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Jalandhar

This article is about the city in India. For the Jalandhar meteorite of 1621, see meteorite falls. For the figure from Hindu myth, see Jalandhara .   ?Jalandhar
Punjab • India Jalandhar  Coordinates: 31°19′32″N 75°34′45″E / 31.3256, 75.5792Time zoneIST(UTC+5:30) Area
Elevation3,401 km² (1,313 sq mi)
• 228 m (748 ft) District(s)JalandharPopulation
Density1,953,508 (2001)
• 574 /km² (1,487 /sq mi) Mayor Surinder Mahay Codes
Pincode
Telephone
Vehicle
• 144 001
• +0181
• PB 08

Coordinates: 31°19′32″N 75°34′45″E / 31.3256, 75.5792 Jalandhar (Punjabi: ਜਲੰਧਰ, Hindi: जलंधर (help·info)), previously known as Jullundur, is an ancient city in Jalandhar District in the state of Punjab, India. It was the capital of Trigarttas (people living in the "land between three rivers": Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) in the times of Mahabharata war. It has an urban population of almost a million, and another million live in the rural areas outside the city.

Contents

Geography

Jalandhar is located at 31.33° N 75.58° E in Punjab.[1] It has an average elevation of 229 metres (751 feet).

The city is located almost 375 km from Delhi, 142 km from Chandigarh and about 90 km from Amritsar. Jalandhar is named after Jalandhara, a demon king who lived in water as his name suggests Jal (water) and andhar (in). It was the capital of Punjab until 1953, when it was replaced by Chandigarh. During British occupation it was called Jullundur.

Climate

The city has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters.Summers last from April To June and winter from November to February.Temperatures in summer vary from average highs of around 38 degrees Celsius to average lows of around 25 degrees Celsius.Winter temperatures vary from highs of 19 degrees Celsius to lows of 5 degrees Celsius.The climate is on the whole dry except during the brief south-west monsoon season during July-August.The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[2] Jalandhar had a population of 701,223. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Jalandhar has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 77%, and female literacy is 72%. In Jalandhar, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

The Town

People take an active part in every event of the city Jalandhar Bus Stand

The city is well known for its production of traditional Indian Sweets, sports equipment, leather goods and rubber goods, and auto parts. Many major leather manufacturers are based there, the largest being Gee Kay International who supply a variety of leather products ranging from garments to tool bags around the world. Many major sports equipment manufacturers such as BAS, JJ Jonex,Soccer International, Spartan and F.C. Sondhi are based there. In sports goods, some the world's most well known line for football, cricket, and hockey equipment are made in Jalandhar. Major sports giants such as Adidas, Reebok, Dunns, and Mitre outsource from Jalandhar. Current mayor is Rakesh Rathore

Jalandhar was hub of green revolution of India in early 60s. Dr. Dilbag Singh Athwal, world renowned scientist in plant breeding, developed India's first high yield wheat KALYAN. The wheat he name afer his native village Kalyanpur 6 miles southwest of city of Jalandhar. Later Dr. Athwal headed International Rice Research Institute, International Agricultural Development Service etc. Dr. Athwal took early retirement from his position as senior vice president Rockefeller Institute. The village Kalyanpur (now part of Jalandhar city) have produced prominent scientist including Dr. Raghbir Singh, Dr. Rajbir Kaur, Dr. Iqbal Singh Athwal.

Jalandhar is the world's biggest manufacturer of leather tool pouches and aprons with major American and European customers buying from factories in Jalandhar.

Jalandhar is also famous for its surgical tool industry. Jalandhar produces a large number of surgical tools. Big companies like Camlin outsource their production here. The city boasts of having the largest number of hospitals in Asia. A place called Basti Sheikh has got many cottage projects which run without any help of the Punjab government.[citation needed]

Jalandhar also has the biggest printing industry in India. Major publishing and advertising companies like, MBD, Aay Bee advertisers have their main offices in Jalandhar.

Jalandhar is seeing an increasing growth of technology investment, with headquarters and operational centres from the likes of Dell and Microsoft being set up. Jalandhar is also the home of the headquarters of Kayako.

Jalandhar is famous for its sports industry, but very few know the name of Hindustan Hydraulics who pioneered the manufacturing of high-tech CNC machines for sheet metal industry. The company has its customers not only in India but in countries like Germany, Holland, USA who are better known for the manufacturing of machine tools around the world.

