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List of natural disasters by death toll

For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll

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A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease.

Below is a list of death tolls for various natural disasters. Most numbers are estimates and are often in dispute. The incidents are ranked from the highest to the lowest estimate given. This list is, by necessity, somewhat biased toward the modern period, due to better reporting of events.

Some events overlap categories.

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.


Top Ten deadliest natural disasters

List excludes diseases and famines, which would otherwise occupy the entire list.

Rank Event Location Date Death Toll (Estimate) 1. 1931 China floodsChina01931-01-0119312,000,000-4,000,000* 2. 1887 Yellow River floodChina 01887-01-011887, September–October 900,000–2,000,000 3. 1556 Shaanxi earthquakeShaanxi Province, China 01556-01-011556January 23830,000 4. 1970 Bhola cycloneBangladesh01970-01-011970November 13500,000 5. 1839 India CycloneIndia01839-01-011839November 25≥ 300,000 6. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake/tsunamiIndian Ocean02004-12-262004December 26283,100** 7. 526 Antioch earthquakeSyria00526-05-20526May 20250,000 8. 1976 Tangshan earthquakeChina 01976-07-281976July 28242,000*** 9. 1975 Banqiao Dam failureChina 01975-08-011975, August231,000 10. 1138 Aleppo earthquakeSyria01138-01-011138230,000

* Estimate by Nova's sources are close to four million and yet Encarta's sources report as few as one million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

** Official figure. Estimated death toll as high as 350,000.

*** Official Government figure. Estimated death toll as high as 655,000.

Deadliest natural disasters by kind of event

Event Event name Location Date Death Toll (Estimate) AvalancheWellington avalancheUnited States01910-03-01March 1, 191000000096 96 BlizzardIran BlizzardIran01972-02-01February197200004000 4,000 DroughtGreat Famine of 1876–78India01921-01-011876187805000000 5,250,000 EarthquakeShaanxi EarthquakeChina01556-01-01155600830000 830,000 Flood1931 China floodsChina01931-01-01193104000000 1,000,000–4,000,000 HailstormRoopkund, UttaranchalIndia00800-01-019th Century00000600 200–600 Heat waveEuropean Heat Wave of 2003Europe02003-01-01200300037451 37,451 Landslide1999 Vargas mudslideVenezuela01999-01-01199900020006 20,006 Limnic EruptionLake NyosCameroon01986-01-01198600001746 1,746 PandemicBlack Deathworldwide01330-01-011330135175000000 75,000,000 TornadoSaturia-Manikganj Sadar TornadoBangladesh01989-04-26April 26, 198900001300 1,300 Tropical cyclone1970 Bhola cycloneBangladesh01970-11-13November 13, 197000500000 200,000–500,000 TsunamiIndian Ocean Earthquake and TsunamiIndian Ocean02004-12-26December 26, 200400285000 285,000 VolcanoMount TamboraIndonesia01815-01-01181500092000 92,000 WildfirePeshtigo FireUnited States01871-10-08October 8, 187100002000 2,000


