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July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 183 days remaining until the end of the year. The end of this day marks the halfway point of a leap year. It also falls on the same day of the week as New Year's Day in a leap year.
- 251 - The battle of Abrittus is won by Goths against Romans. Roman Emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus are killed.
- 1097 - Battle of Dorylaeum: Crusaders under Bohemond of Taranto defeat a Seljuk army under Qilich Arslan I.
- 1520 - La Noche Triste: Joint Mexican Indian force led by Aztecs under Cuitláhuac defeat Spanish Conquistadors under Hernán Cortés.
- 1569 - Union of Lublin: The Kingdom of Poland (Polish Crown) and Great Duchy of Lithuania confirm a real union, the united country is called the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or the Republic of Both Nations.
- 1690 - Battle of the Boyne as reckoned under Julian calendar.
- 1782 - American privateers attack Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
- 1858 - The joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's papers on evolution to the Linnean Society.
- 1862 - Russian State Library is founded.
- 1862 - American Civil War: The Battle of Malvern Hill takes place, the final battle in the Seven Days Campaign, part of the George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign.
- 1863 - American Civil War: the Battle of Gettysburg begins.
- 1867 - The British North America Act, 1867 takes effect as the Constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation; John A. Macdonald sworn as first Prime Minister.
- 1870 - The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.
- 1873 - Prince Edward Island joins the Canadian Confederation.
- 1878 - Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.
- 1879 - Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower.
- 1881 - World's first international telephone call takes place between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States.
- 1881 - General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell-Childers reforms of the British Army's organisation, came into effect.
- 1885 - United States terminates reciprocity and fishery agreement with Canada.
- 1890 - Canada and Bermuda linked by telegraph cable.
- 1892 - The Homestead Strike, a strike by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers against the Carnegie Steel Company, begins.
- 1898 - Spanish-American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought in Santiago de Cuba.
- 1916 - First day on the Somme: On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 20,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded.
- 1921 - Communist Party of China was founded.
- 1931 - United Airlines began service (as Boeing Air Transport)
- 1933 - Canadian Parliament suspends all Chinese immigration.
- 1935 - Regina, Saskatchewan police and Royal Canadian Mounted Police ambush strikers participating in On-to-Ottawa-Trek.
- 1942 - World War II: First Battle of El Alamein.
- 1942 - Australian Federal Govt becomes sole collector of Income Tax (State Income Tax Abolished).
- 1943 - Tokyo City merged with Tokyo Prefecture and was dissolved. Since then, no city in Japan has had the name "Tokyo." (Present-day Tokyo is not a city.)
- 1947 - British parliament passed India independence act. According to this took a decision for giving independence to India on August 15.
- 1948 - Quaid-i-Azam inaugrates Pakistan's central bank, the State Bank of Pakistan.
- 1957 - The International Geophysical Year begins (until December 31, 1958).
- 1958 - The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation links television broadcasting across Canada via microwave.
- 1958 - Flooding of the St. Lawrence Seaway begins.
- 1959 - The Party of the African Federation (PFA) holds its constitutive conference.
- 1960 - Independence of Somalia.
- 1960 - Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President as Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceases to be the Head of state.
- 1962 - Independence of Rwanda.
- 1962 - Independence of Burundi.
- 1963 - ZIP Codes are introduced for United States mail.
- 1963 - The British Government admits that former diplomat Kim Philby had worked as a Soviet agent.
- 1966 - First colour television transmission in Canada, from Toronto.
- 1967 - The European Community is formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission.
- 1967 - Canada celebrates the 100th anniversary of the British North America Act, 1867.
- 1968 - The CIA's Phoenix Program is officially established.
- 1968 - The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty signed by about sixty countries in Geneva, Switzerland.
- 1968 - Formal separation of the United Auto Workers from the AFL-CIO.
- 1970 - President General Yahya Khan abolished One-Unit of West Pakistan restoring the provinces.
- 1972 - Andreas Baader, Jan-Carl Raspe and Holger Meins of the Red Army Faction are captured in Frankfurt after a shootout with the police.
- 1972 - First Gay Pride march in England
- 1976 - Portugal granted autonomy to Madeira.
- 1978 - Northern Territory (Aus) granted Self-Government.
- 1979 - Sony introduces the Walkman.
- 1980 - O Canada officially becomes the national anthem of Canada.
- 1983 - A North Korean Ilyushin Il-62M jet en route to Conakry Airport in Guinea crashes into the Fouta Djall Mountains in Guinea-Bissau, killing all 23 people on board.
