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Jat people

"Jat" redirects here. For other uses, see Jat (disambiguation). Jatt people
जाट ਜੱਟ
جاٹ
Maharaja ChuramanBhagat SinghGurdas MannBobby Deol
Bhagat DhannaFoolabaiMaharaja Kishan SinghSimi GarewalTotal population

31 million[1]

Regions with significant populations •  India Pakistan Europe United States Canada Australia United KingdomLanguages • PunjabiRajasthaniHariyanaviBalochiSindhiGujaratiHindiUrduEnglishReligions • HinduismVedic religionIslamSikhismRelated ethnic groups • Indo-AryansIndo-IraniansIndo-ScythiansIndo-EuropeanPunjabisBaluchisSindhis

The Jat people (IAST: Jāṭ, Hindi: जाट, Punjabi: ਜੱਟ جٹ Jatt, Urdu: جاٹ), are an ethnic group of people[2][3] native to mainly the Punjab region[4] of Northern India and Pakistan that have attributes of an ethnic group, tribe and a people.[5][6]

The Jat people are considered by some to be the merged descendants of the original Indo-Aryans and a later addition of Indo-Scythian tribes of the region, merging to form the Jat people.[7] Others conclude a native Indo-Aryan lineage on the basis of ethnological, physical and linguistic standards[8][9][10][11][12][13]. The Jat people of India and Pakistan are not to be confused with the peripatetic Jats of Afghanistan, who are a distinct ethnic group.[14]

The Jat people have a discrete and distinct cultural history that can be historically traced back to ancient times.[15][16]

Contents

People

Jat Regiment Battle Insignia

The Jat people are an ethnic people[2][17] spread over Northern India and Pakistan (mainly the Punjab region)[18] including large populations living in the EU, US, Canada, Australia and UK. Historically, most South Asians have been farmers and even today (two-thirds) 66% of Indians are farmers.[19] The Jat people have traditionally been no different to other South Asians and have been mainly agriculturalists (landlord farmers) and members of the military as soldiers and officers serving in the Jat Regiment and most other regiments in India & Pakistan. However, in modern times (last 40 years) they are mainly a professional class e.g. Doctors, engineers, politicians and etc. The Jat Regiment is one of the longest serving and most decorated regiments of the Indian Army.[20] Historically, there have been many Jat kings and other leading figures in history.[21] The Jat people have also produced many prominent politicians and political leaders in Pakistan & India including (Choudhary Charan Singh, Chaudhary Bansi Lal, Chaudhari Devi Lal and Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi). This includes many Senators/ministers in the US and Canada, including the American State Senator from Minnesota, Satveer Chaudhary (the first South Asian state senator in American history).[22]

People Demographics

The census in 1931 in India recorded population on the basis of ethnicity. In 1925, according to Professor Qanungo[23] the population of Jats was around nine million in South Asia and was made up of followers of three major religions as shown below:

The Jat People Religious Demographic The Jat People are mainly concentrated in the greater Punjab region Religion Jat Population % Hinduism47% Sikhism20% Islam33%

Professor B.S. Dhillon, states by taking population statistical analysis into consideration the Jat population growth of both India and Pakistan since 1925, Professor Quanungo's figure of nine million could be translated into a minimum population statistic (1988) of 30 million.[2]

According to earlier censuses, the Jati or Jat people accounted for approximately 25% of the entire Sindhi-Punjabi speaking area, making it the one of "largest single socially distinctive group" in the region.[24]

According to Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria), adequate statistics about Jat people population are available in the Census Report of India of 1931, which is the last and the most comprehensive source of information on the Jat people, who were estimated to be approximately ten million in number at that time.[25] From 1931 to 1988 the estimated increase in the Jat people population of the Indian subcontinent including Pakistan respectively is 3.5% Hindu, 3.5% Sikh and 4.0% Muslim.[26] Dr Sukhbir Singh estimates that the population of Hindu Jats, numbered at 2,210,945 in the 1931 census, rose to about 7,738,308 by 1988, whereas Muslim Jats, numbered at 3,287,875 in 1931, would have risen to about 13,151,500 in 1988. The total population of Jats was given as 8,406,375 in 1931, and estimated to have been about 31,066,253 in 1988.