Death Toll Event Location Date $830,000 Shaanxi earthquakeChina1556$255,000 Tangshan earthquakeChina1976$240,000 Haiyuan earthquakeChina1920$230,000 Aleppo earthquakeSyria1138$ 229,866 Indian Ocean earthquake & tsunamisIndian Ocean2004$200,000 Damghanearthquake Iran856$150,000 Ardabilearthquake Iran893$137,000 1730 Hokkaidōearthquake Japan1730$110,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquakeTurkmenistan1948$105,000 Great Kanto earthquakeJapan1923$100,000 Messinaearthquake Italy1908$100,000 1755 Lisbon earthquakePortugal1755$100,000 Chihliearthquake China1290$87,000 2005 Kashmir earthquakePakistan2005$85,000 Great Ansei Nankai Quakes, Japan (安政南海地震) Japan1854$80,000 ShamakhiAzerbaijan1667$77,000 Tabrizearthquake Iran1727$70,000 Changma, Gansuearthquake China1932$ 69,136 2008 Sichuan earthquakeChina2008$66,000 Ancash earthquakePeru1970$60,000 Sicilyearthquake Italy1693$60,000 Quettaearthquake British India1935$50,000 Calabriaearthquake Italy1783$40,000 Gulang, Gansuearthquake China1927$40,000 MeiōNankai, Japan (明応地震) earthquake Japan1498$37,000 Genrokuearthquake (元禄大地震) Japan1703$35,000 1990 ManjilRudbar earthquake Iran1990$32,962 Erzincanearthquake Turkey1939$30,000 Great HōeiEarthquake (宝永大地震) Japan1707$ 30,000 2003 Bam earthquakeIran2003$25,000 Spitak EarthquakeArmenia1988$25,000 1978 Tabas earthquakeIran1978$23,700 Kamakuraearthquake Japan1293$23,000 Guatemalaearthquake Guatemala1976$20,000 Gujaratearthquake India2001$20,000 Caracasearthquake Venezuela1812$20,000 Chillánearthquake Chile1939$18,000 Khait earthquake Tajikistan1949$17,118 Izmitearthquake Turkey1999$15,621 Tonghai earthquake China1970$15,000 Agadir earthquakeMorocco1960$12,403 Qazvinearthquake Iran1962$5,000–12,000 Managua earthquakeNicaragua1972$11,600 Dasht-e Bayaz and Ferdows earthquakeIran1968$11,000 Naplesearthquake Italy1857$10,700 Biharearthquake Nepal, India1934$10,000 1944 San JuanEarthquake Argentina1944$9,748 Latur, India earthquake India1993$9,500 Michoacánearthquake Mexico1985$8,300 1847 Zenkojiearthquake Japan1847$7,273 Mino-Owari EarthquakeJapan1891$7,000 SamarkandEarthquake Uzbekistan1907$6,800 1933 Diexi earthquakeChina1933$6,433 Great Hanshin earthquakeJapan(Kobe) 1995$5,782 May 2006 Java earthquakeIndonesia(Yogyakarta) 2006$5,500 1909 Boroujerdearthquake Iran1909$5,300 Pattan earthquake Pakistan1974$5,057 Ghir earthquake Iran1972$5,000 Pelile earthquake Ecuador1949$4,700 FaizabadEarthquake Afghanistan1998$4,562 Andishan Earthquake Uzbekistan1902$4,000 1906 ValparaisoEarthquake Chile1906$3,959 Tosya-Ladikearthquake Turkey1943$3,895 Fukuiearthquake Japan1948$3,840 VanMuradiyeearthquake Turkey1976$3,300 1929 Beinin earthquake Iran1929$3,276 Hsinchu-Taichung earthquake Taiwan1935$3,000 1906 San Francisco earthquakeUnited States(California) 1906$2,925 North Tangoearthquake Japan1927$2,914 IrpiniaItaly1980$2,824 Bolu-Geredeearthquake Turkey1944$2,633 El Asnamearthquake Algeria1980$2,400 Chi-Chi earthquakeTaiwan1999$2,500 1992 Floresearthquake Indonesia1992$2,394 Vartoearthquake Turkey1966$2,323 1998 Takharearthquake Afghanistan1998$2,266 2003 Boumerdes earthquakeAlgeria2003$2,085 Diyarbakir-Liceearthquake Turkey1975$2,041 1975 Haicheng earthquakeChina1975$2,040 NeftegorskRussia(Sakhalin) 1995$2,000 1981 Golbaf earthquake Iran1981$1,961 1945 Mikawaearthquake Japan1945$1,800 1999 Armenia earthquakeColombia1999$1,641 1977 Bucharest EarthquakeRomania1977$1,621 1990 Luzon earthquakePhilippines1990$1,567 1997 Ardekul earthquake Iran1997$1,507 1982 YemenDhamarearthquake Yemen1982$1,400 1946 Ancashearthquake Peru1946$1,266 Meishanearthquake Taiwan1905$1,100 Skopjeearthquake Macedonia1963$1,000 Friuliearthquake Italy1976$845 Düzce earthquakeTurkey1999$612 ZarandIran2005$600 TumacoEarthquake Colombia1979$571 2004 Morocco earthquakeMorocco2004$519 2007 Peru earthquakePeru2007$400–500 Caracasearthquake Venezuela1641$300 Caracasearthquake Venezuela1967$258 Napier earthquakeNew Zealand1931$131 Good Friday EarthquakeUnited States(Alaska) 1964$115 Long Beach earthquake of 1933United States(California) 1933$90 Caracasearthquake Venezuela1900

Note: As of May 2008, the 2008 Sichuan earthquake is a recent event and the death toll is likely to rise.

Volcanic eruptions

Death Toll Event Location Date $ 71,000 Mount Tambora(see also Year Without a Summer) Indonesia01815-01-011815$36,000 KrakatoaIndonesia01883-08-26August 26- August 27, 1883$29,000 Mount PeléeMartinique01902-05-07May 7or May 8, 1902$23,000 Nevado del RuizColombia01985-11-13November 13, 1985$18,000 Mount VesuviusItaly01631-01-011631$15,000 Mount UnzenJapan01792-01-011792$10,000 Mount KelutIndonesia01586-01-011586$9,350 Laki. Killed about 25% of the population (1/3 was killed about 70 years before by smallpox) Iceland01783-06-08 June 8, 1783$6,000 Santa MariaGuatemala01902-01-011902$5,115 Mount KelutIndonesia01919-05-19 May 19, 1919$4,000 Mount GalunggungIndonesia01822-01-011822$3,600 Mount VesuviusRoman Empire00079-08-24August 24, 79$3,500 El ChichónMexico01982-03-29 March 29, April 3and April 4, 1982$2,942 Mount LamingtonPapua New Guinea01951-01-18 January 18, 1951$2,000 Tseax ConeCanada01770-01-011770- 1775$1,680 SoufrièreSt. Vincent01902-05-07 May 7, 1902$1,584 Mount AgungIndonesia01963-01-011963- 1964$1,369 Mount MerapiIndonesia01930-01-011930$1,335 Mount MayonPhilippines01897-06-23 June 23, 1897$1,335 Mount TaalPhilippines01911-01-011911$1,151 Mount AsamaJapan01783-01-011783$1,000 CotopaxiEcuador01877-01-011877$700 Mount PinatuboPhilippines01991-04-02 April 2, 1991$245 Mount NyiragongoDemocratic Republic of the Congo02002-01-17 January 17, 2002$152 Mt Ruapehu, TangiwaiNew Zealand01953-12-24 December 24, 1953$120 Mount TaraweraNew Zealand01886-06-10 June 10, 1886$57 Mount St. HelensUnited States(Washington) 01980-05-18 May 18, 1980


A supervolcano eruption at Lake Toba around 74,000 years ago is thought to have wiped out as much as 99% of the global human population, reducing the population from at most 60 million to less than 10 thousand; see Toba catastrophe theory. This eruption is not listed because it occurred before recorded history. Also, the Thera eruption in the Aegean Sea between 1550 and 1650 B.C. may have caused a large number of deaths throughout the region, from Crete to Egypt. See also La Garita Caldera, Yellowstone Caldera, and Supervolcanoes.



