North DakotaState of North Dakota Flag of North DakotaSeal of North DakotaNickname(s): Peace Garden State,
Roughrider State, Flickertail State, Norse Dakota Motto(s): Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable;
Strength from the soil
(183,272 km²) - Width 210 miles (340 km) - Length 340 miles (545 km) - % water 2.4 - Latitude 45° 56′ N to 49° 00′ N - Longitude 96° 33′ W to 104° 03′ W Population Ranked 48th in the US - Total 642,200 - Density 9.30/sq mi
3.592/km² (47th in the US) Elevation - Highest point White Butte
3,506 ft (1,069 m) - Mean 1,903 ft (580 m) - Lowest point Red River
750 ft (229 m) Admission to Union November 2, 1889 (39th) Governor John Hoeven (R) Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple (R) U.S. Senators Kent Conrad (D)
Byron Dorgan (D) Congressional Delegation List Time zones - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5 - southwest Mountain: UTC-7/-6 Abbreviations ND US-ND Website www.nd.gov
North Dakota (IPA: /ˌnɔrθdəˈkoʊtə/) is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. The 19th largest state by area in the U.S., it is the 48th most populous, with just over 640,000 residents as of 2006. North Dakota was carved out of the northern half of the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union as the 39th state on November 2, 1889.
The Missouri River flows through the western part of the state and forms Lake Sakakawea behind the Garrison Dam. The western half of the state is hilly and contains lignite coal and oil. In the east, the Red River forms the Red River Valley, holding fertile farmland. Agriculture has long dominated the economy and culture of North Dakota.
The state capital is Bismarck and the largest city is Fargo. The primary public universities are located in Grand Forks and Fargo. The United States Air Force operates bases at both Minot and Grand Forks.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Culture
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Law and government
- 8 Cities and towns
- 9 Education
- 10 State symbols
- 11 Media
- 12 Attractions
- 13 Notable North Dakotans
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
GeographyMap of North Dakota
North Dakota is considered to be in the U.S. regions known as the Upper Midwest and the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota on the east; South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are north. With 70,762 square miles (183,273 km²), North Dakota is the 19th largest state.
The western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains, and the northern part of the Badlands to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet (1,069 m), and Theodore Roosevelt National Park are located in the Badlands. The region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest man-made lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam.
The central region of the state is divided into the Drift Prairie and the Missouri Plateau. This area is covered in lakes, slough, and rolling hills. The Turtle Mountains are located along the Manitoba border. The geographic center of the North American continent is located near the city of Rugby.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devil's Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is also found in the east.
- Main article: Climate of North Dakota
North Dakota endures temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate; with cold winters and hot summers, the record low and high temperatures are −60 °F (−51.1 °C) and 121 °F (49 °C) respectively. Meteorological events include rain, snow, hail, blizzards, polar fronts, tornadoes, thunderstorms, and high-velocity straight-line winds. Depending on location, average annual precipitation ranges from 14 in (35.6 cm) to 22 in (55.9 cm).
Springtime flooding is a relatively common event in the Red River Valley, due to the river flowing north into Canada. The spring melt and the eventual runoff typically begins earlier in the southern part of the valley than in the northern part. The most destructive flooding in eastern North Dakota occurred in 1997, which caused extensive damage to Fargo and Grand Forks.
- Main article: History of North Dakota
Prior to European contact, Native Americans inhabited North Dakota for thousands of years. The first European to reach the area was the French-Canadian trader La Vérendrye, who led an exploration party to Mandan villages in 1738. The trading arrangement between tribes was such that North Dakota tribes rarely dealt directly with Europeans. However, the native tribes were in sufficient contact that by the time that Lewis and Clark entered North Dakota in 1804, they were aware of the French and then Spanish claims to their territory.
