OXOFor other meanings, see Oxo. OXO
OXO for System 6/System 7running in Classicin Mac OS X v10.4.3. Developer(s)A.S. DouglasDesigner(s)A.S. DouglasPlatform(s)EDSACRelease date 1952Genre(s)Traditional gameand Paper and pencil gameMode(s) Single playerMediaDelay line memoryInput methods rotary dial, console
OXO (also known as Noughts and Crosses) is a tic-tac-toe computer game made for the EDSAC computer in 1952. It was written by Alexander S. (Sandy) Douglas as an illustration for his Ph.D. thesis on human-computer interaction for the University of Cambridge. OXO was the first known (graphical) game to run on a computer. However, there is a patent dating from 1947–1948 that describes a missile simulation game utilizing a cathode ray tube.
The player played against the computer, and output was displayed on the computer's 35×16 pixel cathode ray tube. The source code was short, yet it played a perfect game of noughts and crosses. OXO did not have widespread popularity because the EDSAC was a computer unique to Cambridge.
OXO consisted of a digital display system that showed a "pod" visual system like scoreboards at the Olympics. It is argued that OXO was the first video game ever made, predating even William Higinbotham's Tennis For Two from 1958.
Startscreen9 8 7 NOUGHTS AND CROSSES 6 5 4 BY 3 2 1 A S DOUGLAS, C.1952 LOADING PLEASE WAIT... EDSAC/USER FIRST (DIAL 0/1):
ProgramEDSAC/USER FIRST (DIAL 0/1):1 DIAL MOVE:6 DIAL MOVE:1 DIAL MOVE:2 DIAL MOVE:7 DIAL MOVE:9 DRAWN GAME... EDSAC/USER FIRST (DIAL 0/1):
- ^ Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a United States patent application on January 25, 1947 and U.S. Patent #2 455 992 issued on December 14, 1948.
- Edsac Simulator: An emulator of the EDSAC, including the code for OXO
- PONG-Story: A.S. Douglas' 1952 Noughts and Crosses game