The region-wise break-up of the total Jat people population (including the Jat Hindu, Jat Sikh and Jat Muslim) is given in the following table. The Jat people, approximately 73%, are located mainly in the Punjab region:[27]

Name of region Jat Population 1931 Jat Population 1988 Approx
Percentage Punjab region6,068,302 22,709,755 73 % Rajasthan1,043,153 3,651,036 12 % Uttar Pradesh810,114 2,845,244 9.2 % Jammu & Kashmir148,993 581,477 2 % Balochistan93,726 369,365 1.2 % North-West Frontier Province76,327 302,700 1 % Bombay Presidency54,362 216,139 0.7 % Delhi53,271 187,072 0.6 % CP & Brar 28,135 98,473 0.3 % Ajmer-Marwar 29,992 104,972 0.3 % Total 8,406,375 31,066,253 100 %

Military and politics

14th Murray's Jat Lancers (Risaldar Major) by AC Lovett A Jat Infantry Soldier

A large number of Jat people serve in the Indian Army, including the Jat Regiment, Sikh Regiment, Rajputana Rifles and the Grenadiers, where they have won many of the highest military awards for gallantry and bravery. Jat people also serve in the Pakistan Army especially in the Punjab Regiment, where they have also been highly decorated. The Jat Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army, it is one of the longest serving and most decorated regiments of the Indian Army[28]. The regiment has won 19 battle honours between 1839 to 1947[29] and post independence 5 battle honours, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakras, 39 Vir Chakras and 170 Sena medals[30] Major Hoshiar Singh of Rohtak won the Paramvir Chakra during Indo-Pak war of 1971. Rohtak district, which has a high density of Jat people, has the distinction of producing the highest number of Victoria Cross winners of any district in India.

Traditionally they have dominated as the political class in Punjab.[31]

A number of Jat people belonging to the political classes have produced many political leaders, including the 6th Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister Choudhary Charan Singh. Moreover, there have been many Jat Kings and warriors throughout history.[21]

The Jat people are one of the most prosperous groups in India on a per-capita basis (Punjab, Haryana, and Gujarat are the wealthiest of Indian states).[32]

Origin

Main article: Origin of Jat people

Nothing certain known about the origin of Jat people[33], and there are several theories on the topic.[34]

Several scholars, including Alexander Cunningham, B. S. Dhillon, James Tod[35] and Bhim Singh Dahiya, believe that the Jats are the merged descendants of the Indo-Aryans living in the Indian subcontinent and a later addition of Indo-Scythians from Central Asia.[7][2][36]

Others scholars, including E. B. Havell, KR Qanungo, Sir Herbert Risley, C.V.Vaidya, and Thakur Deshraj, advocate a native Indo-Aryan lineage on the basis of ethnological, physical and linguistic standards.[37][38][39][40][41][42]

The Sinsinwar Jat people rulers of Bharatpur have been recorded as Yadav by Prakash Chandra Chandawat.[43]

The Hindu mythological account in Deva Samhita traces the origin of Jats to Shiva's locks (see Origin of Jat people from Shiva's Locks).[44][45]

The Jat people of India and Pakistan are not related with the peripatetic Jats of Afghanistan, who are a distinct ethnic group.[46]

Etymology of the word Jat

Main article: Etymology of Jat

Professor J. A. Leake states Jat is dervied from the old Central Asian and Gothic word "Jaet".[47][2] The Gothic etymology is agreed by other scholars such as Bhim Singh Dahiya who states that Jeat (also spelt Geat) was the name of a Central Asian tribe.[7]

History

Mentions in ancient litearture

Bhim Singh Dahiya states that the Jats find a mention in Mahabharata and other ancient Indian literature.[7] Mahendra Singh Arya etal. believe that the shloka Jat Jhat Sanghate (Sanskrit: जट झट संघाते) in famous Sanskrit scholar Panini's Astadhyayi refers to the Jat people as a federation.[48]