Much of present-day North Dakota was included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Much of acquired land was organized into Minnesota and Nebraska Territories. Dakota Territory, making up present-day North and South Dakota, along with parts of present-day Wyoming and Montana, was organized on March 2, 1861. Dakota Territory was settled sparsely until the late 1800s, when the railroads entered the region and aggressively marketed the land. A bill for statehood for North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington titled the Enabling Act of 1889 was passed on February 22, 1889 during the administration of Grover Cleveland. After Cleveland left office, it was left to his successor, Benjamin Harrison, to sign proclamations formally admitting North and South Dakota to the Union on November 2, 1889. The rivalry between the two new states presented a dilemma of which was to be admitted first. Harrison directed Secretary of State James G. Blaine to shuffle the papers and obscure from him which he was signing first and the actual order went unrecorded. However, since North Dakota alphabetically appears before South Dakota, its proclamation was published first in the Statutes At Large. Since that day, it has become common to list the Dakotas alphabetically and thus North Dakota is usually listed as the 39th state. However, no one will actually know which of the Dakotas was admitted first.
The corruption in the early territorial and state governments led to a wave of populism led by the Non Partisan League brought social reforms in the early 20th century. The original North Dakota State Capitol burned to the ground on December 28, 1930, and was replaced by a limestone faced art deco skyscraper that still stands today.
A round of federal construction projects began in the 1950s including the Garrison Dam, and the Minot and Grand Forks Air Force bases. There was a boom in oil exploration in western North Dakota in the 1980s, as rising petroleum prices made development profitable.
The state began a lottery in 2004. However, unlike other US lotteries, North Dakota is prohibited from selling "in-state" games, offering only Powerball, Hot Lotto, Wild Card 2, and 2by2, all games of the Multi-State Lottery Association (MUSL).
PopulationNorth Dakota population density
From fewer than 3,000 people in 1870, North Dakota's population grew to near 680,000 by 1930. Growth then slowed, and the population has fluctuated slightly over the next seven decades, hitting a low of 619,636 in the 1950 census, with a total of 642,200 in the 2000 census. As of July 1, 2006, the state's population was estimated at 635,867 by the U.S. Census Bureau. The age and gender distributions approximate the national average. Besides Native Americans, North Dakota's minority groups still form a significantly smaller proportion of the population than in the nation as a whole. The center of population of North Dakota is located in Wells County, near Sykeston.Historical populations Census Pop. %± 18702,405 — 188036,909 1434.7% 1890190,983 417.4% 1900319,146 67.1% 1910577,056 80.8% 1920646,872 12.1% 1930680,845 5.3% 1940641,935 -5.7% 1950619,636 -3.5% 1960632,446 2.1% 1970617,761 -2.3% 1980652,717 5.7% 1990638,800 -2.1% 2000642,200 0.5% Est. 2007 639,715 -0.4%
Since the 1990s, North Dakota has experienced virtually constant decline in population, particularly among younger people with university degrees. One of the major causes of emigration in North Dakota looms from a lack of skilled jobs for graduates. Some propose the expansion of economic development programs to create skilled and high-tech jobs; however, the effectiveness of such programs has been open to debate.
As the issue is common to several High Plains states, federal politicians including Senator Byron Dorgan, have proposed The New Homestead Act of 2007 to encourage living in areas losing population through incentives such as tax breaks.
Race and ancestryDemographics of North Dakota (csv)By raceWhite Black AIAN* Asian NHPI* 2000 (total population) 93.79% 0.85% 5.49% 0.78% 0.07% 2000 (Hispanic only) 1.06% 0.05% 0.12% 0.02% 0.00% 2005 (total population) 93.19% 1.04% 5.81% 0.89% 0.06% 2005 (Hispanic only) 1.47% 0.06% 0.09% 0.02% 0.00% Growth 2000–05 (total population) -1.50% 21.17% 4.85% 14.14% -13.45% Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) -1.95% 21.51% 5.62% 15.01% -12.03% Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 37.78% 15.84% -28.34% -14.09% -37.04% * AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
The state's racial composition in 2005 was:
- 92.3% White (non-Hispanic);
- 5.3% Native American/Alaskan Native;
- 1.6% Hispanic, a category that includes people of many races;
- 0.1% Asian/Pacific Islander;
- 0.1% Black (non-Hispanic);
- 0.1% mixed race.
