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Jilin

Coordinates: 43°40′N, 126°10′E

For the city, see Jilin City. Jilin Province Chinese : 吉林省 Jílín Shěng
Abbreviations: 吉  (pinyin: Jí) Origin of name from girin ula, a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river" Administration type Province Capital
(and largest city) Changchun CPC Ctte Secretary Wang Min Governor Han Changfu Area 187,400 km² (72,400 sq mi) (13th) Population (2004)
 - Density 27,090,000 (21st)
145 /km² (380 /sq mi) (23rd) GDP (2006)
 - per capita CNY 424.9 billion (22nd)
CNY 15,625 (13th) HDI (2005) 0.776 (medium) (10th) Major nationalities Han - 91%
Korean - 4%
Manchu - 4%
Mongol - 0.6%
Hui - 0.5% Prefecture-level 9 divisions County-level 60 divisions Township-level† 1006 divisions ISO 3166-2 CN-22 Official website
http://www.jl.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese) Source for population and GDP data: 《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382 Source for nationalities data: 《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255 † As at December 31, 2004

Jilin (help·info) (Chinese: 吉林; pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal map spelling: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. The name was transliterated to Kirin before standardization to pinyin.

The name "Jilin" probably originates from Girin ula, a Manchu term meaning "along the river"; this was transcribed into Jilin wula (T: 吉林烏拉 / S: 吉林乌拉) in Chinese, then shortened to Jilin.[1] The literal meaning of the Chinese characters for "Jilin" is "auspicious forest".

Contents

History

Main article: History of Jilin

In ancient times Jilin was inhabited by various peoples, notably the Mohe and the Wùjí (勿吉). It also formed a part of the Goguryeo kingdom. The kingdom of Balhae was established in the area from 698 to 926 AD. The region then fell successively under the domination of the Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, and the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, much of the area was under the control of the General of Jilin, whose area of control extended to the Sea of Japan to encompass much of what is Russia's Primorsky Krai today. Immigration of Han Chinese was strictly controlled.

However, after the Primorsky Krai area was ceded to Russia in 1860, the Qing government began to open the area up to Han Chinese migrants, most of whom came from Shandong. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group of the region. In 1932, the area was incorporated into Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan, and Changchun (then called Hsinking), capital of Jilin today, was made the capital of Manchukuo. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the region, together with the rest of northeastern China, was handed to the communists by the Soviet Union. Manchuria was then the staging ground from which the communists eventually conquered the rest of China (see Chinese Civil War#Post-war power struggle (1945–1947)).

In 1949, Jilin province was smaller, encompassing only the environs of Changchun and Jilin City, and the capital was at Jilin City, while Changchun was a municipality independent from the province. In the 1950s Jilin was expanded to its present borders. During the Cultural Revolution, Jilin was expanded again to include a part of Inner Mongolia, giving it a border with the independent state of Mongolia, though this was later reversed. In recent times Jilin has, together with the rest of heavy industry-based Northeast China, been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This has prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called “Revitalize the Northeast”.

Geography

Jilin is highest in altitude in the southeast, and drops gently towards the northwest. The Changbai Mountains run through its southeastern regions, and contains the highest peak of the province, Baiyun Peak at 2691 m. Other mountain ranges include the Jilinhada Mountains, Zhang Guangcai Mountains, and Longgang Mountains.

Jilin is drained by the Yalu and Tumen Rivers in the extreme southwest (which together form the border between the People's Republic of China and North Korea), by tributaries of the Liao River along the southern border, and by the Songhua and Nen rivers, both eventually flowing into the Amur.

Jilin has a northerly continental monsoon climate, with long, cold winters and short, warm summers. Average January temperatures range from -20 to -14°C. Rainfall averages at 350 to 1000 mm.

Major cities:

Administrative divisions

Jilin consists of eight prefecture-level cities and one autonomous prefecture:

The sub-province-level city:

The prefecture-level cities:

  • Baicheng (白城市 : Báichéng Shì)
  • Baishan (白山市 : Báishān Shì)
  • Jilin (吉林市 : Jílín Shì)
  • Liaoyuan (辽源市 : Liáoyuán Shì)
  • Siping (四平市 : Sìpíng Shì)
  • Songyuan (松原市 : Sōngyuán Shì)
  • Tonghua (通化市 : Tōnghuà Shì)

The autonomous prefecture:

For a complete list of the county-level divisions of Jilin, see List of administrative divisions of Jilin. These administrative divisions are explained in greater detail at Political divisions of China.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Jilin

The politics of Jilin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Jilin is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Jilin. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jilin Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jilin CPC Party Chief".

Economy

Main article: Economy of Jilin

Jilin's agricultural production is centered upon rice, maize, and sorghum. Rice is mostly cultivated in the eastern parts, such as Yanbian prefecture. The Changbai Mountains are an important source of lumber. Herding of sheep is an important activity in the western parts, such as Baicheng prefecture-level city.

Compared to other provinces of China, Jilin has extensive deposits of Kieselguhr, wollastonite, floatstone, and molybdenum.

Industry in Jilin is concentrated on automobiles, train carriages, and iron alloy.

Jilin's nominal GDP for 2006 was 424.9 billion yuan (US$53.3 billion) and ranks 22nd in the country. Its GDP per capita was 15,625 yuan (US$2,003).

Demographics

Jilin is inhabited by Han Chinese, Manchus, Hui, Mongols and Xibe. Most ethnic Koreans live in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

Ethnic groups in Jilin (2000 census) NationalityPopulation Percentage Han Chinese24,348,815 90.85% Koreans1,145,688 4.27% Manchu993,112 3.71% Mongol172,026 0.64% Hui125,620 0.47%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)

Culture

Jilin is part of Northeast China, so shares many similaries in culture with neighbouring regions. But Jiju, or Jilin Opera, is a form of traditional entertainment that Jilin has innovated over its short migrant history.

The ethnic Koreans of Jilin have their own distinct culture. See also: Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Culture of Korea.

Tourism

The Goguryeo sites and tombs found in Ji'an, Jilin, including Wandu, Gungnae Fortress, and the pyramidal General's Tomb, have been listed as part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Baekdu Mountain, especially Heaven Lake on the border with North Korea, are popular tourist destinations due to their natural scenery.

Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, including the Mausoleum of Princess Zhenxiao, are royal tombs of the Balhae kingdom found in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

Miscellaneous topics

Professional Sports Teams

Education

Notes

  1. ^ (Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jilin

See also

List of laojiaos in Jilin

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Anhui · Fujian · Gansu · Guangdong · Guizhou · Hainan · Hebei · Heilongjiang · Henan · Hubei · Hunan · Jiangsu · Jiangxi · Jilin · Liaoning · Qinghai · Shaanxi · Shandong · Shanxi · Sichuan · Taiwan (claimed) · Yunnan · Zhejiang

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v • d • eJilin Province HistoryPoliticsEconomySub-provincial cityChangchunPrefecture-level citiesBaichengBaishanJilin CityLiaoyuanSipingSongyuanTonghuaAutonomous prefectureYanbian Korean Autonomous PrefectureSee also: List of Jilin County-level divisions Categories: Jilin

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