G. C. Dwivedi writes that the Persian Majmal-ut-Tawarikh mentions Jats and Meds as the descendants of Ham, living in Sind on the banks of the river Bahar.[49][50] S.M. Yunus Jaffery believes that the Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma, a well-known Persian epic.[51]

Ancient Jat kingdoms

Main article: Ancient Jat Kingdoms

Professor K.R. Kanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sind, the Kaikan region in Sind was in independent possession of Jats.[52] The first Arab invasions in the region were repelled by the Jats.

According to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, the Jats of the Panwar clan ruled Umerkot in Sind prior to Mughal ruler Humayun.[53][54]

Thakur Deshraj also mentions that the Susthan region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat of Hala clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom (known as Halakhandi) to the Muslim invaders sent by Muhammad bin Qasim.[55][56]

There is no information of any important Jat state in a period of two centuries following Kushan rule. However, in the beginning of fifth century, there is evidence of the Jat ruler Maharaja Shalinder ruling from "Shalpur" (the present-day Sialkot); his territory extended from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan. This is indicated by the Pali inscription obtained by James Tod from village Kanswa[57] in Kota state in year 1820 AD.[58]

See also: Jat people in Islamic History

Medieval period

Main article: Jat Kingdoms in Medieval India

There were several small Jat states in what is now Rajasthan. The Bikaner region (then known as Jangladesh) in the desert region of Western India was dominated by the Jats. At what period the Jat people established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India.[59] The small Jats in this region were inhabited by Jat clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law.[60]

See also: Jat states in Rajasthan

There were several small Jat rulers in North India. These included Garhwals of Garhmukteshwar, Kaliramnas (who ruled near Mathura), Khirwars of Brij and Narsinghpur, Nauhwars (who ruled the area surrounding the Noh lake area near Mathura), the Koīls of Kampilgarh (the area that is now Aligarh), the Halas, the Kuntals, the Pachars, the Thenuas, the Toouts, and the Thakureles.

The Jats also dominated the Malwa region, under rulers like Harshavardhana, Shiladitya, Singhavarma, Vishnuvardhan, and Yasodharman.

See also: Jats in the pre-Aurangzeb period

Rise of Jat power after 1699

Main article: The rise of Jat power

In 1699, the Jats of Gokula region around Mathura rebelled against the powerfule Mughal rulers (see 1669 Jat uprising).[61] The rebellion was essentially the result of the political provocation aggravated by the economic discontent, and further aggravated by the religious persecution and discrimination.[62]

Maharaja Suraj Mal Coat of arms of Bharatpur rulers

In the disorder following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the Jat resistance resumed, organized under the leadership of Churaman (1695–1721). Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (1722–1756), established a kingdom centered at Deeg, from which he extended his rule over Agra and Mathura. Badan Singh's eldest son and successor, Maharaja Suraj Mal (1707–1763), extended his kingdom to include Agra, Mathura, Dholpur, Mainpuri, Hathras, Aligarh, Etawah, Meerut, Rohtak (including Bhiwani), Farrukhnagar, Mewat, Rewari and Gurgaon. He has been described as one of the greatest Jat rulers.[63][64] Suraj Mal moved the capital from Deeg to Bharatpur in 1733. Rustam, a Jat king of the Sogariya clan, had laid the foundation of the modern city of Bharatpur. During the British Raj, the princely state of Bharatpur covered an area of 5,123 sq.km, and its rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns. The state acceded unto the dominion of India in 1947.

Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana of Gohad

According to Cunningham and William Cook, the city of Gohad was founded in 1505 by the Jats of Bamraulia village, who had been forced to leave Bamraulia by a satrap of Firuz Shah Tughluq. The Gohad later developed into an important Jat state, and was later captured by the Marathas. The Jats of Gohad signed a treaty with the British and helped them capture Gwalior and Gohad from the Marathas. The British kept Gwalior with them and handed over Gohad to Jats in 1804.[65] Gohad was handed over to the Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between the Marathas and the British. As a compensation for Gohad, the Jat ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda; Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805.[65]

Rana Udaybhanu Singh of Dholpur

In the 10th century, the Jat people took over control of Dholpur, which had earlier been ruled by the Rajputs and the Yadavs. Dholpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who transferred it to a Muslim governor in 1504. In 1527, the Dholpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it until 1761. After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur; by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775; by the Scindia ruler of Gwalior in 1782; and finally, by the British East India Company in 1803. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements, was again occupied by the British. In 1806, Dholpur again came under the Jat rulers, when it was handed over to Kirat Singh of Gohad. Dholpur thus became a princely state, a vassal of the British during the Raj.

Ballabhgarh was another important princely state established by the Jats of the Tewatia clan, who had come from Janauli vilage. Balram Singh, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Suraj Mal was the first powerful ruler of Ballabhgarh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was another notable king of this princely state.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala

Patiala and Nabha were two important Jat states in Punjab, ruled by the Jats of Siddhu clan.[21] The Jind state in present-day Haryana was founded by the descendants of Phul Jat of Siddhu ancestry.[21]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
ca. 1835-40

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) of the Sandhawalia[21] Jat clan of Punjab became the Sikh emperor of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire. He united the Sikh factions into one state, and conquered vast tracts of territory on all sides of his kingdom. From the capture of Lahore in 1799, he rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab. To secure his empire, he invaded Afghanistan, and defeated the Pathan militias and tribes. Ranjit Singh took the title of Maharaja on April 12, 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi day). Lahore served as his capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the city of Amritsar. In the year 1802, Ranjit Singh successfully invaded Kashmir.

Other Jat states of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries included Kuchesar (ruled by the Dalal Jat clan of Mandoti, Haryana), and the Mursan state (the present-day Hathras district in Uttar Pradesh) ruled by the Thenua Jats.

The Jats also briefly ruled at Gwalior and Agra. The Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707-1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757-1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. [66] After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort.

Genetics

A recent study of the people of Indian Punjab, where about 40% or more of the population are Jats, suggest that the Jat people are similar to other populations of the Indus Valley. The study involved a genealogical DNA test which examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (mutations in a single DNA "letter") on the Y chromosome (which occurs only in males). Jats share many common haplotypes with German, Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, and Central Asian groups. It found Jat people share only two haplotypes, one of which is also shared with the population of present-day Turkey, and have few matches with neighbouring Pakistani populations.[67] This haplotype shared between the two Jat groups may be part of an Indo-Aryan (or Indo-European) genetic contribution to these populations, where as the haplotypes shared with other Eurasian populations may be due to the contribution of Indo-European Scythians (Saka, Massagetae) or White Huns.[67] (These groups may of course all have been branches of a larger ethnic complex). However using the same database Jat people share many haplotypes (within the R1a haplogroup) with Southern Indians. Hence it seems as far as haplogroup R1a is concerned Jat people, many Europeans and Southern Indians, but not non-Punjabi Pakistani populations, share a common recent history (based on R1a1 haplotypes). The R1a marker on it own or in its entirety is not indicative of the spread of Indo-European/Scythian populations.[67]

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Jat people contain haplogroups typical of North India, Pakistan, and West Asia. This indicates that for the female mtDNA, there is very little connection with Central Asian or northwest European populations, even though Jats share manyY-SNP markers with these populations. Hence this may indicate that there has been male migration in or out of the Jat population in 'historical' times.