See Historic tsunami for more detailed information.
Death Toll Event Location Date $ > 350,000 (sources vary) Indian Ocean earthquakewith tsunamiIndian Ocean2004$100,000 1755 Lisbon earthquake, tsunami, earthquake and fire Portugal, Morocco, Irelandand United Kingdom(Cornwall) 1755$100,000 Messina, Italyearthquake and tsunami Italy1908$36,000 Krakatoavolcano explosion Indonesia1883$30,000 Tokaido-NankaidoJapan1707$27,000 Japan1826$25,674 1868 Arica earthquake Chile1868$22,070 Sanriku Japan1896$15,030 Caused by Mount Unzen, Southwest KyūshūJapan1792$13,486 Ryukyu Trench1771$5,233 Tokaido-KashimaJapan1703$5,000 NankaidoJapan1605$5,000 Moro GulfPhilippines1976$4,000 BorneoIndonesia1952$3,000 Papua New Guinea1998$3,008 Sanriku Japan1933$2,300 Kuril, KamchatkaRussia1952$2,000 Great Chilean EarthquakeChile, United States(Hawaii), Philippinesand Japan1960$2,000 Bristol ChannelUnited Kingdom1607$1,330 1946 Nankaiearthquake and tsunami Japan1946$1,223 Tonankai Japan1944$549 Java earthquakeIndonesia2006$202 OkushiriJapan1993$173 Aleutian Island earthquakeUnited States(Alaska) and (Hawaii) 1946$131 Good Friday EarthquakeUnited States(Alaska) and (Hawaii) 1964$102 Northern Honshu Japan1983$52 2007 Solomon Islands earthquakeSolomon Islands2007$46 United States(Hawaii) 186828 1929 Grand Banks earthquakePlacentia BayCanada(Newfoundland) 1929$23 NiceFrance1979

Limnic eruptions

Death Toll Event Location Date $1,746 Lake NyosCameroon1986$37 Lake MonounCameroon1984

Extreme weather

Heat waves

Death Toll Event Location Date 37,451 European Heat Wave of 2003Europe02003-06-0120033,418 European Heat Wave of 2006France, Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Romania02006-01-0120062,541 1998 India heat wave India01998-01-0119981,900 2003 India heat wave India02003-01-0120031,250–10,000 1980 United States heat waveUnited States01980-01-0119801,000–1,500 1987 Mediterranean heat wave Greece, Bosnia, Serbia, Turkey, Italy01987-01-011987over 1,000 1994 East Asia heat wave China, Japan, South Korea01994-01-011994739 Chicago Heat Wave of 1995United States(Chicago, Illinois) 01995-01-011995500 Hungary Heat Wave of 2007 Hungary02007-01-012007437 Southern regions, Australia 1895–1896 Australia01895-01-0118951896380 Northern Mexico Heat Wave of 1990 Mexico01990-01-011990


Storms (non-cyclone)

Death Toll Event Location Date 200–600 Roopkund, UttaranchalIndia00801-01-019th century 246 Moradabad, Uttar PradeshIndia01888-01-011888Death Toll Event Location Date 15,100 Torrential rains and mudslidesVenezuela1999669 (and 695 missing) Heavy storms ("Winnie") Philippines2004500 Lofoten, Heavy storm Norway1849≥ 250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913United Statesand Canada(Great Lakesregion) 1913210 Trøndelag, storm ("Follastormen") Norway1625189 Eyemouth, Scotland, storm ("Black Friday") United Kingdom1881140 Trøndelag, storm ("Titran disaster") Norway189996 Lofoten, storm Norway186830 Haugesund, storm ("Røvær disaster") Norway189926 Vesterålen, storm Norway1802~20 2007 Hunter region and Central Coast stormsAustralia2007


Death Toll Event Location Date $1,300 The Saturia-Manikganj Sadar TornadoBangladesh; Manikganj1989$923 1969 East Pakistan Tornado Bangladesh1969$695 The Tri-State TornadoUnited States; MOILIN1925$681 1973 Dhaka Tornado Bangladesh1973$600 The MaltaTornado Malta1551$500 The SicilyTornado Italy1851$500 The Narail-Magura Tornadoes Bangladesh(Jessore) 1964$500 The ComoroTornado Comoro1951$440 The TangailTornado Bangladesh1996$400 Ivanovo, YaroslavlTornado Russia1984$317 The Great Natchez TornadoUnited States; LAMS1840$255 The St. Louis – East St. Louis Tornado United States; MOIL1896$233 The Tupelo TornadoUnited States; MS1936$213 1838 Kolkatta Tornado India1838$203 The Gainesville TornadoUnited States; GA1936$181 Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornadoesUnited States; TXOKKS1947$165 CasamanceTornado Senegal1999$160 The Chakislampur-Goborghata Tornado India; West Bengal-Orissa1998$150 The Purunabandha and Keonjhargarh Tornadoes India; Orissa1978$143 The 1908 Southeast tornado outbreakUnited States; LAMS, USA1908$139 The Assam Tornado IndiaAssam1963$118 The Dhaka Tornado Bangladesh1888$117 The New Richmond TornadoUnited States; WI1899$115 The Flint TornadoUnited States; MI1953$114 The 1953 Waco tornado outbreakUnited States; TX1953$114 The Goliad TornadoUnited States; TX1902$94 The Worcester TornadoUnited States; MA1953$59 The 2008 Super Tuesday tornado outbreakUnited States; TNARKYAL2008$54 The San Justo TornadoArgentina1973

Cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons

Death Toll Event Location Date 500,000 500,000 1970 Bhola cycloneBangladesh(East Pakistan) 1970300,000 300,000 1839 Coringacyclone India1839300,000 300,000 cyclone Vietnam1881300,000 300,000[1]1737 Calcutta cycloneIndia1737210,000 210,000 Super Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Damfailure China1975200,000 200,000[2]1876 Bengalcyclone present day Bangladesh1876138,866 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cycloneBangladesh1991134,000 ~134,000 Cyclone NargisMyanmar2008060,000 100,000 1882 Bombay cyclone Bombay, IndiaJune 6, 1882060,000 60,000 1922 Swatow TyphoonChina1922060,000 60,000 1864 Calcutta CycloneIndia1864050,000 50,000 1912 Wenzhoutyphoon China1912040,000 40,000 1942 BengalCalcuttacyclone India1942022,000 22,000 Great Hurricane of 1780Barbados, Martinique, Sint Eustatius1780017,000 19,270 1965 East Pakistancyclone Bangladesh(East Pakistan) 1965018,277 18,277 Hurricane MitchHonduras, Nicaragua1998014,202 14,202 1977 Andhra Pradeshcyclone India1977011,520 11,520 1963 East Pakistancyclone Bangladesh(East Pakistan) 1963011,468 11,468 1961 East Pakistancyclone Bangladesh(East Pakistan) 1961011,149 11,149 1960 East Pakistancyclone Bangladesh(East Pakistan) 1960011,069 11,069 1985 Bangladeshcyclone Bangladesh1985011,000 11,000 Great Hong Kong Typhoon of 1937Hong Kong, China1937010,000 10,000 1965 Karachicyclone Pakistan1965010,000 10,000 typhoon Hong Kong1906009,803 9,803 1999 OrissaKendraparacyclone India1999009,658 9,658 1971 BengalOrissacyclone India1971008,000 8,000 Galveston Hurricane of 1900United States(Texas) 1900008,000 8,000 Hurricane San ZenónDominican Republic1930008,000 8,000 Hurricane FifiHonduras1974007,186 7,186 Hurricane FloraHaiti, Cuba1963006,315 6,315 Tropical Storm ThelmaPhilippines1991005,708 5,708 1988 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh1988005,149 5,149 1960 Chittagongcyclone Bangladesh1960005,098 5,098 Typhoon VeraJapan1959004,950 4,950 Super Typhoon Wanda China, Taiwan1956004,170 4,170 Newfoundland HurricaneCanada, United States1775004,075 ≥ 4,075 Lake Okeechobee HurricaneUnited States, Bahamas1928003,433 3,756 1945 MakurazakiTyphoonJapan1945004,140 3,477 Cyclone SidrBangladesh, India2007003,433 3,433 Hurricane San CiriacoPuerto Rico, Dominican Republic1899003,107 3,107 1932 Cuba HurricaneCuba1932003,037 3,037 Hurricane JeanneHaiti2004003,036 3,036 1934 MurotoTyphoonJapan1934003,000 3,000 hurricane Atlantic Ocean1782003,000 3,000 hurricane Cuba1791003,000 3,000 1737 Calcutta cycloneIndia1737002,871 2,871 1998 Maharasthra, Gujaratcyclone India1998002,700 2,700 1926 Myanmarcyclone Myanmar1926002,500 2,500 Great Caribbean Hurricane Caribbean, Cuba, United States1831002,500 2,500 Sea Islands HurricaneUnited States(Georgia, South Carolina) 1893002,500 2,500 hurricane Belize1931002,500 2,500 1996 Andhra PradeshcycloneIndia1996002,150 2,150 hurricane Caribbean1935002,060 2,060 Hurricane DavidDominican Republic, United States1979002,000 2,000–3,000 1934 Central America HurricaneBelize, Guatemala1934002,000 2,000 hurricane Gulf of Mexico1780002,000 2,000 hurricane United States(Florida) 1781002,000 2,000 hurricane Cuba, United States(Florida) 1870002,000 2,000 Chenier Caminada HurricaneUnited States(Louisiana) 1893001,930 1,930 Typhoon Kathleen Japan1947001,836 ≥ 1,836 Hurricane KatrinaUnited States(Louisiana, Mississippi) 2005001,800 1,800 1959 Mexico HurricaneMexico1959001,761 1,761 Typhoon Marie Japan1954001,716 1,716 Typhoon Iris China(Fujian) 1959001,620 1,620 Hurricane StanMexico, Guatemala2005001,600 1,600 Typhoon Mary China1960001,500 1,500 hurricane Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico1909001,497 1,497 Typhoon DurianPhilippines, Vietnam2006001,363 1,363 Typhoon IkePhilippines1984001,269 1,269 Typhoon IdaJapan1958001,200 1,200 Hurricane HazelGrenada, Bahamas, Haiti, United States, Canada1954001,177 1,177 Typhoon Fred China, Taiwan1994001,167 1,167 Typhoon AgnesPhilippines, Vietnam1984001,163 1,163 Cyclone YemyinPakistan, Afghanistan, India2007001,145 1,145 Hurricane GordonHaiti, United States1994001,115 1,115 hurricane Jamaica, Cuba1780001,104 1,104 1936 Korean Peninsulatyphoon Japanese Empire1936001,075 1,075 Typhoon Ellen Taiwan1959001,070 1,070 1968 ArakanCyclone Myanmar1968001,060 1,060 Typhoon GayThailand, India(Andaman) 1989001,036 1,036 Typhoon NinaPhilippines, Hong Kong, Macau1987001,000 1,000 Hurricane InezGuadeloupe, Mexico1966001,000 1,000 1936 ArakanCyclone