A 2001 survey indicated that 35% of North Dakota's population was Lutheran, and 30% was Roman Catholic. Other religious groups represented were Methodists (7%), Baptists (6%), the Assembly of God (3%), and Jehovah's Witness (1%). Christians with unstated or other denominational affiliations, including other Protestants, totaled 3%, bringing the total Christian population to 86%. Non-Christian religions, such as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism, together represented 4% of the population. Three percent of respondents answered "no religion" on the survey, and 6% refused to answer.
Fine and performing arts
North Dakota's major fine art museums and venues include the Chester Fritz Auditorium, Empire Arts Center, the Fargo Theatre, North Dakota Museum of Art, and the Plains Art Museum. The Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra, Fargo-Moorhead Symphony Orchestra, Greater Grand Forks Symphony Orchestra and Minot Symphony Orchestra are full-time professional and semi-professional musical ensembles that perform concerts and offer educational programs to the community.
- Main article: Music of North Dakota
North Dakotan musicians of many genres include blues guitarist Jonny Lang, country music singer Lynn Anderson, jazz and traditional pop singer and songwriter Peggy Lee, big band leader Lawrence Welk, and pop singer Bobby Vee.
Ed Schultz is known around the country as the host of progressive talk radio show The Ed Schultz Show, and Shadoe Stevens hosted American Top 40 from 1988 to 1995. Josh Duhamel is an Emmy Award-winning actor known for his roles in All My Children and Las Vegas. Nicole Linkletter and CariDee English were winning contestants of Cycles 5 and 7, respectively, of America's Next Top Model.
- Main article: Cuisine of North Dakota
North Dakota cuisine includes Knoephla soup: a thick, stew-like chicken soup with dumplings, lutefisk: lye-treated fish, Kuchen: a pie-like pastry, lefse: a flat bread made from mashed potatoes that is eaten with butter and sugar, Fleischkuekle, a deep fried entree of ground beef covered in dough, deep fried, and served with chips and a pickle in most restaurants; strudel: a dough-and-filling item that can either be made as a pastry, or a savory dish with onions or meat; and other traditional German and Norwegian dishes. North Dakota also shares concepts such as hot dishes along with other Midwestern states.
Native American traditions are practiced by the Native American population of North Dakota, especially on Indian reservations. Pow-wows and traditional Native American dancing are found across the state.
Outdoor activities such as hunting and fishing are hobbies for many North Dakotans. Ice fishing and snowmobiling are also popular during the winter months. Residents of North Dakota may own or visit a cabin along a lake. Popular sport fish include walleye, perch, and northern pike.
EconomyNorth Dakota state quarter
- See also: List of North Dakota companies
Agriculture is the largest industry in North Dakota, although petroleum and food processing are also major industries. The economy of North Dakota had a gross domestic product of $24 billion in 2005. The per capita income in 2006 was $33,034, ranked 29th in the nation. The three-year median household income from 2002-2004 was $39,594, ranking 37 in the U.S. North Dakota is also the only state with a state owned bank, the Bank of North Dakota in Bismarck, and a state owned flour mill, the North Dakota Mill and Elevator in Grand Forks.
Industry and commerceSunflowers in Traill County
North Dakota's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. Although less than 10% of the population is employed in the agricultural sector, it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking 24th in the nation in the value of products sold. The state is the largest producer in the U.S. of barley, sunflower seeds, spring, and durum wheat for processing, and farm-raised turkeys.