Jat people today

Today, besides agriculture, Jat people are engaged in blue and white-collar jobs, trade and commerce. Though they continue to be a rural populace, their presence in towns and district headquarters can be noted due to migration, which undoubtedly explains their distance from agriculture and animal husbandry.[68]

Jat people are considered a Forward class in the vast majority of states in India, with a few exceptions in a small number of areas were they are Other Backward Class (OBC). In Rajasthan, the Jat people are classified as OBC, except in Bharatpur and Dhaulpur districts.[69] In Rajasthan the Jat people are a wealthy and rich section of society but the BJP in 1999 in order to win their votes gave them OBC for political reasons.[70] Some specific clans of Jats are classified as OBC in some states. Eg. Muslim Jats in Gujarat[71] and Mirdha Jat people (except Muslim Jats) in Madhya Pradesh.[72] Land reforms, particularly the abolition of Jagirdari and Zamindari systems, Panchayati Raj and Green revolution, to which Jat people have been major contributors, have immensely contributed to the economic betterment of the Jat people.

Adult franchise has created enormous social and political awakening among Jat people. Consolidation of economic gains and participation in the electoral process are two visible outcomes of the post-independence situation. Through this participation they have been able to significantly influence the politics of north India. However since demise of Charan Singh and Devi Lal and rise of OBC and BSP their influence is on decline. Economic differentiation, migration and mobility could be clearly noticed amongst Jats.[73]

Life and culture of Jat people

Main article: Life and culture of Jats
A typical Jat chaupal in a village smoking a hubble-bubble (hooka)

The Life and culture of Jats is full of diversity and approaches most closely to that ascribed to the traditional Aryan colonists of India.[23][74] The Jat lifestyle was designed to foster a martial spirit.[75] Whenever they lost their kingdoms, Jat people retired to the country-side and became landed barons and the landlords with their swords girded round their waists.[23] They would draw the sword out of the scabbard at the command of their panchayat to fight with the invaders. Jat people have a history of being brave and ready fighters.[23] They are fiercely independent in character and value their self respect more than anything, which is why they offered heavy resistance against any foreign force that treated them unjustly.[23] They are known for their pride, bravery and readyness to sacrifice their lives in battle for their people and kinsmen.[76] In the government of their villages, they appear much more democratic. they have less reverence for hereditary right and a preference for elected headmen.[23]

Food habits

In Gujarat, Rajasthan and part of Haryana Jat people are mostly vegetarians. Some practise the Arya Samaj sect of Hinduism. Their staple food is wheat or bajra (pearl millet), vegetables and plenty of milk and ghee.[77] In Punjab, the Jats usually eat meat, especially goat meat. Punjabi Jat people are also fond of spinach with cornflour roti. However, food habits within individual families can be completely different, so no universal "Jat diet" can be identified. Mathura's Jat people are pure vegetarian. Their food includes dal, milk, ghee, matha, and bajri ki rootia. Some Jats consider non-vegetarian food undesirable, but many Jats, particularly the ones who belonged to the martial/warrior stock and defied Brahmin orthodoxy, customarily ate meat. For instance, meat is part of regular diet for Jat Sikhs and segments of Warrior clan Hindu Jats (now scattered in parts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh) who formed part of the erstwhile Jat royalty/aristocracy/nobility. No doubt meat consumption was essential for sustained warfare and only the purely agrarian Jats of peaceful farming habits who did not have much to do by way of taking to martial ways and adversities of wars, could remain purely vegetarian[citation needed].

To an extent, the incidence of Jat meat consumption is higher in areas where Jats have historically had higher social status, particularly during the medieval/aristocratic periods. For instance, meat consumption is particularly high in the Punjab region (including modern day Haryana), where the king was a Jat, and is almost non-existent in Rajasthan (except in Bharatpur and Dholpur, where there was likewise a Jat king).

Jat people Organizations

Main article: Khap

The Jats have always organized themselves into hundreds of patrilineage clans, Panchayat system or Khap. A clan was based on one small gotra or a number of related gotras under one elected leader whose word was law. [78]The big Jat clans now are so big that individual in them are only related to each other by individual that lived typically hundreds years ago. Mutual quarrels of any intensity could be settled by orders of Jat elders. In times of danger, the whole clan rallied under the banner of the leader. The Jat Khap or Panchayat "system is territorial and highly democratic. District and a number of Khaps form a 'Sarva Khap' embracing a full province or state. Negotiations with anyone were done - at 'Sarva Khap' level.