- 1984 - The PG-13 rating is introduced by the MPAA.
- 1987 - American radio station WFAN in New York City is launched as the world's first all-sports radio station
- 1988 - Bologna, Italy: Quartetto Cetra's last concert after over forty years' musical career.
- 1990 - East Germany accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency, thus uniting the economies of East and West Germany.
- 1991 - The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.
- 1997 - The People's Republic of China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.
- 1997 - The written Theory test becomes a compulsory part of Driving License Examinations in Great Britain
- 1999 - The Scottish Parliament is officially opened by Queen Elizabeth on the day powers are officially transferred from the old Scottish Office in London to the new devolved Scottish Executive in Edinburgh.
- 2000 - Vermont's civil unions law goes into effect.
- 2000 - The Oresund Bridge, connecting Sweden and Denmark, opens for traffic.
- 2002 - The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
- 2002 - A Bashkirian Airlines (flight 2937) Tupolev TU-154 and a DHL (German cargo) Boeing 757 collide in mid-air over Ueberlingen, southern Germany, killing 71.
- 2004 - Saturn Orbit insertion of Cassini-Huygens begins at 01:12 UT and ends at 02:48 UT.
- 2005 - Revaluation of the Romanian Leu.
- 2006 - The first operation of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in the People's Republic of China.
- 2007 - Smoking in England is banned in all public indoor spaces. With the ban already in force in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, this means it is illegal to smoke in indoor public places anywhere in the UK.
- 2007 Prince William and Prince Harry throw a concert in memory of their mother the late Diana, Princess of Wales, on what would have been her 46th birthday.
- 1481 - Christian II of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (d. 1559)
- 1506 - Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (d. 1526)
- 1534 - Frederick II of Denmark (d. 1588)
- 1574 - Joseph Hall, English bishop and writer (d. 1656)
- 1586 - Claudio Saracini, Italian composer (d. 1630)
- 1633 - Johann Heinrich Heidegger, Swiss theologian (d. 1698)
- 1646 - Gottfried Leibniz, German mathematician (d. 1716)
- 1676 - Anthony Collins, English philosopher (d. 1729)
- 1723 - Pedro Rodríguez, Conde de Campomanes, Spanish statesman (d. 1802)
- 1725 - Comte de Rochambeau, French soldier (d. 1807)
- 1742 - Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German physicist (d. 1799)
- 1788 - Jean-Victor Poncelet, French mathematician (d. 1867)
- 1804 - George Sand, French writer (d. 1876)
- 1807 - Thomas Green Clemson, American university founder (d. 1888)
- 1818 - Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician (d. 1865)
- 1834 - Jadwiga Łuszczewska, Polish poet (d. 1908)
- 1863 - William Grant Stairs, Canadian explorer (d. 1892)
- 1869 - William Strunk Jr., American grammarian (d. 1946)
- 1872 - Louis Blériot, French aviator (d. 1936)
- 1873 - Alice Guy-Blaché, American film director (d. 1968)
- 1879 - Léon Jouhaux, French labor leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1954)
- 1883 - Arthur Borton, English soldier (d. 1933)
- 1899 - Thomas A. Dorsey, American composer (d. 1993)
- 1899 - Charles Laughton, English actor (d. 1962)
- 1902 - William Wyler, French-born film director (d. 1981)
- 1903 - Amy Johnson, English pilot (d. 1941)
- 1906 - Estée Lauder, American entrepreneur (d. 2004)
- 1906 - Jean Dieudonné, French mathematician (d. 1992)
- 1908 - Peg Entwistle, Welsh actress (d. 1932)
- 1909 - Bill Stern, American sportscaster (d. 1971)
- 1911 - Sergei Sokolov, Soviet marshal
- 1912 - David R. Brower, American environmentalist (d. 2000)
- 1912 - Sally Kirkland, American fashion editor (d. 1989)
- 1913 - Frank Barrett, baseball player (d. 1998)
- 1915 - Willie Dixon, American musician (d. 1992)
- 1915 - Joseph Ransohoff, American neurosurgeon (d. 2001)
- 1916 - Olivia de Havilland, British-born actress