State-owned facilitiesNorth Dakota Mill and Elevator postcard, 1915 Oil drilling equipment in Western North Dakota
Coal mines generate 93% of the North Dakota electricity. Oil was discovered near Tioga, North Dakota in 1951, generating 53 million barrels (8,400,000 m³) of oil a year by 1984. Western North Dakota is currently in an oil boom, and the oil reserves may hold up to 400 billion barrels (64,000,000,000 m³) of oil, 25 times larger than the reserves in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Long called the "Saudi Arabia" of wind energy, North Dakota has the capability of producing 1.2 billion kilowatt hours of energy. That is enough to power 25% of the entire country's energy needs. Wind energy in North Dakota is also very cost effective because the state has large rural expanses and wind speeds seldom go below 10 mph (16 km/h).
North Dakota has a slightly progressive income tax structure; the five brackets of state income tax rates are 2.1%, 3.92% 4.34%, 5.04%, and 5.54% as of 2004. North Dakota is ranked as the 21st highest in the nation for their capitals' total state taxes. The sales tax in North Dakota is 5% for most items. The state allows municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 1.75% supplemental sales tax in Grand Forks. Excise taxes are levied on the purchase price or market value of aircraft registered in North Dakota. The state imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within North Dakota.
Transportation in North Dakota is overseen by the North Dakota Department of Transportation. The major Interstate highways are Interstate 29 and Interstate 94, with I-29 and I-94 meeting at Fargo, with I-29 oriented north to south along the eastern edge of the state, and I-94 bisecting the state from east to west between Minnesota and Montana. The largest rail systems in the state are operated by BNSF and the Canadian Pacific Railway. Many branch lines formerly used by BNSF and Canadian Pacific Railway are now operated by the Dakota, Missouri Valley and Western Railroad and the Red River Valley and Western Railroad.
North Dakota's principal airports are the Hector International Airport (FAR) in Fargo, Grand Forks International Airport (GFK), Bismarck Municipal Airport (BIS), and the Minot International Airport (MOT).
Amtrak's Empire Builder runs through North Dakota, making stops at Fargo, Grand Forks, Minot, and four other stations. It is the descendant of the famous line of the same name run by the Great Northern Railway, which was built by the tycoon James J. Hill and ran from St. Paul to Seattle. Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound and Jefferson Lines. Public transit in North Dakota is currently limited to bus systems in the larger cities.
Law and government
As with the federal government of the United States, power in North Dakota is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
- See also: List of Governors of North Dakota, List of Lieutenant Governors of North Dakota, List of Secretaries of State of North Dakota, and List of Attorneys General of North Dakota
The executive branch is headed by the governor. The current governor is John Hoeven, a Republican whose first term began December 15, 2000, and who was re-elected in 2004. The current Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota is Jack Dalrymple, who is also the President of the Senate. The offices of governor and lieutenant governor have four-year terms. The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state, attorney general, and state auditor.
The North Dakota Legislative Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The state has 47 districts. Each district has one senator and two representatives. Both senators and representatives are elected to four year terms. The state's legal code is named the North Dakota Century Code.
North Dakota's court system has four levels. Municipal courts serve the cities, and most cases start in the district courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 42 district court judges in seven judicial districts. Appeals from the trial courts and challenges to certain governmental decisions are heard by the North Dakota Court of Appeals, consisting of three-judge panels. The five-justice North Dakota Supreme Court hears all appeals from the district courts and the Court of Appeals.
- See also: List of United States Senators from North Dakota, North Dakota United States Senate election, 2006, and United States House elections, 2006#North Dakota
Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of North Dakota, which holds court in Bismarck, Fargo, Grand Forks, and Minot. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals based in St. Louis, Missouri.
At the state level, the governorship has been held by the Republican Party since 1992, along with a majority of the state legislature and statewide officers. Dem-NPL showings were strong in the 2000 governor's race, and in the 2006 legislative elections, but the League has not had a major breakthrough since the administration of former state governor George Sinner.
The Republican Party presidential candidate usually carries the state; in 2004, George W. Bush won with 62.9% of the vote. Of all the Democratic presidential candidates since 1892, only Grover Cleveland, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon B. Johnson received Electoral College votes from North Dakota.
On the other hand, Dem-NPL candidates for North Dakota's federal Senate and Congressional seats have won every election since 1982, and the state's federal delegation has been entirely Democratic since 1986.