In addition to the conventional Sarva Khap Panchayat, there are regional Jat Mahasabhas affiliated to the All India Jat Mahasabha to organize and safeguard the interests of the community, which held its meeting at regional and national levels to take stock of their activities and devise practical ways and means for the amelioration of the community.[79]

The Association of Jats of America (AJATA) is the main Jat people organization of North America.[80] It performs as the main body, forum and lobby for Jat people issues in North America.

The North American Jat Charities (NAJC) is one of the main Jat people Charities of North America. It performs as a charity for the welfare Jat people in North America.[81]

Social customs of Jat people

Main article: Social customs of Jats
Jat marriage:Toran ceremony Tejaji fairs are organized in all areas inhabited by Jats

All Jats, irrespective of their official or financial positions in life, have equal social status .

The only criterion of superiority is age. The Jat people are ethnically and culturally required to marry within their community. With the advancement of modern civilization, as people are becoming less dependent upon and more tolerant towards each other, the joint family system is going out of vogue. It is still prevalent in the less advanced areas.

Religion

Jat people are followers of many faiths. Today they follow Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism. As per Indian caste system Jat people are classified in Hinduism as Kshatriyas. In the early 21st century the Jat constituted about 20 percent of the population of Punjab, nearly 10 percent of the population of Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Delhi, and from 2 to 5 percent of the populations of Sindh, Northwest Frontier, and Uttar Pradesh. The four million Jat of Pakistan are mainly Muslim by faith; the nearly six million Jat of India are mostly divided into two large groups of about equal strength: one Sikh, concentrated in Punjab, the other Hindu.[82]

The Jat Muslims in the western regions are organized in hundreds of groups tracing their descent through paternal lines; they are mostly camel herders or labourers. Those of India and of the Punjabi areas of Pakistan are more often landlord farmers. Numerically, Jats form the largest percentage of the Sikh community. Some scholars attribute Sikh military tradition largely to its Jat heritage.[83]

Language

Jat people usually speak Hindi and its dialects (Rajasthani, Haryanvi, Malvi), Punjabi and its dialects, Urdu, Dogri, Sindhi or Gujarati. Sikh and Muslim Jats from the Punjab mostly speak Punjabi and its various dialects (such as Maajhi, Malwi, Doabi,Saraiki, Pothohari, and Jhangochi). (See - Haryanavi Language & Rajasthani_Language)

List of Jat People Clans

Main article: List of Jat Clans

The Jat people clan names are unique in South Asia. However, some of their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujars.[84] List of Jat Clans have been compiled by many Jat historians like Ompal Singh Tugania,[85] Bhaleram Beniwal[86][87] Dr Mahendra Singh Arya and others,[88] Thakur Deshraj,[89] Dilip Singh Ahlawat,[90] Ram Swarup Joon[91] etc. The above lists have more than 2700 Jat gotras. Thakur Deshraj, Ram Swarup Joon and Dilip Singh Ahlawat have mentioned history of some of Jat gotras. Some websites of Jats have also prepared list of Jat Gotras with details of history and distriburion.[92]

Famous Jat people

Main article: List of famous Jats

The Jat people have produced famous personalities in all the fields of life such as Rajas, Politicians, Generals, Administrators, Actors, Freedom fighters, Reformers, Technocrats, Players, Industrialists and Businessmen.

Jats in popular culture

  • Maula Jat is one of the most popular films in the history of Pakistani cinema. It has been described as a kind of Pakistani/Western style movie, the story mostly revolves around the clashes between Maula Jat.[94]
  • Many Punjabi songs are written around evey day life of Jat people.
  • The 1975 Hindi film Pratigya had a popular song Main Jat Yamla Pagla shot on Dharmendra a Jat himself and acted as a Jat person role in the film.[95]
  • Ghulami (1985), Indian Hindi movie by Dharmendra, focuses on the caste and feudal system in Rajasthan and a rebellion started by Dharmendra, as a Jat youth, against the Jagirdars.
  • Heer Ranjha is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Punjab. It tells the story of the love of Heer and her lover Ranjha. Heer Saleti is an extremely beautiful woman, born into a wealthy Jat family of the Sials clan. Ranjha (whose first name is Dheedo; Ranjha is the surname), also a Jat, is the youngest of four brothers and lives in the village 'Takht Hazara' by the river Chenab.

