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The terms 7th July, July 7th, and 7/7 (pronounced "Seven-seven") have been widely used in the Western media as a shorthand for the 7 July 2005 bombings on London's transport system. In China, this term is used to denote the Battle of Lugou Bridge started on July 7, 1937, marking the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
- 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.
- 1534 - European colonization of the Americas: First known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in New Brunswick.
- 1543 - French troops invade Luxembourg.
- 1585 - Treaty of Nemours abolishes tolerance to Protestants in France.
- 1777 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of Hubbardton
- 1798 - Quasi-War: The U.S. Congress rescinds treaties with France sparking the 'war.'
- 1799 - Ranjit Singh's men take up their positions outside Lahore.
- 1807 - Napoleonic Wars: Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the Fourth Coalition.
- 1846 - Mexican-American War: American troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the United States conquest of California.
- 1863 - United States begins first military draft; exemptions cost $100
- 1865 - American Civil War: Four conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln were hanged.
- 1892 - Katipunan: The Revolutionary Philippine Brotherhood is established leading to the fall of the Spanish Empire in Asia.
- 1898 - President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
- 1915 - World War I: End of First Battle of the Isonzo.
- 1915 - A Great Gorge and International Railway trolley with an extreme overload of 157 passengers crashed near Queenston, Ontario, killing 15.
- 1917 - Russian Revolution: Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov forms Provisional Government in Russia after the deposing of the Tsar Nicholas II.
- 1930 - Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser begins construction of the Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam).
- 1937 - Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Lugou Bridge - Japanese forces invade Beijing, China.
- 1941 - World War II: American forces land in Iceland to forestall an invasion by Germany.
- 1941 - World War II: Beirut is occupied by Free France and British troops.
- 1946 - Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized.
- 1946 - Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 spy plane prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.
- 1947 - Alleged and disputed Roswell UFO incident.
- 1953 - Che Guevara set out on a trip through Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador.
- 1954 - Formation of the TANU in Tanzania
- 1956 - Fritz Moravec reaches the peak of Gasherbrum II (8,035 m).
- 1958 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law.
- 1959 - 14:28 UT Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event was used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.
- 1967 - Beginning of the civil war in Biafra.
- 1969 - In Canada, the Official Languages Act is adopted making the French language equal to the English language throughout the Federal government.
- 1978 - The Solomon Islands become independent from the United Kingdom.
- 1980 - Institution of sharia in Iran.
- 1980 - The Safra massacre in Lebanon.
- 1983 - Cold War: Samantha Smith, a U.S. schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov.
- 1991 - Yugoslav Wars: Brioni Agreement ended ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
- 2002 - A scandal broke out in the United Kingdom when news reports alleged MI6 of sheltering Abu Qatada, the supposed European Al Qaeda leader.
- 2003 - The United Communist Party of Armenia was formed.
- 2005 - A series of four terrorist explosions occur on London's transport system killing 56 people, including four suicide bombers.
- 2005 - Influenced by Live 8, the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to Africa from US$25 to US$50 billion by the year 2010.
- 2007 - Pope Benedict XVI issues the Summorum Pontificum, removing restrictions on celebrating the old Latin Mass.
- 2007 - Worldwide performances by charity event Live Earth.
- 1053 - Emperor Shirakawa of Japan (d. 1129)
- 1119 - Emperor Sutoku of Japan (d. 1164)
- 1528 - Anna of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria, daughter of Ferdinand I (d. 1590)
- 1586 - Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, English statesman (d. 1646)
- 1656 - Guru Har Krishan, 8th Guru of Sikhism (d. 1664)
- 1746 - Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian astronomer (d. 1826)
- 1752 - Joseph-Marie Jacquard, French inventor (d. 1834)
- 1766 - Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French general (d. 1815)
