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Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

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Over 60,000 Italian prisoners of war were taken captive by the Red Army in the Second World War. Almost all were captured during the decisive Soviet "Operation Little Saturn" offensive in December 1942 which annihilated the Italian Army in Russia (Armata Italiana in Russia (ARMIR). At its height, the ARMIR was about 235,000 strong, and operated between December 1942 and February 1943 in support of the German forces engaged in and around Stalingrad. In this period the total figure of missing Italian soldiers amounted to 84,830 (Italian Ministry of Defence, 1977a 1977b). According to the Soviet archives, 54,400 Italian prisoners of war reached the Soviet concentration camps alive; 44,315 prisoners died in captivity inside the camps, most of them in the winter of 1943. A list of the soldiers’ names, in Cyrillic, including date and place of death was yielded by the Russian authorities after 1989 (Italian Ministry of Defence, 1996). 10,085 prisoners were repatriated between 1945 and 1954. The individual fate of 30,430 soldiers, who died during the fighting and the withdrawal or after capture, is less well known. It may be roughly estimated that about 20,000 men lost their lives due to the fighting and 10,000 men died between the moment they became prisoners to that of their registration inside the camps. Hence, it may be concluded that at least 54,000 Italian POWs died in Russia, with a mortality rate of 84.5% - very high even if compared with the mortality of Russian POWs captured by the Germans during World War II (1,938,000 survivors from 5,160,000 captured)(Werth, 1964).

Contents

The way to the POW camps

Travel to the destination camps in captivity covered hundreds of kilometres and was done mainly on foot. They were reported by survivors as the “davai” marches, (“davai!” is a Russian expression of urging, in this context meaning “keep moving!”), who were escorted by Red Army soldiers, and often, partisans with little mercy for those who fell down frozen or exhausted (Revelli, 1966). The transfer was completed by using goods trains, where many prisoners died as a consequence of the extremely cold temperatures and lack of food.

Camps, treatment of the POWs and causes of death

Suzdal 160, Tambov, Oranki, Krinovoje, Michurinsk, sited in Eastern European Russia, were the camps where most Italian POWs were detained in dismal conditions. Others were known just by their reference numbers, as Lager 58/c and Lager 171 (Italian Ministry of Defence, 1996). Typhus and starvation related diseases, worsened by the extreme Russian winter climate, were the major causes of mortality inside the camps (Giusti, 2003). Brutality from the Soviet troops and partisans to unarmed prisoners was reported, but survivors testified also to episodes of comradeship among soldiers of the two opposing nations, especially on the front line (Rigoni Stern, 1965) and, compassion from the Russian civilians (Vio, 2004).

Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union were subject to plenty of propaganda, which was carried out by Communist cadres of their own nationality, who had fled to the Soviet Union due to fascism (known in Italy as fuoriusciti, (“people who left home”)(Zilli, 1950). Despite allurements and threats, most of the prisoners, particularly if not previously compromised by fascism, resisted the propaganda (Giusti, 2000). Prisoners' conditions improved greatly with the spring of 1943, because of Soviet Government concern and enhanced camp administration, sharply decreased numbers of surviving soldiers to care for and increased food availability (mainly provided by the US).

War criminals

Most of the survivors were allowed to return to Italy in 1945-1946. In the same years, a group of Italian officers under detention were accused of war crimes and sentenced to many years of forced labour. After the death of Stalin the accusations proved to be false and they were released in 1954 (Reginato, 1965).

The Italians in the Soviet Union had not acted as occupation troops, and atrocities against partisans and civilians were therefore unlikely. Soviets captured by the Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia (Corpo di Spedizione Italiano in Russia, CSIR), which operated from from July 1941 to June 1942, were delivered to the Germans and endured cruel treatment by the Nazis. After the establishment of the ARMIR, Soviet prisoners were kept in Italian custody in reasonable conditions. For instance, Russian POWs were fed with standard Italian Army rations (Ricchezza, 1978).

Reasons for a forgotten tragedy

The issue of Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union remained a hot political topic in post-war Italy. It was never seriously investigated because of the Soviet authorities’ unwillingness to yield information about the destiny of the tens of thousands of missing soldiers. Their case was used in an instrumental way by the centre-right parties which accused the Soviet Union of not returning its prisoners of war (Democrazia Cristiana manifesto, 1948), and denied as anti-communist propaganda by the left (Robotti) during the first democratic elections in Italy (1948). Unbiased information underpinning the size of the tragedy and an objective historical reconstruction came only after the fall of the Soviet Union (Giusti, 2003) when most public interest in Italy had already faded away.