The famous spin bowler of the Indian cricket team Harbhajan Singh comes from Jalandhar.

Jalandhar is also quite known for its electrical goods industry. Manufacturers like Standard Switchgears and Apex Electricals, located in Jalandhar, have been producing world-class electrical switchgears for over three decades.

The city is the media and mass communication hub of the region having the regional headquarters of the national television and radio channels. Radha Sahni [1], renowned media personality acclaimed by the President of India, belongs to Jalandhar. Remi Clair, also known as Remi Kaler, is a proud son of Jalandhar who has shown his worth as an actor when he bagged second lead role in a North American movie. A number of popular Punjabi folk and Bhangra singers belong to this city including Apache Indian, Bally Saini, Hans Raj Hans, Malkit Singh Golden Star, Bawa Singh Maan, Jasbir Jassi, Jazzy B, Salim, and Sarabjit Cheema. Some Bollywood singers that have come out the city, including Suman Kalyanpur (from Village Kalyanpur) and the legendary K.L. Sehgal (famous playback singers of Indian film industry).

History

Lush greenery after a shower BMC Chowk

The earliest historical mention of Jalandhar occurs in the reign of Kanishka, the Kushan King of northern India in whose time, a council of Buddhist theologians was held near Jalandhar about 100 AD to collect and arrange the sacred writings of Buddhism and to bring about reconciliation between its various sects. This makes Jalandhar along with Multan the oldest surviving city of the Punjab region. The Jalandhar Doab ( the region surrounding the city between Beas and Sutlej rivers) also marked the eastern most territory of the empire of Alexander the great. He erected giant altars in this area to mark the eastern most extent of his empire and also founded a city named Alexandria in the vicinity and left many Macedonian veterans there.

In the 7th Century, when the famous Chinese traveller and pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of Harsha Vardhana, the Kingdom of Jalandhara or Trigartta was under the rule of Raja Utito (whom Alexender Cunningham identifies with the Rajput Raja Attar Chandra of the Katoch dynasty). The kingdom was said to have extended 167 miles (269 km) from east to west and 133 miles (214 km) from north to south, thus including the hill states of Chamba, Mandi and Suket (Himachal Pradesh) and Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. Raja Utito was a tributary of Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear to have continued to rule over the country right up to the 12th century, with occasional interruptions, but their capital was Jalandhar and Kangra formed an important stronghold.

According to the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hien, who traveled India between 399 and 411 C.E., there were a great many Viharas of Buddhism in India. In the Jalandhar Doab, there were as many as 50 Viharas of Buddhism. The Buddhist religion was adopted by a large number of people. As per some historians and scholars the fourth Buddhist Council out of total six Buddhist Councils took place in Jalandhar in the first century AD during the reign of King Kanishaka.

From the later half of the tenth century up to AD 1019, the district was included in the Shahi Kingdom of the Punjab and Jalandhar was an important city in the region.

In 1750 AD Maharaja Ghamand Chandra of the Katoch dynasty was made the (first ever Rajput) Nizam of Jalandhar by the Durranis. Many Rajputs lived in and around the surrounding areas of Jalandhar before the partition in 1947. With the partition of the country, many like the Rawal Rajputs went to settle in the Pakistan side of the Punjab, whilst some went to other countries.

Educational Institutions

Jalandhar is also home to some of the major educational institutions of the region. One of the finest in the region is the first private UGC recognised university by the name: Lovely Professional University. It has a vast sprawling campus measuring to about 150 acres on national highway 1(GT road). Others are Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar, the DAV Insitute of Engineering and Technology(DAVIET) the Punjab Technical University,Govt. Tanning Institute,), Apeejay Institute of Management, DAV College, DOABA College, Hans Raj Mahila Maha vidyalaya(HMV), Kanya Maha Vidyalaya (mostly known as KMV), Mehr Chand Polytechnic, Apeejay College of Fine Arts,Guru Nanak Dev University Regional Campus, Ladhewali, B.D. Arya Girls College, Lyallpur Khalsa College(Major Institute in Northern India having approx. 9000 strength of students, imparting professional education in Computer sc & IT) and Sant Baba Bhag Singh Educational Complex

DAVIET Jalandhar

DAV Institute of Engineering & Technology(DAVIET) Jalandhar got established under the aegis of DAV college Managing committee. This is the first degree level Engineering Institute started by the DAV College Trust and Management Society. The DAV College Trust and Management Society is the largest non-government educational organization in India managing a chain of 700 institutions in India and abroad. The institute is located in the heart of city on a prime piece of land adjacent to DAV College, Jalandhar on the left side of Jalandhar-Amritsar National Highway spread over an area possessing extremely beautiful landscape with a running canal on its back and historial Burton Park on its front. DAVIET is carrying out original research of significance and technology development at the cutting edge. It imparts training to students to make them competent, motivated engineers and scientists. The Institute not only celebrates freedom of thought, cultivates vision and encourages growth, but also inculcates human values and concern for the environment and the society.