Myanmar1936000,957 957 Cyclone 02B India1990000,943 943 Typhoon Ruth Japan1951000,921 921 hurricane Greater Antilles, Mexico1888000,915 915 Typhoon Kate (1970)Philippines1970000,911 911 Typhoon Harriet Thailand1962000,884 884 Super Typhoon AngelaPhilippines, Viet Nam1995000,874 874 Typhoon BilisChina, Philippines, Viet Nam1997000,838 838 Typhoon Ion Japan1948000,798 798 Typhoon Cecil Vietnam1985000,768 768 Typhoon Sarah South Korea, Japan1959000,768 768 Typhoon JoanPhilippines, China(Hainan) 1970000,748 748 Typhoon MikePhilippines1990000,739 739 1902 YangonCyclone Myanmar1902000,735 735 Typhoon RubyHong Kong, China1964000,709 709 1926 Havana-Bermuda HurricaneCuba, Bermuda1926000,700 700 hurricane United States(Georgia) 1881000,700 700 hurricane Greater Antilles1891000,682 682 New England Hurricane of 1938United States1938000,613 613 Typhoon Patsy Philippines1970000,604 604 Hurricane GeorgesGreater Antilles1998000,600 ≥ 600 hurricane United States(Florida, Gulf Coast States) 1919000,600 600 Hurricane Fox Cuba1952000,583 583 Typhoon Sening Philippines1970000,539 539 Typhoon Jane Japan1950000,538 538–680 Hurricane JanetHonduras, Mexico1955000,526 526 Typhoon Titang Philippines1970000,458 458 Typhoon SaomaiChina2006000,445 445 Typhoon Kent China1995000,434 434 Typhoon WandaHong Kong1962000,424 424 hurricaneUnited States(North Carolina) 1857000,408 408 Labor Day HurricaneUnited States(Florida) 1935000,400 400 Last Island HurricaneUnited States(Louisiana) 1856000,400 400 Cyclone MahinaAustralia1899000,400 400 hurricane United States(Texas) 1915000,399 399–550 Hurricane AudreyUnited States(Louisiana) 1957000,390 390 1944 Great Atlantic HurricaneCanada, United States(New England, North Carolina, New York), 1944000,387 387 hurricane United States1866000,383 383 hurricane Windward Islands1898000,364 364 Hurricane DonnaCaribbean, Bahamas, United States1960000,350 350 Grand Isle Hurricane United States(Louisiana) 1909000,345 345 Typhoon Zita Hong Kong, China1997000,318 318 Hurricane GilbertJamaica, Mexico1988000,318 318 Pinar del Río Hurricane of 1944Cuba, Cayman Islands, United States(Florida, North Carolina, Virginia), 1944000,304 304 Hurricane HildaHispaniola, Cuba, Mexico1955000,275 275 Hurricane HattieBelize1961000,274 274 Hurricane AllenCaribbean, United States1980000,265 265–350 Great Miami HurricaneUnited States1926000,256 256 Hurricane CamilleUnited States1969000,252 ≥ 252 Hurricane CharlieJamaica, Mexico1951000,250 250 Cyclone GafiloMadagascar2004000,240 240 Cyclone Nadya Mozambique1994000,227 227 Tropical Storm GregMalaysia, Thailand1996000,250 220 2004 MyanmarCyclone Myanmar2004000,217 217 Hurricane CleoCaribbean, United States1964000,216 216–334 Hurricane JoanColombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador1988000,200 200 Cyclone Daisy and Cyclone Geralda Madagascar1994000,195 195 Hurricane DianaMexico1990000,184 184 Hurricane DianeUnited States(North Carolina) 1955000,171 171 Typhoon Fran Japan1976000,170 170 Cyclone GubaPapua New Guinea2007000,128 128 Hurricane AgnesUnited States1972000,127 127 extra tropical cyclone LotharFrance, Germany, United Kingdom, Switzerland1999000,124 124 Hurricane IvanCaribbean, United States2004000,120 120 Hurricane RitaUnited States2005000,115 115 Typhoon MaemiSouth Korea2003000,109 109 Cyclone Domoina Mozambique1984000,098 98 Typhoon Tokage Japan2004000,096 96 Typhoon NariTaiwan2001000,087 87 Hurricane FloydBahamas, United States1999000,080 80 Hurricane EloiseDominican Republic, Haiti, United States1975000,076 76 Hurricane BetsyUnited States1965000,072 72 Typhoon TorajiTaiwan2001000,071 71 Cyclone TracyAustralia1974000,060 68 Hurricane CarolUnited States1954000,067 67 Hurricane HugoLeeward Islands, Puerto Rico, United States1989000,062 62 Hurricane AndrewBahamas, United States1992000,059 59 Hurricane BeulahUnited States1967000,059 59 Hurricane OpalGuatemala, Mexico, United States1995000,051 51 Hurricane CesarNicaragua, Colombia, Venezuela1996000,051 51 Typhoon HerbTaiwan1996000,050 50 Hurricane IsabelUnited States2003000,049 49 Hurricane FrancesBahamas, United States(Florida) 2004000,045 45 Typhoon Songda Japan2004000,045 45 1939 Long Beach Tropical StormUnited States(California) 1939000,043 43 Hurricane CeliaUnited States1970000,042 42 Hurricane HortenseLeeward Islands1996000,041 41 Tropical Storm AllisonUnited States2001000,038 38 Hurricane HildaUnited States1964000,035 35 Hurricane CharleyJamaica, Cuba, United States2004000,034 34 Hurricane FranUnited States1996