Photo gallery

Jat people: The Sixth Prime Minister of India Choudhary Charan Singh.

Jat people: Former Deputy Prime Minister of India Chaudhari Devi Lal.

Jat people: Dhanna Bhagat.

Jat people: Gurdas Maan.

Jat people: Parasram Maderna.

Jat people: Mansukh Ranwa.

Jat people: Mahendra Singh Tikait.

Jat people: Maharaja Kishan Singh.

Jat people: Raja Ram Jat.

Jat people: Dr. Giri Raj Singh Sirohi.

Jat people: former Indian Foreign Minister K. Natwar Singh.

Jat people: Daulatram Saran.

Jat people: Chaudhari Kumbharam Arya.

Jat people: Natthan Singh.

Jat people: Sardar Singh Agre.

Jat people: Jawahar Singh.

Jat people: Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal.

Jat people: Swami Omanand Sarswati.

Jat people: Justice Mahavir Singh.

Jat people: Raja Mahendra Pratap.

References

  1. ^ Jat population 1988. Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration.1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
  2. ^ a b c d e Professor B. S. Dhillon (1994). History and study of the Jats. Beta Publishers. ISBN 1895603021
  3. ^ Calvin Kephart, Races of Mankind (Their Origin and Migration), Peter Owen Ltd., London, 1961
  4. ^ Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration. 1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
  5. ^ Surjit Mansingh, Historical Dictionary of India, Vision Books, 1998, pp. 203-204. ISBN 8170943094.
  6. ^ Sir Herbert Risley: The People of India
  7. ^ a b c d Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana.
  8. ^ E.B.Havell: The history of Aryan rule in India, page 32
  9. ^ Qanungo: History of the Jats
  10. ^ C.V.Vaidya: History of Medieval Hindu India
  11. ^ Sir Herbert Risley: The People of India
  12. ^ Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa
  13. ^ Mangal Sen Jindal: History of Origin of Some Clans in India
  14. ^ Amiram Gonen, The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World, Henry Holt, 1993, pp. 277-278. ISBN 0805022562.
  15. ^ Sir Herbert Risley: The People of India
  16. ^ History of Medieval India - Vaidya
  17. ^ Calvin Kephart, Races of Mankind (Their Origin and Migration), Peter Owen Ltd., London, 1961
  18. ^ Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria):The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration. 1993, ISBN 81-85253-22-8
  19. ^ BBC NEWS | World | South Asia | World Bank loan for India farmers
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  25. ^ Census of India 1931, Vol.I, Pt.2; Delhi:1933.Encly. Brit. Vol.12, 1968 Jats, p.969
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  36. ^ Alexander Cunningham, The Ancient Geography of India: The Buddhist Period, Including the Campaigns of Alexander, and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang (1871), pp. 290-291.
  37. ^ C.V.Vaidya: History of Medieval Hindu India
  38. ^ Sir Herbert Risley: The People of India
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  41. ^ E.B.Havell: The history of Aryan rule in India, page 32
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  45. ^ Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, 1934, p. 85-86
  46. ^ Amiram Gonen, The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World, Henry Holt, 1993, pp. 277-278. ISBN 0805022562.
  47. ^ Professor J. A. Leake (1967). The Geats of Beowulf. The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 68, 172. ISBN 029904050X
  48. ^ Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page-1
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  53. ^ Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
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  56. ^ Sindh Ka itihas, p.30
  57. ^ http://museumsrajasthan.gov.in/mounment_11.htm
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  63. ^ Siyar IV, p. 28
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  67. ^ a b c YHRD - Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database.
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  74. ^ Mangal sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002 ISBN 81-85431-08-6, Page-17, 36.
  75. ^ Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, H A Rose
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  77. ^ Ram Swarup Joon, History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
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  79. ^ B.K. Nagla, "Jats of Haryana: A sociplogical Analysis", The Jats, Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, p.308
  80. ^ (AJATA) Association of Jats of America
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  83. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
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  85. ^ Dr Ompal Singh Tugania: Jat samudāy ke pramukh Ādhār bindu, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2004
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  87. ^ Bhaleram Beniwal: Jāt Yodhaon ke Balidān, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005
  88. ^ Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998
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  92. ^ List of Jat Gotras on Jatland In Pakistan the head of Pakistan Muslim League(Q) and former prime Minister Ch. Shujaat Hussain is a jat also. His Cousin Ch. Pervaiz Ilahi who was the Chief Minister of Punjab(Pakistani) is also a jat.
  93. ^ Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties
  94. ^ MAULA JAT - The Director's Cut (1979)
  95. ^ [1]