The institute offers B. Tech program in six disciplines of Engineering namely Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computer Science Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Civil Engineering along with research programs leading to M.Tech. The Institute has recently started MBA program. http://www.davietjal.org

NIT Jalandhar

Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (erstwhile Regional Engineering College) is the eighteenth NIT of the country. The institution was established in the year 1987 as Regional Engineering College and recently (October 17, 2002) has been given the status of National Institute of Technology (Deemed University) by the Government of India under the control of Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi.

As National Institute of Technology, the institute has a responsibility of providing high quality education in Engineering and Technology to produce competent technical manpower for the country. The institute offers BTech program in nine disciplines of Engineering and Technology along with research programs leading to MTech and PhD. The institute acquires a national character having 50% student intake from the State of Punjab and the rest from other states/union territories of the country. http://www.nitj.ac.in pearl

Jalandhar Cantonment

Vajra Go Carting which is open to civilians also, is a big attraction Cantonment is dotted with buildings dating back to British era

Jalandhar Cantonment is one of the oldest cantonments in India, the construction of which was started in 1848 after the first Anglo-Sikh War, when the British settled in Northern India. The original scope of this cantonment was limited to troops to quell disturbances from adjoining States for the maintenance of peace and order. In 1920 the cantonment was the scene of mutiny by Irish soldiers, who took down the Union Flag and replaced it by the flag of the Irish Republic, proclaimed at the time in Dublin (See The Connaught Rangers#Mutiny in India, 1920).

The departure of British from India and subsequent partition of the country changed the complexion of the Cantonment. It has gained tremendous importance on account of its nearness to the border with Pakistan. The Cantonment is located between latitude 30° 18' and longitude 75° 37' on the southwest and at a distance of 2 km from Cantonment Railway Station and 5 km from City Railway Station. It is situated beside Grand Trunk Road at a distance of 89 km from Amritsar and 371 km from Delhi. It covers an area of 5.87 square miles (15.2 km²). It is on Amritsar-Delhi Broad Gauge Main Line. A Class-I airfield at Adampur is situated at a distance of 19 km. The airfield is linked with Jalandhar Cantonment by rail and road. The cantonment is also home to the classic lovely sweet house which offers more than two hundred varieties of classic traditional indian sweets.

Tourist Info

Jalandhar Railway Station's reception block

Weather: Jalandhar gets very dry and hot in summers lasting from April to July. Moonsoon Rains start around early to mid July and last through August and end in September. It becomes quite cold in Dec-January. Best time to visit Jalandhar is January to March, as this time climate is quite pleasant. Along with this you can enjoy festivals like Lohri and Basant Panchami with kite flying.

Travel options from Delhi include train and road travel. Jalandhar is well connected by trains, including a Shatabdi train from Delhi to Amritsar via Jalandhar which runs twice a day with air-conditioned chair car coaches. Jammu Mail, among others, runs in the night from Delhi to Jalandhar.

Hotels in Jalandhar: The Regent Park Hotel, Skylark Hotel, Dolphin, Hotel Plaza, Majestic Grand, Lilly Resorts, President Hotel, Hotel Roxy, Kamal Palace, Maya Hotels, Raddison Hotel, Country Inn & Suites, Leo Fortune, Taj, Taramount etc. provide budget to luxury accommodations in Jalandhar. Price range varies from $10 to $400 per day.

The community gets together at markets, amusement parks, etc., especially on weekends

Places to visit in Jalandhar:Amongst the various places to visit in Jalandhar a few are The Pushpa Gujral Science City, The Devi Talab Mandir, Haveli (a restaurant that gives you the feel of the village life in Punjab),Wonderland, etc.