Floods and landslides

Death Toll Event Location Date 2,500,000–3,700,000[citation needed] 1931 China floodsChina1931900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) floodChina1887500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) floodChina1938231,000 Banqiao Damfailure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease. China1975145,000 1935 Yangtze river floodChina1935more than 100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands1530100,000 Hanoiand Red River Deltaflood North Vietnam1971100,000 1911 Yangtze river floodChina191150,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands128760,000 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands121240,000 1949 Eastern Guatemala flood Guatemala194936,000 St. Marcellus flood, storm surge Netherlands121930,000 1954 Yangtze river floodChina195428,700 1974 Bangladeshmonsoon rain Bangladesh197425,000–40,000 St. Marcellus flood / Grote Mandrenke, storm tide Netherlands, Germany, Denmark136220,006 1999 Vargas mudslideVenezuela199920,000 All Saints' Flood, storm surge Netherlands157020,000 1939 Tianjinflood China193914,000 Christmas flood, storm surge Netherlands, Germany, Denmark171710,000–100,000 St. Elisabeth flood, storm surge Netherlands, Belgium14218,000–15,000 Burchardi floodGermany, Denmark163410,000 Great Iran Flood Iran195410,000 1824 St. Petersburgflood Russia1824several thousands St. Juliana flood, storm surge Netherlands1164several thousands St. Agatha flood, storm surge Netherlands1288several thousands St. Clemens flood, storm surge Netherlands1334several thousands All Saints flood, storm surge Netherlands1532several thousands North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands17036,200 Sichuan, Hubei, Anhuiflood China19805,000 Cojup valley, Cordillera Blancamountain range, landslide by massive avalanche Peru19414,892 1968 Rajasthan, Gujaratmonsoon rain India19684,800 1951 Manchuriaflood China19513,838 1998 Eastern India, Bangladeshmonsoon rain India, Bangladesh19983,814 1989 Sichuanflood China19893,800 1978 Northern Indiamonsoon rain India19783,656 1998 Yangtzeriver flood China19983,500 1948 Fuzhouflood China19483,084 1993 South Asian monsoon rain Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan19933,076 2004 Eastern India, Bangladeshmonsoon rain India, Bangladesh20043,000 1992 Afghanistanflood, mainly, Gulbahar, Kalotak, Shutul, Parwan, flash flood, mudslide Afghanistan19922,910 1950 Pakistanflood Pakistan19502,775 1996 China flood, torrential floods, mud-rock flows China19962,566 1953 Japanflood, mainly Kitakyushu, Kumamoto, Wakayama, Kizugawa, massive rain, flood, mudslide Japan19532,400 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands8382,379 1988 Bangladeshmonsoon rain Bangladesh19882,200 Johnstown FloodUnited States(Pennsylvania) 18892,142 North Sea flood of 1953storm surge Netherlands, United Kingdom19532,075 1981 Sichuan, ShanxiFlood China19812,055 1987 Bangladeshmonsoon rain Bangladesh19872,000–5,000 some reports list as many as 12,000 dead Morvi dam burstIndia(Morvi, Gujarat) 19792,000–4,000 Huascaran, Ranrahircalandslide by massive avalanche Peru19621,909 Vajont Damlandslide and flood Italy19631,834 1992 Pakistan, Northern Indiamonsoon rain Pakistan, India19921,723 1991 Chinaflood, mainly, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hubei, torrential floods, mud-rock flows China19911,624 Fujian, Anhui, Zhejiangflood China20051,605–3,363 spring floodingHaiti, Dominican Republic20041,558 St. Martin flood, storm surge Netherlands16861,532 2002 China flood, torrential floods, mud-rock flows China20021,503 Mumbaiand the surrounding state Maharashtra, Kamataka, monsson rain India20051,437 1995 China flood, mainly, Hunan, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Sichuan, Fujian, torrential rain, devastating floods, mud-rock flows China19951,348 2007 China flood, mountain torrents, mud-rock flows China20071,144 2006 Southern Leyte mudslidePhilippines20061,029 2004 China flood, mountain torrents, mud-rock flows, landslide China20041,000–1,500 Santa Catarina, [1]Tubarão], torrential heavy rain Brazil1974992 Isahaya, massive rain and mudslide Japan1957941 InuyamaIruka pond failure Japan1868933 1938Massive rain of Japan, mainly Tokyo, Kobe, massive rain and landslide Japan1938915 Barcelona, flash floodSpain1962848 1977 Karachiflood Pakistan1977844 2006 North Korea floodingNorth Korea2006827 Algiers, Bab El Oued, devastating flood, mudslide Algeria2001800 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands1825800 2000 Mozambiqueflood