Cities and towns
- See also: List of cities in North Dakota
Bismarck, located in south-central North Dakota along the banks of the Missouri River, has been North Dakota's capital city since 1883, first as capital of the Dakota Territory, and then as state capital since 1889.
North Dakota's most populous city is Fargo. The state has four cities with populations above 30,000 (based on 2005 estimates). In descending order they are Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, and Minot. While North Dakota's population has seen a gradual rural decline, the migration has led to growth in its urban centers.
North Dakota's leaders frequently state that the educational scene in the state is excellent. However, because of limited economic options, many skilled graduates leave the state.
The state has 11 public colleges and universities, five tribal community colleges, and four private schools. The largest institutions are the University of North Dakota and North Dakota State University.
The higher education system consists of the following institutions:
North Dakota University System (Public schools):
- Bismarck State College in Bismarck
- Dickinson State University in Dickinson
- Lake Region State College in Devils Lake
- Mayville State University in Mayville
- Minot State University in Minot
- Minot State University-Bottineau in Bottineau
- North Dakota State University in Fargo
- North Dakota State College of Science in Wahpeton
- University of North Dakota in Grand Forks
- Valley City State University in Valley City
- Williston State College in Williston
State symbolsthe Wild Prairie Rose
- State bird: Western Meadowlark, Sturnella neglecta
- State fish: Northern pike, Esox lucius
- State horse: Nokota horse
- State flower: Wild Prairie Rose, Rosa arkansana
- State tree: American Elm, Ulmus americana
- State fossil: Teredo Petrified wood
- State grass: Western Wheatgrass, Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Löve
- State nicknames: Roughrider State, Flickertail State, Peace Garden State
- State mottos:
- State song: North Dakota Hymn
- State dance: Square Dance
- State fruit: Chokecherry
- State march: Flickertail March
- State beverage: Milk
- State art museum: North Dakota Museum of Art
- State license plate: see the different types over time 
"The Flickertail State" is one of North Dakota's nicknames and is derived from Richardson's Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii), a very common animal in the region. The ground squirrel constantly flicks its tail in a distinctive manner. In 1953, legislation to make the ground squirrel the state emblem was voted down in the state legislature.
North Dakota's media markets are Fargo-Grand Forks, (119th largest nationally), making up the eastern half of the state, and Minot-Bismarck (158th), making up the western half of the state. Prairie Public Television (PPTV) is a statewide public television network affiliated with PBS.
Broadcast television in North Dakota started on April 3, 1953, when KCJB-TV (now KXMC-TV) in Minot began broadcasting. There are currently 28 analog broadcast stations and 18 digital channels broadcast over North Dakota.
The state's largest newspaper is The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead. Other weekly and monthly publications (most of which are fully supported by advertising) are also available. The most prominent of these is the alternative weekly High Plains Reader, which covers Fargo and Grand Forks.
Prairie Public is a statewide radio network affiliated with National Public Radio. The state's oldest radio station, WDAY-AM, was launched on May 23, 1922. The Forum Communications owned station is still on the air, and currently broadcasts a news/talk format.