- 1917 - Humphry Osmond, British psychiatrist
- 1920 - Harold Sakata, Japanese-born actor (d. 1982)
- 1921 - Seretse Khama, first President of Botswana
- 1925 - Farley Granger, American actor
- 1926 - Robert Fogel, Nobel laureate
- 1926 - Hans Werner Henze, German composer
- 1926 - Carl Hahn, German automotive executive
- 1929 - Gerald Edelman, American biologist, Nobel laureate
- 1930 - Bobby Day, American singer (d. 1990)
- 1930 - Moustapha Akkad, Syrian-American filmmaker (d. 2005)
- 1931 - Leslie Caron, French actress
- 1934 - Jamie Farr, American actor
- 1934 - Jean Marsh, English actress
- 1934 - Sydney Pollack, American film director (d. 2008)
- 1934 - Claude Berri, French actor, director and screenwriter
- 1938 - Craig Anderson, baseball player
- 1939 - Karen Black, American actress
- 1941 - Alfred G. Gilman, American scientist, Nobel laureate
- 1941 - Myron Scholes, American economist, Nobel laureate
- 1941 - Twyla Tharp, American choreographer
- 1941 - Rod Gilbert, Canadian hockey player
- 1942 - Geneviève Bujold, Canadian actress
- 1942 - Andraé Crouch, American singer
- 1942 - Mike Malloy, American talk radio host
- 1943 - Jeff Wayne, musician
- 1945 - Deborah Harry, American musician (Blondie)
- 1945 - Mike Burstyn, Israeli-American actor
- 1947 - Shirley Hemphill, American actress (d. 1999)
- 1947 - Kazuyoshi Hoshino, Japanese racing driver
- 1949 - John Farnham, Australian singer
- 1950 - David Duke, American politician, K.K.K. member
- 1951 - Fred Schneider, American singer (The B-52's)
- 1951 - Anne Feeney, American protest singer
- 1951 - Terrence Mann, American actor and dancer
- 1952 - Dan Aykroyd, Canadian actor
- 1952 - Steve Shutt, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1952 - Timothy J. Tobias, American composer and musician (d. 2006)
- 1956 - Alan Ruck, American actor
- 1957 - Hannu Kamppuri, Finnish ice hockey player
- 1961 - Kalpana Chawla, Indian-American astronaut (d. 2003)
- 1961 - Diana, Princess of Wales (d. 1997)
- 1961 - Malcolm Elliott, British cyclist
- 1961 - Carl Lewis, American athlete
- 1961 - Michelle Wright, Canadian musician
- 1962 - Andre Braugher, American actor
- 1963 - Roddy Bottum, American musician (Faith No More and Imperial Teen)
- 1964 - Bernard Laporte, French rugby player & coach
- 1965 - Harald Zwart, Norwegian film director
- 1966 - Enrico Annoni, Italian footballer
- 1967 - Pamela Anderson, Canadian model
- 1968 - Tim Abell, American actor
- 1970 - Henry Simmons, American actor
- 1970 - Melissa Peterman, American actress
- 1971 - Missy Elliott, American rapper and singer
- 1971 - Julianne Nicholson, American actress
- 1971 - Steven W. Bailey, American actor
- 1971 - Jamie Walker, American baseball player
- 1972 - Claire Forlani, English actress
- 1972 - Alex Machacek, Austrian musician
- 1975 - Sufjan Stevens, American musician
- 1976 - Patrick Kluivert, Dutch footballer
- 1976 - Ruud van Nistelrooy, Dutch footballer
- 1976 - Justin Lo, Hong Kong singer and songwriter
- 1976 - Hannu Tihinen, Finnish footballer
- 1977 - Jarome Iginla, Canadian hockey player
- 1977 - Liv Tyler, American actress
- 1977 - Keigo Hayashi, Japanese music artist
- 1980 - Patrick Aufiero, American hockey player
- 1981 - Tadhg Kennelly, Irish-born Australian Rules footballer
- 1982 - Hilarie Burton, American actress
- 1982 - Carmella DeCesare, American model
- 1982 - Romola Garai, English actress
- 1982 - Justin Huber, Australian baseball player
- 1982 - Joachim Johansson, Swedish tennis player
- 1982 - Adrian Ward, American football player
- 1983 - Marit Larsen, Norwegian musician (M2M)
- 1983 - Leeteuk, Korean singer
- 1988 - Evan Ellingson, American actor
- 1989 - Mitch Hewer, English actor
- 1989 - Hannah Murray, English actress
- 1990 - Young B., American rapper
- 251 - Decius, Roman Emperor (b. 207)
- 251 - Herennius Etruscus, Roman Emperor (b. ca. 227)
- 868 - Ali al-Hadi, Shia Imam (b. 828)
- 1109 - King Alfonso VI of Castile (b. 1040)
- 1277 - Baibars, Mameluk sultan of Egypt (b. 1223)