Mozambique2000785 1967 Brazilflood, mainly Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, flood and landslide Brazil1967705 2006 Ethiopiaflood, mainly Omo River Delta, Dire Dawa, Tena, Gode, flash flood, heavyrain Ethiopia2006702 1999 Vietnamflood, mainly occurred at Thua Thien HueVietnam1999672 1972 Seoul, Kyonggiflood South Korea1972653 1972 Luzon flood Philippines1972640 1987 Villatina landslide disaster Colombia1987610 2007 North Korea floodingNorth Korea2007540 1969 Tunisiaflooding Tunisia1969532 Cuzco, Huallaga, torrential rain, flooding, landslide Peru1982517 1967 Massive rain of Japan, mainly, Kobe, Kure, Agano river, massive rain and landslide Japan1967506 KwaZulu-NatalSouth Africa1987500 Malawi, flash flood and landslide Malawi1991500 Gauldal, landslide Norway1345464 Lisbonflash floodPortugal1967445 Western Japan, massive rain and landslide Japan1972429 2002 Nepal flood, mainly occurred at Makwanpur, monssnal rain, flood, landslide Nepal2002425 1999 Mexico flood, mainly occurred at Tabasco, Puebla, Chiapas, flood and mudslide Mexico1999421 Malpasset Damfailure France1959420 St. Aarons Flood Amsterdam1420408 1969 South Koreaflood, mainly, Gyeongsangbukdo, Gyeongsangnamdo, Gangwon, torrential rain, landslide South Korea1969407 1993 Iranflood, mainly occurred at Isfahan, Bandar Abass, flash flood and landslide Iran1993405 1998 South Koreaflood, heavy massive rain, landslide South Korea1998400 1955 LebanonTripoliflood Lebanon1955400 St. Francis Damfailure United States(California) 1928386 Thailand, Malaysia, mainly, Nakhon, Songkhla, Kelantan, torrential rain Thailand, Malaysia, 1988385 Ohio River flood of 1937United States(Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois) 1937373 1966 Rio de Janeiroflood, flood and landslide Brazil1966364 Piura, Tumbes, torrential rain, flooding, landslide Peru1983>360 Great Dayton FloodUnited States1913353 2007 African Nations flood mainly Sudan, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, and many African country 2007347 1996 Yemenflood Yemen1996345 1987 South Koreaflood, mainly, Chungchongnamdo, Chollanamdo, Kangwon, torrential rain, landslide South Korea1987342 2006 East African Flood Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia2006315 North Sea flood of 1962storm tide Germany1962313 2003 Sumatraflood, mainly Jambi, Batanghari, Tondano, torrential rain, flash flood, landslide Indonesia2003300 Quebrada Blanca canyon, landslide Colombia1974299 Nagasaki, massive rain and landslide Japan1982290 Rio de Janeiroand Fluminenseflood Brazil1988272 1973 Granada, Almeria, Murciaflood Spain1973270 Great Sheffield flooddam disaster United Kingdom1864268 Val di Stava damdisaster Italy1985261 Gormec, avalanche Turkey1992259 1966 Maian flood Jordan1966255 1998 Tajikistanflood Tajikistan1998250 Josefinadam failure Ecuador1993238 Rapid City, South Dakotaflood United States1972230 Marrakeshflash flood Morocco1995200–600 Chungarlandslide, flood, avalanche Peru1971200 Pamir Mountain area, mud and rock slides, torrential rain Tajikistan1992190 Huigra, landslide Ecuador1931165 2004 Brazilflood, mainly Sao Paulo, Pemambuco, torrential rain, mudslide Brazil2004159 Sarnoflood and landslide Italy1998154 KwaZulu-NatalSouth Africa1995144 Aberfandisaster United Kingdom(Wales) 1966135 Ozengeli, avalanche Turkey1993128 Izumo, massive rain and mudslide Japan1964120 1991 AntofagastaFlood, mud swept Chile1991119 2007 Central and East Javatorrential monsson rain, landslide, flood Indonesia2007117 Masuda, massive rain and landslide Japan1983116 Verdal, landslide Norway1893114 Seoul, Inchon, heavy rain South Korea1990110 northern Caucasas, northern Okrug, heavy rain, landslide Russia2002104 1981 Laingsburgflood South Africa198198 Flood of the millennium Poland, Czech Republic199794 Mameyes Disaster Puerto Rico(Ponce) 1985over 90 Columbus, Ohioflood on March 25, 1913 United States191381 Holmfirth Flood—Bilberry Reservoir dam failure United Kingdom185280 Johnstown Flood—Failure of Laurel Run Dam and flash flooding United States197778 Austin Damfailure United States191173 Kagoshima, mudslide and debris flow Japan199372 Gudbrandsdalenflood and landslides Norway178970 2005 levee failures in Greater New OrleansUnited States200570 Frank Slide, AlbertaCanada190347 McDonald Dam failureUnited states190037 Yuba City, CaliforniaChristmas Eve flood, levee failure United States195519 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands191619 1997 Threadbo landslide Australia199716 Brisbane flood Australia197411 2007 United Kingdom floodsUnited Kingdom2007

