other jumpers

Skydivers are always looking for something new to do in the air. With the availability of a rear door aircraft and a large, unpopulated space to jump over, 'stuff' jumps become possible. In these jumps the skydivers jump out with some object. Rubber raft jumps are popular, where the jumpers sit in a rubber raft. Cars, bikes, motorcycles, water tanks and inflatable companions have also been thrown out the back of an aircraft. At a certain height the jumpers break off from the object and deploy their parachutes, leaving it to crash into the ground at a very high speed.

Parachuting organizations

National parachuting associations exist in many countries (many affiliated with the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)), to promote their sport. In most cases, national representative bodies, as well as prudent local dropzone operators, require that participants carry certification, attesting to their training, their level of experience in the sport, and their proven competence. Anyone who cannot produce such bona-fides is treated as a student, requiring close supervision.

The primary organization in the United States is the United States Parachute Association (USPA)[1]. This organization hands out licenses and ratings for all American skydiving activities based on safety qualifications. The USPA governs safety in the sport of skydiving as this is the organizations sole responsibility and also publishes the Skydivers Information Manual (SIM) and many other resources. In Canada, the Canadian Sport Parachuting Association is the lead organization. In South Africa the sport is managed by the Parachute Association of South Africa, and in the United Kingdom by the British Parachute Association.

Within the sport, associations promote safety, technical advances, training-and-certification, competition and other interests of their members. Outside their respective communities, they promote their sport to the public, and often intercede with government regulators.

Competitions are organized at regional, national and international levels in most these disciplines. Some of them offer amateur competition. Many of the more photogenic/videogenic variants also enjoy sponsored events with prize money for the winners.

The majority of jumpers tend to be non-competitive, enjoying the opportunity to "get some air" with their friends on weekends and holidays. The atmosphere of their gatherings is relaxed, sociable and welcoming to newcomers. Party events, called "boogies" are arranged at local, national and international scale, each year, attracting both the enthusiastic young jumpers and many of their elders - Parachutists Over Phorty (POPs), Skydivers Over Sixty (SOS) and even older groups who have yet to choose a catchy name for themselves. Famous people associated with this sport include Valery Rozov, a gold medalist from the 1998 X Games, who has had more than 1,500 jumps. Georgia Thompson ("Tiny") Broadwick is one of the first American skydivers, and she made the first freefall.

A tandem instructor and a student skydiving together

Drop zone traditions and culture

Drop zones often have distinct cultures or traditions and there are many skydiving traditions that are practiced at drop zones all over the world. Most drop zones have a "beer line", a perimeter around the landing area which marks where it becomes unsafe to land. When an experienced skydiver crosses over the beer line when landing or if their parachute crosses over the beer line they are required by tradition to buy a case of beer for the other experienced skydivers at the drop zone. Other events often prompt beer buying. For instance when an A license is achieved the licensee is expected to buy a case of beer for other experienced skydivers for them to get to know each other over. Also saying the word "first" after your first static line jump prompts the offender to buy a case of beer. Often the beer tally is announced over the loud speakers from the manifest. Often on the weekends experienced skydivers party and drink the owed beers in the hangar or around a bonfire sometimes musicians are brought in for more busy times of the year especially during Boogies. Boogies are huge jumping parties that often last a few days and evolve entertainment and special food at night and special skydiving events during the day. It is important to know that beer drinking activities are kept strictly separate from jumping activities and skydivers are mostly acutely conscious of safety.

Other traditions include wearing jumpsuits with particularly bright colors and bold designs along with eye catching parachutes. It is tradition that when one archives 100 jumps they are pied and thrown in the swooping pond by their experienced skydiver friends. Among skydivers it is common to make jokes about jumping out of a 'perfectly good airplane.' It is common for many instructors and skydiving enthusiasts to camp out at the drop zone promoting these traditions.

Many skydivers enjoy playing footbag when the weather doesn't permit jumping. A common description of hackysack by skydivers is "a game played with a ball that doesn't bounce by people who might."