- 1592 - Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, Italian composer
- 1614 - Isaac Casaubon, French-born classical scholar (b. 1559)
- 1622 - William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, British politician (b. 1575)
- 1681 - Oliver Plunkett, Irish saint (b. 1629)
- 1708 - Emperor Tekle Haymanot I of Ethiopia (b. 1706)
- 1774 - Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, English statesman (b. 1705)
- 1782 - Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1730)
- 1784 - Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, German composer (b. 1710)
- 1819 - Jemima Wilkinson, American preacher (b. 1752)
- 1860 - Charles Goodyear, American inventor (b. 1800)
- 1863 - John Fulton Reynolds, American Civil War general (b. 1820)
- 1894 - Allan Pinkerton, American private detective (b. 1819)
- 1896 - Harriet Beecher Stowe, American author (b. 1811)
- 1925 - Erik Satie, French composer (b. 1866)
- 1944 - Tanya Savicheva, Russian diarist (b. 1930)
- 1948 - Achille Varzi, Italian race car driver (b. 1904)
- 1950 - Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, Swiss musician (b. 1865)
- 1950 - Eliel Saarinen, Finnish architect (b. 1873)
- 1961 - Louis-Ferdinand Céline, French writer (b. 1894)
- 1964 - Pierre Monteux, French conductor (b. 1875)
- 1965 - Wally Hammond, English cricketer (b. 1903)
- 1968 - Fritz Bauer, German judge and prosecutor (b. 1903)
- 1971 - William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1890)
- 1974 - Juan Perón, President of Argentina (b. 1895)
- 1976 - Anneliese Michel, German woman said to be possessed by demons (b. 1952)
- 1978 - Kurt Student, German Luftwaffe general (b. 1890)
- 1981 - Carlos de Oliveira, Portuguese writer (b. 1921)
- 1981 - Rushton Moreve, American bass player (b. 1948)
- 1983 - R. Buckminster Fuller, American architect and philosopher (b. 1903)
- 1984 - Moshe Feldenkrais, Ukrainian-born educator (b. 1904)
- 1987 - Snakefinger, British-born musician (b. 1949)
- 1991 - Michael Landon, American actor (b. 1936)
- 1992 - Francisco Mendes, Guinea-Bissauan politician (b. 1933)
- 1995 - Wolfman Jack, American radio personality (b. 1939)
- 1996 - William T. Cahill, Governor of New Jersey (b. 1904)
- 1996 - Steve Tesich, Serbian screenwriter (b. 1942)
- 1996 - Margaux Hemingway, American actress and model (b. 1954)
- 1997 - Robert Mitchum, American actor (b. 1917)
- 1999 - Edward Dmytryk, Canadian-born film director (b. 1908)
- 1999 - Guy Mitchell, American popular singer (b. 1927)
- 1999 - Forrest Mars Sr., American candy magnate (b. 1904)
- 1999 - Sylvia Sidney, American actress (b. 1910)
- 2000 - Sarah Payne, British murder victim (b. 1992)
- 2000 - Walter Matthau, American actor (b. 1920)
- 2001 - Nikolay Basov, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1922)
- 2003 - Herbie Mann, American jazz flutist (b. 1930)
- 2003 - Wesley Mouzon, American boxer (b. 1927)
- 2003 - N!xau, Namibian actor (b. 1944)
- 2004 - Peter Barnes, English writer (b. 1931)
- 2004 - Todor Skalovski, Macedonian composer (b. 1909)
- 2004 - Marlon Brando, American actor (b. 1924)
- 2005 - Luther Vandross, American singer (b. 1951)
- 2005 - Obie Benson, American musician (b. 1936)
- 2006 - Fred Trueman, English cricketer (b. 1931)
Holidays and observances
- Canada Day (formerly Dominion Day) - the national holiday of Canada.
- Ghana - Republic Day.
- Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day.
- Surinam Keti Koti (Breaking of Chains) Day of Liberty; On July 1, 1863 slavery was abolished.
- Bulgaria, July Morning tradition.
- Aaron - brother of Moses
- Saint Calais, abbot of Ancille
- Saint Domitian of Huy, abbot, confessor
- Saint Gaius, pope, martyr
- Saint John the Baptist's Octave
- Saints Julius and Aaron, martyrs
- Saint Leontius, bishop of Autun, confessor
- Saint Oliver Plunkett, martyr
- Saint Rumbold, Rumold, or Rombout, bishop, martyr
- Saint Servanus, bishop, confessor
- Saint Theobald, priest, confessor
- Saint Monegundis, virgin
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