- Big Iron Farm Show - West Fargo 
- Fargo Film Festival - Fargo
- Grand Cities Art Fest - Grand Forks 
- Norsk Høstfest - Minot 
- North Dakota State Fair - Minot 
- North Dakota Winter Show - Valley City 
- Bonanzaville, USA - West Fargo 
- Dakota Dinosaur Museum - Dickinson 
- Dakota Territory Air Museum - Minot 
- Fargo Air Museum - Fargo 
- Missouri-Yellowstone Confluence Interpretive Center - Williston 
- North Dakota Heritage Center - Bismarck 
- North Dakota Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center - Washburn 
- North Dakota Museum of Art - Grand Forks 
- Pembina State Museum - Pembina 
- Plains Art Museum - Fargo 
- The Roger Maris Museum - Fargo 
- National Buffalo Museum - Jamestown 
- Alerus Center - Grand Forks 
- All Seasons Arena - Minot
- Betty Engelstad Sioux Center - Grand Forks
- Bismarck Civic Center - Bismarck 
- Bison Sports Arena - Fargo
- Fargodome - Fargo 
- Fargo Civic Center - Fargo 
- Minot Municipal Auditorium - Minot
- Ralph Engelstad Arena - Grand Forks 
- Further information: North Dakota Golf Association
- Apple Creek Country Club - Bismarck
- Apple Grove Golf Course - Minot
- Bois de Sioux Golf Course - Wahpeton 
- Bully Pulpit Golf Course - Medora 
- Devils Lake Country Club - Devils Lake
- Hawktree Golf Club - Bismarck 
- King's Walk Golf Course - Grand Forks 
- Links of North Dakota at Red Mike Resort - Williston 
- Riverwood Golf Course - Bismarck 
- Tom O'Leary Golf Course - Bismarck 
- 4 Bears Casino - near New Town 
- Dakota Magic Casino - near Hankinson 
- Prairie Knights Casino - near Fort Yates 
- Sky Dancer Casino - near Belcourt 
- Spirit Lake Casino - near Devils Lake 
- Enchanted Highway - Regent 
- International Peace Garden - near Dunseith 
- Lawrence Welk Homestead - Strasburg 
- Medora Musical - Medora 
- North Dakota Horse Park - Fargo 
- Theodore Roosevelt National Park - near Watford City 
- "Salem Sue" - New Salem
- World's Largest Buffalo (Statue) - Jamestown 
Notable North Dakotans
- For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from North Dakota
- Dick Armey former U.S. Representative.
- James F. Buchli former NASA astronaut.
- Warren Christopher diplomat and lawyer.
- Angie Dickinson Golden Globe-winning television and film actress.
- Josh Duhamel Emmy Award-winning actor and former male fashion model
- Carl Ben Eielson was an aviator, bush pilot and explorer.
- Louise Erdrich a Native American author of novels, poetry, and children's books.
- Monica Hannan KFYR-TV news anchor.
- Virgil Hill a fighter.
- Chuck Klosterman a writer, journalist, critic, humorist, and essayist whose work often focuses on pop culture.
- Louis L'Amour an author of primarily Western fiction.
- Jonny Lang a Grammy-winning blues guitarist and singer.
- Peggy Lee a jazz and traditional pop singer and songwriter.
- Roger Maris a right fielder in Major League Baseball.
- Sakakawea a Shoshone woman
- Eric Sevareid a CBS news journalist.
- Ed Schultz the host of The Ed Schultz Show.
- Ann Sothern an Oscar nominated film and television actress
- Shadoe Stevens was the host of American Top 40.
- Lawrence Welk a musician, accordion player, bandleader, and television impresario.
- Bobby Vee an American pop music singer.
- Thomas McGrath poet and political activist.
See alsoNorth Dakota Portal
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- ^ Facts and figures. infoplease.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-22.
- ^ Land and Water Area of States, 2000. Information Please (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- ^ Theodore Roosevelt National Park Virtual Tour. The Real North Dakota Project (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- ^ History of Lake Sakakawea State Park. North Dakota Parks & Recreation Department (2003). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- ^ North Dakota. Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- ^ a b North Dakota Facts and Trivia. 50States.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- ^ A Glacier, A Lake, A Valley and Soil for the Future. University of Minnesota (1979). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- ^ North Dakota - Climate. City-Data. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
- ^ Climate of North Dakota. National Weather Service Forecast Office. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
- ^ Anatomy of a Red River Flood. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ The Grand Forks Flood. Alan Draves (2002). Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
- ^ Audio Transcript of Pierre Gaultier de La Vérendrye 1738. The Atlas of Canada (2003). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota, US. ByRegion Network (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
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- ^ Enabling Act. Washington State Legislature. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Coin of the Month. The United States Mint. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota's Boundaries. North Dakota Geological Survey (2002). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Nonpartisan League in North Dakota Politics. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota State Capitol Building & Grounds Virtual Tour Map. The Real North Dakota Project. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota Timeline. WorldAtlas.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota History: Overview and Summary. State Historical Society of North Dakota (1999). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota Historical Population. North Dakota State University. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ National and State Population Estimates. Annual Population Estimates 2000 to 2006. US Census Bureau (2006-12-22). Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
- ^ North Dakota QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ statecenters. U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
- ^ Leading Population Trends in North Dakota. North Dakota State University (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Agenda 2003 - Saving North Dakota. The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead (2002). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ The New Homestead Act of 2007. United States Senator Byron L. Dorgan. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota - Selected Social Characteristics. U.S. Census Bureau (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Most spoken languages in North Dakota. Modern Language Association. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ State Population Estimates by Selected Race Categories: July 1, 2005. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
- ^ a b c American Religious Identification Survey. Exhibit 15. The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Retrieved on 2006-11-24.
