LiaoningChinese : 辽宁省 Liáoníng Shěng
宁 níng - Ningyuan (now Xingcheng)
Administration type Province Capital
(and largest city) Shenyang CPC Ctte Secretary Zhang Wenyue Governor Chen Zhenggao (陈政高), acting Area 145,900 km² (56,300 sq mi) (21st) Population (2004)
- Density 42,170,000 (14th)
289 /km² (750 /sq mi) (15th) GDP (2006)
- per capita CNY 925.7 billion (8th)
CNY 21,802 (8th) HDI (2005) 0.808 (high) (5th) Major nationalities Han - 84%
Manchu - 13%
Mongol - 2%
Hui - 0.6%
Korean - 0.6%
Xibe - 0.3% Prefecture-level 14 divisions County-level 100 divisions Township-level† 1511 divisions ISO 3166-2 CN-21 Official website
(Simplified Chinese) Source for population and GDP data: 《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382 Source for nationalities data: 《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255 † As at December 31, 2004
Liaoning (help·info) (simplified Chinese: 辽宁; traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. Its one-character abbreviation is Liao (辽 pinyin: liáo).
"Liáo" is an ancient name for this region, which was adopted by the Liao Dynasty (Khitan Empire) which ruled this area between 907 and 1125. "Níng" means "peacefulness". The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian province (奉天 pinyin: Fèngtiān; Postal map spelling: Fengtien) and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its old name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945.
Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. Liaoning borders the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay) and the Bohai Gulf in the south, North Korea in the southeast, Jilin Province to the northeast, Hebei Province to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Economy
- 6 Five Points, One Line
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Tourism
- 10 Education
- 11 Paleontology
- 12 Sports
- 13 See also
- 14 External links
Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. The Qin and Han dynasties were able to establish rule over much of what is Liaoning; later on governments headed by various people such as the Gojoseon, Xianbei, Goguryeo, Khitan and Jurchen ruled Liaoning. In the seventeenth century, the Manchus established their capital in modern Shenyang, Liaoning, before they conquered the rest of China and set up the Qing Dynasty in 1644. In the last half of the seventeenth century the imperial government recruited migrants from Shandong to settle the relatively sparsely populated area. Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. For the rest of the Manchu era, China's Northeast was off-limits to Han Chinese, and was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing, ruled much of modern Liaoning.
In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region. In the twentieth century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought. During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang; in 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.Dalian aquarium.
At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged together into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.
Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.
- Main article: Politics of Liaoning
The politics of Liaoning is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (辽宁省省长) is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Liaoning Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (辽宁省委书记), colloquially termed the "Liaoning CPC Party Chief".
Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian, and was governed by a zongdu or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (xunfu).
GeographyLandsat 7 image of western Liaoning.
It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.
The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills.
The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.
Central Liaoning city cluster
The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis centering at Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its 150km radius, it has Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million).
Administrative divisionsDalian city in Liaoning Province.
Liaoning is composed of fourteen prefecture-level cities:
The sub-province-level cities:
The prefecture-level cities:
- Anshan (鞍山市 : Ānshān Shì)
- Benxi (本溪市 : Běnxī Shì)
- Chaoyang (朝阳市 : Cháoyáng Shì)
- Dandong (丹东市 : Dāndōng Shì)
- Fushun (抚顺市 : Fǔshùn Shì)
- Fuxin (阜新市 : Fùxīn Shì)
- Huludao (葫芦岛市 : Húludǎo Shì)
- Jinzhou (锦州市 : Jǐnzhōu Shì)
- Liaoyang (辽阳市 : Liáoyáng Shì)
- Panjin (盘锦市 : Pánjǐn Shì)
- Tieling (铁岭市 : Tiělǐng Shì)
- Yingkou (营口市 : Yíngkǒu Shì)
These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, eight autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts).
Liaoning has the largest economy of North Eastern China. Its nominal GDP for 2006 was 925.7 billion yuan (US$117.2 billion) making it the 8th largest in China. Its per capita GDP was 21,802 yuan (US$2,760).
Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.
Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.
Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.
The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.
Five Points, One Line
The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as the "rustbelt" of Chinese State Owned Enterprises.
The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.
The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres.
The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new motorway along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. The new coastal motorway will directly connect the entire rim of five zones around the Bohai sea, and will be completed by 2009.
DemographicsHan Chinese35,105,991 83.94% Manchu5,385,287 12.88% Mongol669,972 1.60% Hui264,407 0.632% Koreans241,052 0.576% Xibe132,615 0.317%
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
Liaoning's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is quite homogeneous across all of the northeastern China. See Manchuria#Culture for a detailed description.
In paleontology, Liaoning is well known for its extraordinary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous period; e.g., the early 'placental' mammal known as Eomaia. The first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx prima, was discovered in Liaoning and unveiled at a scientific meeting in 1996. Other notable discoveries have been an intact embryo of a pterosaur, Repenomamus robustus—a cat-sized mammal who ate dinosaurs, and Sinornithosaurus millenii, nicknamed "Dave the Fuzzy Raptor".
TourismChongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace.
The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as famous as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.
In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The port city of Dalian, located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.
Bijia Mountain is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.
Colleges and universities
Under the national Ministry of Education:
Under various other national agencies:
- China Criminal Police College (中国刑警学院)
- Dalian Maritime University (大连海事大学)
- Dalian Nationalities University (大连民族大学)
Under the provincial government:
- Anshan University of Science and Technology (鞍山科技大学)
- Anshan Normal University (鞍山师范学院)
- Bohai University (渤海大学)
- China Medical University (中国医科大学)
- Dalian Jiaotong University (大连交通大学)
- Dalian Medical University (大连医科大学)
- Dalian University (大连大学)
- Dongbei University of Finance and Economics (东北财经大学)
- Liaoning Institute of Technology (辽宁工学院)
- Liaoning Normal University (辽宁师范大学)
- Liaoning Technical University (辽宁工程技术大学)
- Liaoning University (辽宁大学)
- Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology (辽宁石油化工大学)
- Shenyang Agricultural University (沈阳农业大学)
- Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering (沈阳航空工业学院)
- Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology (沈阳化工学院)
- Shenyang Jianzhu University (沈阳建筑大学)
- Shenyang Ligong University (沈阳理工大学)
- Shenyang Pharmaceutical University (沈阳药科大学)
- Shenyang University (沈阳大学)
- Shenyang University of Technology (沈阳工业大学)
Liaoning contains one of the foremost paleontological sites in the world since the discovery of Sinosauropteryx, a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. Since the 1990s dozens of groundbreaking finds have been discovered there, including the earliest flower, placental mammal, and marsupial, as well as several birds and feathered dinosaurs, including one that was found in a sleeping position. These have added further evidence that birds and dinosaurs may be directly related.
Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:
- Chinese Football Association Super League
- Chinese Football Association Jia League
- Chinese Basketball Association
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