Wildfires, bushfires

Death Toll Event Location Date $1,200–2,500 Peshtigo Fire, WisconsinUnited States1871$453 Cloquet Fire, MinnesotaUnited States1918$418 Hinckley Fire, MinnesotaUnited States1894$≥ 250 Thumb Fire, MichiganUnited States1881$200–250 Matheson Fire, OntarioCanada1916$240 Sumatra, KalimantanIndonesia1997$230 Landesregion France1949$213 Greater Hinggan, HeilongjiangChina1987$160 Miramichi Fire, New BrunswickCanada1825$110 1963 ParanáForest fires, Brazil1963$75 Ash Wednesday[2]Australia1983$74 2007 Greek forest firesGreece2007$73–200 Great Porcupine Fire, OntarioCanada1911$71 Black Friday (1939)Australia(Victoria) 1939$62 1967 Tasmanian firesAustralia(Tasmania) 1967$60 SE Victoria (incl Gippsland & Dandenongs) Bushfire [3]Australia(Victoria) 1926$48 Massif des Aures Algeria1959



Death Toll Event Location Date $4,000 Iran BlizzardIran1972$1,317 2008 Afghanistan blizzard with snow storm Afghanistan2008$400 Great Blizzard of 1888United States1888$318 1993 North American Storm ComplexUnited States1993$235 Schoolhouse BlizzardUnited States1888$199 Hakkodaduring military training exercise Japan1902$144 Armistice Day BlizzardUnited States1940$133 2008 China Blizzard during snow storm China2008$112 1995 Kazakh Blizzard during snow storm Kazakhstan1995$54 Blizzard of 1978United States1978$29 Blizzard of 1977United States1977

Contractible diseases

The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article List of epidemics.
(See e.g. Wikipedia:Summary style.) Death Toll Event Location Date 300,000,000-500,000,000 SmallpoxWorldwide 01901-01-0120th centuryalone[3]approx. 100,000,000 Bubonic Plague: Black DeathAsia, Europe, Africa01300-01-011300s–1720s; ≥ 200,000,000 MeaslesWorldwide 01851-01-01last 150 years[4]80,000,000–250,000,000 MalariaWorldwide 01900-01-0120th centurypresent50,000,000–100,000,000 Spanish FluWorldwide 01918-01-0119181919[5]40,000,000–100,000,000 TuberculosisWorldwide 01900-01-0120th centurypresent[4]approx. 40,000,000 Bubonic Plague: Plague of JustinianAsia, Europe, Africa00540-01-0154059025,250,000 AIDSWorldwide 01981-01-011981–present (as of 2007) ≥ 12,000,000 Bubonic Plague: Third PandemicWorldwide 01850-01-011850s–1950s 5,000,000 Antonine PlagueRoman Empire00165-01-011651804,000,000 Asian Flupandemic Worldwide 01957-01-011957750,000 Hong Kong Flupandemic Worldwide 01968-01-011968775 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS) Mostly East Asia, few cases in Europe, Canadaand United States02002-01-0120022003677 West Nile Virusoutbreak North America01999-01-0119992004256 H5N1strain of Bird Flu(mainly in Asia, few in Africa and Middle East) 02003-01-012003–present (as of 2007)


The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article List of famines.
(See e.g. Wikipedia:Summary style.)
Please Note: Some of these famines may be partially or completely caused by humans.
Death Toll Event Location Date 20,000,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese FamineChina1958196124,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1907 China190719,000,000 Indian Famine India1896190213,000,000 Northern Chinese Famine China1876187910,000,000 Southern and Central Indian Famine India187618797,500,000 Great European FamineEurope131513175,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China19365,000,000 HolodomorUkraine193219345,000,000 Ukraine and Volga FamineUkraine, Russia192119223,000,000 Chinese Drought 1941 China19413,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1928–1930 China192819301,000,000-1,500,000 Great Irish FamineIreland184618492,000,000 Vietnamese War Famine Vietnam194319451,500,000–3,000,000 Bengal Famine of 1943India19431,200,000 North Korean famine North Korea199619981,000,000 Ethiopian famineEthiopia19841,000,000 Horn of Africa famine Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia188826,000-1,000,000 Bangladesh famine of 1974—Official records claim 26,000. However, various sources claim about 1,000,000. Bangladesh1974150,000 Finnish famine of 1866–1868Finland1866186830,000 Dutch famine of 1944The Netherlands194425,000 Great Xhosa Cattle Killing South Africa1864


  1. ^ 10 'Worst' Natural Disasters
  2. ^ Hurricanes: case studies
  3. ^ UC Davis Magazine, Summer 2006: Epidemics on the Horizon. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  4. ^ a b Torrey EF and Yolken RH. 2005. Their bugs are worse than their bite. Washington Post, April 3, p. B01.
  5. ^ 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics, CDC

See also

Other lists organized by death toll

External links

Categories: Disaster lists | Lists by death toll | Death-related lists | Natural disastersHidden categories: Articles that may contain original research since February 2008 | All articles that may contain original research | Articles lacking in-text citations | Incomplete lists | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since May 2008 | Articles to harmonize