- 1843 - Camillo Golgi, Italian physician and Nobel laureate (d. 1926)
- 1848 - Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, Brazilian politician (d. 1919)
- 1851 - Charles Tindley, American Gospel Music Composer (d. 1933)
- 1855 - Ludwig Ganghofer, German writer (d. 1920)
- 1860 - Gustav Mahler, Austrian composer (d. 1911)
- 1874 - Erwin Bumke, German jurist (d. 1945)
- 1884 - Lion Feuchtwanger, German dramatist (d. 1958)
- 1887 - Marc Chagall, Russian painter (d. 1985)
- 1891 - Virginia Rappe, Silent Film Actress (d. 1921)
- 1893 - Miroslav Krleža, Croatian writer (d. 1981)
- 1899 - George Cukor, American director (d. 1983)
- 1900 - Earle E. Partridge, United States Air Force general (d. 1990)
- 1901 - Vittorio De Sica, Italian director (d. 1974)
- 1901 - Sam Katzman, American film producer (d. 1973)
- 1901 - Eiji Tsuburaya, Japanese film producer (d. 1970)
- 1902 - Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe, American baseball player (d. 2005)
- 1904 - Simone Beck, French chef (d. 1991)
- 1906 - William Feller, Croatian mathematician (d. 1970)
- 1906 - Satchel Paige, American baseball player (d. 1982)
- 1906 - Anton Karas, Viennese musician (d. 1985)
- 1907 - Robert A. Heinlein, American writer (d. 1988)
- 1908 - Revilo P. Oliver, American professor (d. 1994)
- 1911 - Gian Carlo Menotti, Italian-born composer (d. 2007)
- 1915 - Margaret Abigail Walker Alexander, African American Novelist and poet (d. 1998)
- 1917 - Fidel Sánchez Hernández, Salvadorian politician (d. 2003)
- 1919 - Jon Pertwee, British actor (d. 1996)
- 1921 - Adolf von Thadden, German politician (d. 1996)
- 1921 - Ezzard Charles, American boxer (d. 1975)
- 1922 - Pierre Cardin, French fashion designer
- 1924 - Mary Ford, American singer (d. 1977)
- 1925 - Wally Phillips, American radio personality (d. 2008)
- 1929 - Hasan Abidi, Pakistani journalist and poet (d. 2005)
- 1927 - Doc Severinsen, American composer and musician
- 1930 - Henry (Hank) Mobley, American Jazz composer and saxophonist (d. 1986)
- 1931 - David Eddings, American author
- 1932 - Josef Zawinul, Austrian composer and musician (d. 2007)
- 1933 - Murray Halberg, New Zealand runner
- 1933 - David McCullough, American historian and author
- 1936 - Nikos Xilouris, Greek singer (d. 1980)
- 1936 - Jo Siffert, Swiss race car driver (d.1971)
- 1937 - Tung Chee-Hwa, Hong Kong administrator
- 1940 - Ringo Starr, English drummer and singer (The Beatles)
- 1941 - Michael Howard, British politician
- 1941 - Bill Oddie, English comedian and ornithologist
- 1942 - Carmen Duncan, Australian actress
- 1943 - Toto Cutugno, Italian singer
- 1943 - Joel Siegel, American film critic (d. 2007)
- 1945 - Michael Ancram, British politician
- 1947 - Felix Standaert, Belgian diplomat
- 1947 - Howard Rheingold, American author
- 1947 - Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal
- 1947 - Rob Townsend, English drummer (Family)
- 1947 - Víctor Manuel, Spanish songwriter and singer
- 1948 - Jean Leclerc, French-Canadian actor
- 1949 - Shelley Duvall, American actress
- 1952 - Mando Guerrero, Mexican professional wrestler
- 1955 - Len Barker, American baseball player
- 1957 - Jonathan Dayton, American film director
- 1957 - Berry Sakharof, Turkish-born Israeli guitarist (Minimal Compact)
- 1959 - Jessica Hahn, American model
- 1959 - Ben Linder, American engineer (d. 1987)
- 1960 - Kevin A. Ford, American astronaut
- 1963 - Vonda Shepard, American singer
- 1965 - Paula Devicq, Canadian actress
- 1965 - Mo Collins, American actress
- 1965 - Jeremy Kyle, English television presenter
- 1966 - Gundula Krause, German folk violinist
- 1966 - Neil Tobin, American magician
- 1966 - Jim Gaffigan, American comedian
- 1967 - Tom Kristensen, Danish race car driver
- 1967 - Jackie Neal, American singer (d. 2005)
- 1968 - Jorja Fox, American actress
- 1968 - Jeff VanderMeer, American writer
- 1969 - Sylke Otto, German luger
- 1969 - Joe Sakic, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1969 - Nathalie Simard, French Canadian singer
- 1969 - Cree Summer, Canadian voice actress
- 1969 - Robin Weigert, American actress
- 1970 - Wayne McCullough, Irish boxer
- 1970 - Erik Zabel, German cyclist
- 1970 - Robia LaMorte, American actress and dancer
- 1971 - Alistair Potts, British rower
- 1972 - Lisa Leslie, American basketball player
- 1972 - Manfred Stohl, Austrian rally driver
- 1973 - José Jiménez, Dominican baseball player
- 1973 - Matt Mantei, American baseball player
- 1973 - Natsuki Takaya, Japanese manga-ka
- 1974 - Kārlis Skrastiņš, Latvian ice hockey player
- 1974 - Patrick Lalime, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1975 - Tony Benshoof, American luger
- 1975 - Michael Voss, Australian rules footballer
- 1976 - Dominic Foley, Irish footballer
- 1977 - Felix Vasquez, New York City Housing Authority employee