- ^ a b North Dakota Movers. US-Moving.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Josh Duhamel. IMDb (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ North Dakota pow wow listing. Dakota/Lakota Singing. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Fish Species. North Dakota Game and Fish Department (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ^ Economy of North Dakota. NetState (2007-06-04). Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2006-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Regional Economic Accounts. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ United States and States - R2001. Median Household Income. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ North Dakota - DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
- ^ a b Census of Agriculture, North Dakota State Profile. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
- ^ Coal Powers Life in America - North Dakota. CARE - Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Things To Do In North Dakota. ThingsToDo.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Gunderson, Dan. "North Dakota oil patch is booming", Minnesota Public Radio, 2006-08-28. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Donovan, Lauren. "North Dakota may be bigger oil player than Alaska", Bismarck Tribune, 2006-06-20. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ FAQ: Individual Income Tax. Office of State Tax Commissioner, Tax Department, North Dakota. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ States Ranked by Total State Taxes and Per Capita Amount: 2005. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ a b Sales and Use. Office of State Tax Commissioner, Tax Department, North Dakota. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Grand Forks: Economy - Major Industries and Commercial Activity. City-Data.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
- ^ Dakota, Missouri Valleya and Western Railroad. Dakota, Missouri Valleya and Western Railroad. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
- ^ About Us. Red River Valley and Western Railroad. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
- ^ Amtrak - Routes - Northwest. Amtrak. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
- ^ State Government. State of North Dakota. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ District Courts. North Dakota Supreme Court. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ All District Judges. North Dakota Supreme Court. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ North Dakota Judicial System. North Dakota Supreme Court. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ S. D. Senate Bill No. 134.
- ^ 210 Designated Market Areas - 07-08. Nielsen Media. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ North Dakota’s First Television Station. Prairie Public. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
- ^ First Stations in Each State. National Radio Club. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
External linksFind more about North Dakota on Wikipedia's sister projects: Dictionary definitionsTextbooksQuotationsSource textsImages and mediaNews storiesLearning resources
- State of North Dakota official website
- North Dakota tourism website
- USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of North Dakota
- U.S. Census Bureau facts of North Dakota
- North Dakota State Facts - USDA
- Pictures of the Dakotas: Badlands and Theodore Roosevelt National Parks
- GhostsOfNorthDakota.com - a pictorial documentary of North Dakota "ghost towns"
v • d • e
Stateof North Dakota Bismarck(capital)
pop. over 5,000 Smaller cities
pop. 1,000 - 5,000
Beach · Beulah · Bottineau · Bowman · Burlington · Cando · Carrington · Casselton · Cavalier · Cooperstown · Crosby · Ellendale · Garrison · Grafton · Hankinson · Harvey · Hazen · Hettinger · Hillsboro · Kenmare · Langdon · Larimore · Lincoln · Linton · Lisbon · Mayville · New Rockford · New Town · Oakes · Park River · Rolla · Rugby · Stanley · Thompson · Tioga · Velva · Walhalla · Washburn · Watford City · WishekCounties
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