While there isn't an official code of ethics among skydivers many follow some unwritten rules. It is common for skydivers to be very generous. Skydiving is a dangerous sport and because of that unwritten rules are very important to skydivers.

Equipment

Costs in the sport are not trivial. As new technological advances or performance enhancements are introduced, they tend to nudge equipment prices higher. Similarly, the average skydiver carries more equipment than in earlier years, with safety devices (such as an Reserve static line) contributing a significant portion of the cost. A full set of brand-new equipment can easily cost as much as a new motorcycle or half a small car. The market is not large enough to permit the commoditization and price-erosion that is seen in other technologically intensive industries (like the computer industry).

In many countries, the sport supports a substantial used-equipment market. For many beginners, especially those with limited funds, that is the preferred way to acquire "gear", and has two advantages:

  • First, they can try different types of parachutes (there are many) to learn which style they prefer, before paying the price for new equipment.
  • Second, they can acquire a complete system and all the peripheral items in a short time and at reduced cost.

Novices generally start with parachutes that are large and docile relative to the jumper's body-weight. As they improve in skill and confidence, it is customary to graduate to smaller, faster, more responsive parachutes. An active jumper might change parachute canopies several times in the space of a few years, while retaining his or her first harness/container and peripheral equipment.

Older jumpers, especially those who jump only on weekends in summer, sometimes tend in the other direction, selecting slightly larger, more gentle parachutes that do not demand youthful intensity and reflexes on each jump. They may be adhering to the maxim that: "There are old jumpers and there are bold jumpers, but there are no old, bold jumpers."

Most parachuting equipment is ruggedly designed and is enjoyed by several owners before being retired. Purchasers are always advised to have any potential purchases examined by a qualified parachute rigger. A rigger is trained to spot signs of damage or misuse. Riggers also keep track of industry product and safety bulletins, and can therefore determine if a piece of equipment is up-to-date and serviceable.

Parachuting records

  • World's largest freefall formation: 400. This record was set February 8, 2006 in Udon Thani, Thailand.
  • World's largest canopy formation: 100. This record was set November 21, 2007 in Lake Wales, Florida, USA. [2]
  • Don Kellner holds the record for the most parachute jumps, with a total of over 36,000 jumps. [3]
  • Cheryl Stearns (USA) holds the record for the most parachute descents by a woman, with a total of 15,560 in August 2003.
  • Capt. Joe W. Kittinger achieved the highest and longest (14 min) parachute jump in history on August 16, 1960 as part of a United States Air Force program testing high-altitude escape systems. Wearing a pressure suit, Capt. Kittinger ascended for an hour and a half in an open gondola attached to a balloon to an altitude of 102,800 feet (31,330 m), where he then jumped. The fall lasted 4 minutes and 36 seconds, during which Capt. Kittinger reached speeds of 714 miles per hour (1,150 km/h)[7]. The air in the upper atmosphere is less dense and thus leads to lower air-resistance and a much higher terminal velocity.
  • Adrian Nicholas holds the record for the longest freefall. A 4 minutes and 55 seconds wingsuit jump made on March 12 1999.[4]
  • Jay Stokes holds the record for most parachute descents in a single day at 640. [5]
  • Frank Moody, aged 101, made a tandem jump on June 6, 2004 at Skydive Cairns. The Tandem Master was Karl Eitrich and the event was filmed by Wayne Donovan & Jason Cryan.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.uspa.org/publications/SIM/2008SIM/Section4CatA.htm#1b Freefall stable body position
  2. ^ 2007 SIM
  3. ^ Fatality statistics.
  4. ^ dropzone.com statistics.
  5. ^ How skydiving works.
  6. ^ The Cloudspotter's Guide, Gavin Pretor-Pinney, 2006, ISBN 0-340-89589-6
  7. ^ Joseph W. Kittinger - USAF Museum Gathering of Eagles

External links

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