KhufuFor other uses, see Khufu (disambiguation). "Cheops" redirects here. For other uses, see Cheops (disambiguation). Khufu Cheops Ivory statuette of Khufu in the Cairo MuseumPharaohof EgyptReign2589–2566 BC(23 years in Manetho), 4th DynastyPredecessor SneferuSuccessor DjedefraRoyal titularyNomen: Khufu
Protected by Khnum
Khufu (in Greek known as Χέωψ, Cheops; pronounced /ˈkiɑps/) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom. He reigned from around 2589 to 2566 B.C. Khufu was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. He is generally accepted as being the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Khufu's name means "Protected by Khnum."
Khufu was the son of King Sneferu and Queen Hetepheres. Unlike his father, Khufu is remembered as a cruel and ruthless pharaoh in later folklore. Khufu had nine sons, one of whom, Djedefra, was his immediate successor. He also had fifteen daughters, one of whom would later become Queen Hetepheres II.
Khufu came to his throne in his twenties, and reigned for about 23 years, which is the number ascribed to him by the Turin King List. Other sources from much later periods suggest a significantly longer reign: Manetho gives him a reign of 65 years, and Herodotus states that he reigned fifty years. Since 2000, two dates have been discovered from his reign. An inscription containing his highest regnal year, the "Year of the 17th Count of Khufu", first mentioned by Flinders Petrie in an 1883 book and then lost to historians, was rediscovered by Zahi Hawass in 2001 in one of the relieving chambers within this king's pyramid. Secondly, in 2003, the "Year after the 13th cattle count" of Khufu was found on a rock inscription at the Dakhla Oasis in the Sahara. See this photo which contains Khufu's name enclosed in a serekh and the aforementioned date.
He started building his pyramid at Giza, the first to be built in this place. Based on inscriptional evidence, it is also likely that he led military expeditions into the Sinai, Nubia and Libya.
The Westcar Papyrus, which was written well after his reign during the Middle Kingdom or later, depicts the pharaoh being told magical tales by his sons Khafra and Djedefra. This story cycle depicts Khufu as mean and cruel, and is ultimately frustrated in his attempts to ensure that his dynasty survives past his two sons. Whether or not this story cycle is true is unknown, But Khufu's negative reputation lasted at least until the time of Herodotus, who was told further stories of that king's cruelty to his people and to his own family in order to ensure the construction of his pyramid. What is known for certain is that his funerary cult lasted until the 26th Dynasty, which was one of the last native-Egyptian royal dynasties, almost 2,000 years after his death.
Funerary monumentsPicture of the Great Pyramid. Fragmentary miniature head made of limestone, believed to represent Khufu, that wears the white crown of Upper Egypt
Most likenesses of Khufu are lost to history. Only one miniature statuette has been fully attributed to this pharaoh. Since he is credited with building the single largest building of ancient times, it is ironic that the only positively identified royal sculpture of his is also the smallest that has ever been found: a 7.6cm (3 inch) ivory statue that bears his name. It was discovered not at Giza, but in a temple in Abydos during an excavation by William Matthew Flinders Petrie in 1903. Originally this piece was found without its head, but bearing the pharaoh's name. Realizing the importance of this discovery, Petrie halted all further excavation on the site until the head was found three weeks later after an intensive sieving of the sand from the area where the base had been discovered. This piece is now on display in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. In more recent years, two other likenesses have been tentatively identified as being that of Khufu, based largely on stylistic similarities to the piece discovered by Petrie. One is a colossal head made of red granite of a king wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt that resides in the Brooklyn Museum, and the other a fragmentary miniature head made of limestone that also wears the white crown of Upper Egypt, which can be found in the Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst in Munich.
An empty sarcophagus is located in the King's Chamber inside the pyramid though it is unclear if it had ever been used for such a purpose as burial. While his mummy has never been recovered, his impressive and well preserved solar barge--or Khufu ship--was discovered buried in a pit at the foot of his great pyramid at Giza in 1954 by Egyptian archaeologists. It has been reassembled and placed in a museum for public viewing.The so-called "Ring of Cheops", which bears the cartouche of Khufu and was once thought to have belonged to him. It is now thought to have belonged to a priest in the cult that deified Khufu at Giza. Late Period, Dynasty XXV or XXVII.
While pyramid construction had been solely for the reigning pharaoh prior to Khufu, his reign saw the construction of several minor pyramid structures that are believed to have been intended for other members of his royal household, amounting to a royal cemetery. Three small pyramids to the east of Khufu's pyramid are tentatively thought to belong to two of his wives, and the third has been ascribed to Khufu's mother Hetepheres I, whose funerary equipment was found relatively intact in a shaft tomb nearby. A series of mastabas were created adjacent to the small pyramids, and tombs have been found in this "cemetery". The closest tombs to Khufu's were those belonging to Prince Kawab and Khufuhaf and their respective wives. Next closest are the tombs of Prince Minkhaf and Queens Hetepheres II, and those of Meresank II and Meresank III. When the largest of these tombs (Tomb G7510) was excavated in 1927, it was found to contain a bust of Prince Ankhhaf, which can now be seen in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
The Nobel Laureate Naguib Mahfouz's first novel Khufu's Wisdom (ABATH AL-AQDAR|Mockery of the Fates (1939)) dealt with Khufu, his son Khafra and the succession of Djedef-ra.
- Mockery of the Fates (1939) عبث الأقدار
- The Heroes graphic novel History of a Secret depicts Khufu as having the superhuman ability of levitation.
- The Golden Age version of the DC Comics superhero Hawkman is a reincarnation of Khufu.
- ^ a b c Clayton, Peter A. 'Chronicle of the Pharaohs. p42. Thames and Hudson, London, 2006. ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9
- ^ King Kheops accessed November 18, 2006
- ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2006 paperback, p.42
- ^ R. Kuper and F. Forster, "Khufu's 'mefat' expeditions into the Libyan Desert", Egyptian Archaeology 23, Autumn 2003, pp 25-28
- ^ Figures: King Khufu (BBC). Accessed April 8.
- ^ Guardian's Egypt: The Pharaoh Khufu
- ^ Kevin Jackson and Jonathan Stamp, Building the Great Pyramid (Firefly Books, 2003) ISBN 1-55297-719-6
- ^ Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999), pp.194 and 219.
- ^ Aidan Dodson, "An Eternal Harem. Part One: In the Beginning", KMT, Summer 2004, pp. 47-55.
- ^ O'Hara, John; Carri Wagner. History of a Secret (PDF), Aspen MLT Inc., 6. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
- Freeman, Charles. The Legacy of Ancient Egypt. Ed. John D. Ray. Spain: Fournier Artes Graficos S.Z. Vitoria, 1997. 22.
- Khufu - Archaeowiki.org
- The Jean-Pierre Houdin's Theory in Real-Time 3D
- Bust of Prince Ankhhaf, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, accessed April 8, 2005
- Westcar Papyrus, accessed April 8, 2006.
- Egyptian pyramid construction techniques
- Egyptian Fourth Dynasty Family Tree
- Khufu ship
SneferuPharaoh of Egypt
Fourth DynastySucceeded by
Link former page on this page
Related word on this page