- 1979 - Anastasios Gousis, Greek sprinter
- 1979 - Carl Breeze, British racing driver
- 1980 - John Buck, American baseball player
- 1980 - Deidre Downs, American beauty queen
- 1980 - Michelle Kwan, American figure skater
- 1980 - Kaisa Jouhki, Finnish vocalist (Battlelore)
- 1980 - Dan Whitesides, American drummer (The Used)
- 1981 - Synyster Gates, American guitarist (Avenged Sevenfold)
- 1981 - Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Indian cricketer
- 1982 - Cassidy, American rapper
- 1982 - Mike Glita, American bassist (Senses Fail)
- 1982 - George Owu, Ghanaian football player
- 1983 - Justin Davies, Australian rules footballer
- 1983 - D. Woods, American singer (Danity Kane)
- 1984 - Minas Alozidis, Greek hurdler
- 1984 - Mohammad Ashraful, Bangladeshi cricketer
- 1984 - Marie-Mai, Canadian singer
- 1987 - Lena Ma, Miss World Canada 4th runner-up
- 1988 - Kaci Brown, American singer
- 1989 - Giannoulis Fakinos, Greek footballer
- 1992 - Nathalia Ramos, Spanish actress
- 1304 - Pope Benedict XI (b. 1240)
- 1307 - King Edward I of England (b. 1239)
- 1537 - Madeleine de Valois, queen of James V of Scotland (b. 1520)
- 1572 - King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland (b. 1520)
- 1573 - Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Italian architect (b. 1507)
- 1647 - Thomas Hooker, Connecticut colonist (b. 1586)
- 1663 - Thomas Baltzar, German violinist
- 1701 - William Stoughton, American judge at the Salem witch trials (b. 1631)
- 1713 - Henry Compton, Bishop of Oxford and privy councillor (b. 1632)
- 1764 - William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath, English politician (b. 1683)
- 1776 - Jeremiah Markland, English classical scholar (b. 1693)
- 1790 - François Hemsterhuis, Dutch philosopher (b. 1721)
- 1816 - Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish playwright and politician (b. 1751)
- 1855 - Konstantin Batyushkov, Russian poet (b. 1787)
- 1865 - Mary Surratt, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1823)
- 1865 - Lewis Paine, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1844)
- 1865 - David Herold, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1842)
- 1865 - George Atzerodt, Lincoln conspirator (b. 1833)
- 1878 - Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)
- 1890 - Henri Nestlé, Founder of Nestlé S.A. (b. 1814)
- 1901 - Johanna Spyri, Swiss author (b. 1827)
- 1913 - Edward Burd Grubb, American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (b.1841)
- 1922 - Cathal Brugha, Chief of Staff of Irish Republican Army (b.1874)
- 1925 - Clarence Hudson White American photographer (b.. 1871)
- 1927 - Gösta Mittag-Leffler, Swedish mathematician (b. 1846)
- 1930 - Arthur Conan Doyle, Scottish writer (b. 1859)
- 1932 - Alexander Grin, Russian novelist (b. 1880)
- 1932 - Henry Eyster Jacobs, American Lutheran theologian (b. 1844)
- 1949 - Bunk Johnson, American musician (b. 1879 or 1889)
- 1956 - Gottfried Benn, German poet (b. 1886)
- 1964 - Lillian Copeland, American athlete (b. 1904)
- 1965 - Moshe Sharett, 2nd Prime Minister of Israel (b. 1894)
- 1967 - Jo Schlesser, French Formula One racing driver (b. 1928)
- 1971 - Claude Gauvreau, Canadian writer (b. 1925)
- 1971 - Ub Iwerks, American artist, director, and cartoonist (b1901)
- 1972 - Athenagoras, Patriarch of Constantinople (b. 1886)
- 1972 - King Talal of Jordan (b. 1909)
- 1973 - Max Horkheimer, German philosopher and sociologist (b. 1895)
- 1973 - Veronica Lake, American actress (b. 1919)
- 1975 - Ruffian, American thoroughbred racehorse (b. 1972)
- 1976 - Walter Giesler, American soccer coach (b. 1910)
- 1980 - Dore Schary, American film producer and writer (b. 1905)
- 1981 - Mildred Lisette Norman a.k.a. Peace Pilgrim, American pacifist and activist
- 1984 - Carl Boenish, American father of BASE jumping (b. 1941)
- 1990 - Bill Cullen, American game show host (b. 1920)
- 1990 - Cazuza, Brazilian poet, singer and composer (b. 1958)
- 1993 - Mia Zapata, American singer with The Gits (b. 1965)
- 1994 - Carlo Chiti, Italian race car engineer (b. 1924)
- 1994 - Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte, German Luftwaffe Officer (b. 1907)
- 2000 - Kenny Irwin, Jr., American race car driver (b. 1969)
- 2001 - Fred Neil, American singer-songwriter (b. 1936)
- 2002 - Bison Dele, American basketball player (b. 1969)
- 2003 - Izhak Graziani, Bulgarian-born conductor (b. 1924)
- 2006 - Juan de Ávalos, Spanish sculptor (b. 1911)
- 2006 - Syd Barrett, original guitarist and vocalist of the band Pink Floyd (b. 1946)
- 2006 - John Money, Sexologist (b. 1921)
Holidays and observances
- Tanzania: Saba Saba Day
- Saint Job of Maniava
- Æthelburg of Faremoutiers
- Russia, Ukraine: Ivan Kupala Day
- Japan: Tanabata
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