Harballabh Fair

The most notable event in Jalandhar is the annual national Harballabh Fair which is held every year from 26th to 29 December. Prominent exponents of classical music, both vocal and instrumental, from all over the country gathers to provide a rare feast of music for the connoisseur. The Sangeet Sammelan is held in the premises of Devi Talab 1.5 km from the Railway Station. Even Mahatma Gandhi was attracted to the festival in 1929. Jalandhar has been in the thick of the fight for freedom from the British Raj and has produced many patriots. A Desh-Bhagat Memorial Hall has been constructed here to perpetuate the memory of such martyrs. More information on Harballabh is available at their official website http://www.harballabh.org

Devi Talab Mandir

The Shivji temple site in the Devi Talab Mandir

An old temple of goddess Kali stands by the side of the Devi Talab. It is one of the 51 Shakti Peethas and the Kali is known as Tripurmalini. Sati Devi's right breast fell here. Lord Shiva of this temple is called Bhishan Bhairav.

Maa Chinmastika welfare Society

Maa Chinmastika Welfare Society is the known welfare society and office situated at Quilla Mohalla Jalandhar. Its organazed many religious and social function in the Jalandhar. Office of the society situated at Quilla Mohalla Jalandhar.

Baba Sodal Mela

The fair of Baba Sodal is associated with Sodal, a small boy who came to be respected as a baby-God. The fair is held to commemorate his death anniversary at his smadhi. The fair is held once a year in the month of Bhadon which roughly corresponds to mid-September. The celebration take place on the 14th of Shukal Paksh (bright half of the lunar month), the day on which child deity left for his heavenly abode. The fair lasts for one day. In the early hours of the morning, women come in large numbers to make offering at the smadhi.

The legend goes that Sodal was born in a family of Chadha clan of Khatri caste in Jalandhar City. It is said that one day the mother of Baba Sodal went to nearby pond to wash clothes. Despite her repeatedly asking to him to go back, he followed her. The mother lost temper and shouted at him, " Have you come here to die? Go and drown yourself in the pond." It is said that Sodal asked her three times to repeater words which she did. Sodal then plunged into the water never to appear again. According to another version, he simply fell dead on the spot; according to still another version he transformed himself into a snake and bored himself into the earth.

The main place of worship is the smadhi of Baba Sodal. Inside the smadhi, there is a painted portrait of Baba Sodal kept decorated with garlands and rosaries and is looked after by a separate priest. There is a pucca tank called ‘Baba Sodal-Da-Sarowar’. The offering at the smadh are distributed among the pilgrims and sprinkle a few drops on their body. Some have a dip in the tank.

Pilgrims of all religions come to the fair from different parts of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. Among the pilgrims, females form the majority to seek blessing for children and general well-being of their families.

Ferozpur city is a centre for numerous holy shrines and historical places.

District Administration

  • The Senior Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining Law & Order and related issues in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Police Service and other Punjab Police officials.
  • The Divisional Forest Officer, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the Forests, Environment and Wild-Life in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Forest Service and other Punjab Forest officials and Punjab Wild-Life officials.
  • Sectoral development is looked after by the district head/officer of each development department such as PWD, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal husbandry, etc. These officers are from various Punjab state services.


Bara Pind

Bara Pind is one of the most developed villages of jalandhar District. It has its own website as well, for helping NRIs, www.nrihelp.info

Famous personalities

  • Baljit singh brar, Prominent figure of punjabi media and is now editor of daily aj di awaaz and Punjab times published form jalandhar,punjab
  • Grand Ayatollah Bashir Najafi al-Jalandhari. One of the few grand ayatollahs of the Iraqi Shias, he might replace Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, should he pass away, as the leader of the Shiite world and the dean of the learning center of Najaf.
  • Diwan Bhai Abdul Hamid, Revenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State. b Jullandhar d. Lahore. Basti Danishmandan Jullandhar.
  • Zia Jalandhari, Former MD of PTV during Zia's regime and a famous Urdu poet.
  • Hakeem Syed Muhammad Alauddin, Famous Hakeem in Karachi (died 1997).

Hafeez Jalandhari. Poet, who wrote the current National Anthem of Pakistan "Pak Ser Zameen Shadbad, Kishwar-e-Haseen Shadbad".

Mr. varinder Singh Virdi of Jalandhar make 10.5 Kilometer long greeting & presented to Sh. Shanker Dayal sharma, President of India.

External links

A website for helping NRIs from Jalandhar district

Categories: Cities and towns in Punjab (India) | JalandharHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since February 2007

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