References

  • (Russian) CHIDK (Centr Hranenja Istoriko-Documentalnoj Kollekcij, F. 1p, 1/4b, 4/n,b 4/1,b, 4/4,b)
  • (Italian) Democrazia Cristiana manifesto. Mandati in Russia dai Fascisti, trattenuti dai comunisti, 1948
  • (Italian)Giusti, Maria Teresa. La propaganda anti-fascista tra i prigionieri di guerra Italiani nell’URSS. Il Mulino, Bologna, anno 3, numero 3, September 2000
  • (Italian) Giusti, Maria Teresa. I prigionieri italiani in Russia. Il Mulino Bologna 2003
  • (Italian) Italian Ministry of Defence. Stato Maggiore Esercito. Ufficio Storico. Le operazioni del CSIR e dell’ARMIR dal Giugno 1941 all’ottobre del 1942. Roma, 1977
  • (Italian) Italian Ministry of Defence. Stato Maggiore Esercito. Ufficio Storico. Le operazioni delle unità italiane al fronte russo 1941-1942. Roma 1977
  • (Italian) Italian Ministry of Defence. Commissariato Generale Onoranze Caduti in Guerra. CSIR-ARMIR, Campi di prigionia e fosse comuni. Stabilimento grafico militare, Gaeta 1996.
  • (Italian) Reginato, Enrico. Dodici anni di prigionia nell’URSS. Garzanti 1965
  • (Italian) Revelli, Nuto. La strada del Davai. Einaudi Torino 1966
  • (Russian) RGASPI (Rossiskiy Gosudarstvennyj Arhiv Social’no-Političeskoj Istorii f. 495 o 77: d. 26, d. 21a, d. 25, d. 26, d. 27, d. 39, d. 40, d. 49)
  • (Italian) Rigoni Stern, Mario. Il sergente della neve. Einaudi 1965
  • (Italian) Ricchezza, Antonio. Storia Illustrata di tutta la campagna di Russia: luglio 1941 – maggio 1943. Longanesi 1978
  • (Italian) Robotti, Paolo. Perché non si è fatta luce sulla campagna di Russia. Dove sono i soldati dell’ARMIR. Supplemento all’Unità, 13 Agosto 1948
  • (Italian) Valori, Aldo. La campagna di Russia CSIR, ARMIR 1941-1943. Roma 1951
  • (Italian) Vio, Emilio. Corvi sulla neve. Roma Ellemme 2004
  • Werth, Alexander. Russia at war: 1941-1945. Carroll & Graf, New York 1964
  • (Italian) Zilli, Valdo. Fascisti e anti-fascisti. Il trattamento politico dei prigionieri di guerra nell’URSS. In 'Il ponte, anno 6, No 11, November 1950
v • d • eWorld War II

Western Europe · Eastern Europe · Africa · Mediterranean · Asia and the Pacific · Atlantic

Major participants

Timeline

Aspects

To 1945 unless otherwise indicated.
Principal co-belligerents in italics.

Prelude
Causes
in Asia
in Europe

1939
Invasion of Poland
Phoney War
Winter War
Battle of the Atlantic5

1940
Denmark and Norway
Battle of France
Battle of Britain
Libya and Egypt
British Somaliland
Baltic Occupation
Bessarabia and Bukovina
Invasion of Indochina
Invasion of Greece

1941
East Africa Campaign
Invasion of Yugoslavia
Invasion of the USSR
Middle East campaign
Siege of Leningrad
Battle of Moscow
Attack on Pearl Harbor

1942
Battle of Midway
Battle of Stalingrad
2nd Battle of El Alamein
Operation Torch
Guadalcanal Campaign

1943
End in Africa
Battle of Kursk
Solomon Islands
Invasion of Sicily
Invasion of Italy5
Gilbert and Marshall Islands

1944
Cassino and Anzio
Invasion of Normandy
Mariana and Palau Islands
Operation Bagration
Battle of the Dnieper
Warsaw Uprising
Iassy-Kishinev Operation
Liberation of Paris
Operation Market Garden
Operation Crossbow
Operation Pointblank
Battle of Leyte Gulf

1945
Battle of Iwo Jima
Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Berlin
Germany surrenders
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Japan surrenders

List of military engagements

Attacks on North America
Blitzkrieg
Comparative military ranks
Cryptography
Home front
Military awards
Military equipment
Military production
Nazi plunder
Resistance
Technology
Total war

Aftermath /consequences
Effects/Casualties
Expulsion of Germans
Operation Paperclip
Occupation of Germany
Morgenthau plan
Territorial changes
Occupation of Japan
Franco-Vietnamese War
Cold War
in contemporary culture

Civilian impact / atrocities
Allied war crimes
German war crimes
Italian war crimes
Japanese war crimes
Soviet war crimes
The Holocaust
Bombing of civilians

AlliesAxis

at war from 1937
 China

entered 1939
 Czechoslovakia
 Poland
 UK
 India
 France
 Australia
 New Zealand
 South Africa
 Canada

entered 1940
 Norway
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Greece

entered 1941
 Yugoslavia
 USSR
 USA

entered 1942
 Mexico
 Brazil

entered 1943
 Italy  

entered 1944
 Romania
 Bulgaria
 Finland

others

at war from 1937
 Japan

entered 1939
 Germany
 Slovakia

entered 1940
 Italy  to 1943

entered 1941
 Bulgaria  to 1944
Croatia
Finland  to 1944
 Hungary
 Iraq  to 1941
 Romania  to 1944

entered 1942
 Thailand

entered 1943
 RSI

others

Allied Leaders
Axis Leaders
Commanders

Resistance movements

Austria · Baltic1 · Czech lands · Denmark · Ethiopia
France · Germany2 · Greece · Italy
Jewish2 · Korea · Netherlands · Moldavia2
Norway · Poland · Thailand · Soviet Union
Slovakia4 · Ukraine3 · Vietnam
Yugoslavia · others

Lists

Category · Topics
Conferences

1 Anti-Soviet.
2 Anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi.
3 Anti-Nazi, anti-Polish, and anti-Soviet.
4 Anti-Magyar, anti-Nazi, and anti-Soviet.
5 Lasted to May 1945.

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