Futher reading

  • Rattan Singh Bhangoo. Prachin Panth Parkash, Punjabi, Published in 1841.
  • Bal Kishan Dabas. Political and Social History of the Jats". Sanjay Prakashan, 2001. ISBN 81-7453-045-2
  • Dharampal Singh Dudee. Indian Army History: France to Kargil. 2001.
  • Dharampal Singh Dudee. Navin Jat History. Shaheed Dham Trust, Bhiwani, Haryana, India.
  • Dr Kanungo. History of the Jats.
  • Dr Natthan Singh. Jat-Itihas. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior, 2004.
  • Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria). The Jats: Their Origin, Antiquity & Migrations. Manthan Publications, Rohtak, Haryana. ISBN 81-85235-22-8
  • K. Natwar Singh. Maharaja Suraj Mal.
  • Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat. Maharaja Suraj Mal Aur Unka Yug (1745-1763). Jaypal Agencies, Agra. 1982. (in Hindi)
  • Raj Pal Singh. Rise of the Jat Power. Harman Pub. House. ISBN 81-85151-05-9
  • Aadhunik Jat Itihas. Dharmpal Singh Dudee & Dr Mahinder Singh Arya. Jaypal Agency, Agra. 1998.
  • Ram Swaroop Joon. History of the Jats.
  • Shashi Prabha Gupta. Demographic Differentials Among the Rajputs and the Jats: A Socio-Biological Study of Rural Haryana. Classical Pub. House. ISBN 81-7054-180-8
  • Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihasa Maharaja Suraj Mal. Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi. 1936. (in Hindi)
  • Girish Chandra Dwivedi The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire. Surajmal Educational Society, New Delhi, India. ISBN- 81-7031-150-0.
  • Dr. Atal Singh Khokkar. Jaton ki Utpati evam Vistar. Jaipal Agencies, 31-1 Subashpuram, Agra, UP, India 282007. 2002.
  • Chaudhary Kabul Singh. Sarv Khap Itihasa (History of the Jat Republic). Shoram, Muzzafarnagar, U.P. India. 1976.
  • Nihal Singh Arya. Sarv Khap Panchayat ka Rastriya Parakram (The National Role of the Jat Republic of Haryana). Arya mandal, B 11 Om Mandal, Nangloi, New Delhi, India. 1991
  • Mangal sen Jindal. History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats). Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002. ISBN 81-85431-08-6
  • Dr Vir Singh. The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India. Surajmal Educational Society, D K Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2004. ISBN 81-88629-16-2
  • Professor B. S. Dhillon History and study of the Jats, Beta Publishers. 1994. ISBN 1895603021

See also

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External links

Jat people at the Open Directory Project

Categories: Kshatriya | Indo-Aryan peoples | Ancient peoples | Ethnic groups in India | Ethnic groups in Pakistan | Social groups of India | Social groups of Rajasthan | Social groups of Pakistan | Punjabi tribes | Sindhi tribes | Punjab | JatHidden categories: Semi-protected | "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since May 2008