Hungarian peopleThis article is about Hungarian people, their history and achievements. For a specific analysis of the population of Hungary and the Hungarian ethnic group, see Demographics of Hungary. For for the 1978 film, see Hungarians (film).
Magyarok Saint Stephen IMatthias CorvinusGábor BethlenBéla BartókTivadar KosztkaJános BolyaiLoránd EötvösJózsef Eötvös
c. 15.0 millionRegions with significant populations Central Europec. 10.65 million Hungary9,967,921 (2001)  Slovakia520,528 (2001)  Germany120,000 (2004)  Austria40,583 (2001)  Slovenia6,243 (2001) Southeastern Europec. 1.6 million Romania1,431,807 (2002) Serbia293,299 (2002)  Croatia16,595 (2001) Turkey6,800 (2001)  Bosnia and Herzegovina893 (1991) Eastern Europe230,000 to 240,000 Ukraine156,600 (2001) Russia76,500 (2002) Western Europe United Kingdom80,135 (2001) Ireland3,328 (2006) North Americac. 1.65 million United States1,398,724 (2000)  Canada267,255 (2001) South America Brazil80,000 Asia Israel200,000 to 250,000 Australasia (AUS / NZ) 62,000 Africa10,000 
Hungarians (Hungarian: magyarok) or Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. There are around 9.97 million Magyars in Hungary (as of 2001). Magyars were the main inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary that existed through most of the second millennium. After the Treaty of Trianon Magyars became minority inhabitants in the territory of present-day Romania (1,440,000; see: Hungarian minority in Romania), Slovakia (520,500), Serbia (293,000; largely in Vojvodina), Ukraine and Russia (170,000), Austria (40,583), Croatia (16,500), the Czech Republic (14,600) and Slovenia (10,000). Significant groups of people with Magyar ancestry live in various other parts of the world (e.g. 1,400,000 in the United States), but unlike the Magyars living within the former Kingdom of Hungary, only some of these largely preserve the Hungarian language and traditions. The Hungarians can be classified in several sub-groups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics. Hungarian ethnic subgroups that have a distinct identity are the Székelys, Csángós, Jassic people and Palócs.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Ethnic affiliations and origins
- 3 Later influences
- 4 Maps and images
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The word "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from the Bulgar-Turkic Onogur, possibly because the Magyars were neighbours (or confederates) of the Empire of the Onogurs in the sixth century, whose leading tribal union was called the "Onogurs" (meaning "ten tribes" in Old Turkic).
The "H-" prefix in many languages (Hungarians, Hongrois, Hungarus etc.) is a later addition. It was taken over from the name of the "Huns", a semi-nomadic tribe that briefly lived in the area of present-day Hungary and, according to legends originating in the medieval period, was the people from which the Magyars arose. The identification of the "Hungarians" with the "Huns" has often occurred in historiography and literature. Even today, Hun names like Attila, Réka, and Ildikó are popular among Hungarians. This identification began to be disputed in the late nineteenth century, and is still a source of major controversy among scholars who insist that there could be no direct connection between the two.
"Magyar" is the term Hungarians refer to themselves or to their language in their own language. The English equivalent for the word would be "Hungarian". However the word "Magyar" is frequently used in English context. In most of the cases, it is used, when referring to Hungarian nationality, ethnicity, and even more general, when describing the medieval nomadic Hungarian/Magyar tribes. Some sources claim "Magyar" to be the proper form instead of Hungarian, although "Hungarian" is the form that took root in the English language over the centuries.
Many theories exist on the origins and meanings of the word "Magyar"", although the etymology of the word Hungary/Hungarian is accompanied by less debate. In Old slavic texts Hungarians were referred to as Ugors or Ogurs (Ugri), in Byzantine and early Latin texts uniguri, Ungri words were used, presumably from the Turkic word On ogur, meaning ten arrows, i.e. ten tribes (the traditional Hungarian tribes (Megyer, Jenő, Keszi, Nyék, Kér, Tarján, while Kürt and Gyarmat merged into one tribe making it seven total) joined by three Kabar tribes whose names are not known for sure (with the usual suspects being Ság, Ladány, Berény, Tárkány). Later, from the Unugor form evolved the words Ungarus, Ungar, Venger. In the middle ages the Latin Ungarus, Ungaria words changed to Hungarus, Hungaria, that also referred to the Hungarians being related to the Huns, a common belief until the 19th century. This finally was the base for many languages' word for Hungarian/Hungary.
Ethnic affiliations and origins
- Main article: Hungarian prehistory
The origin of the Hungarians is partly disputed. The most widely-accepted Finno-Ugric theory of origin from the late nineteenth century is based primarily on linguistic and ethnographical arguments. Contesting these, the theory is criticized as relying too much on August Schleicher's Stammbaumtheorie of historical linguistics, and some cite that Finno-Ugric-speaking peoples have a wide range of cultural, ethnic and genetic variation. It should also be noted that though modern-day Hungarians have a predominantly European genetic makeup, one research states that about 13% of the population have retained their Uralic genes, while another sees no genetic continuity. There are also other theories stating that the Magyars are descendants of Scythians, Huns and/or Avars. These other theories tend to be based upon unsound critical methodology, especially in regard to existing linguistic evidence, so most scholars dismiss them as speculation.
Pre-fourth century ADThis section does not citeany references or sources. (May 2008)
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Sometime during the fourth millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up. The peoples speaking Finno-Ugric languages dispersed primarily towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Finno-Ugric community. They interacted with the Andronovo Culture, the evidence for that comes from burial mounds and settlement sites. More advanced tribes arriving from the southern steppes taught them how to farm, breed cattle and produce bronze objects. Around 1500 BC, they started to breed horses and horse riding became one of their typical activities.
In the early first millennium BC, the northern Ugrian subgroup (the Ob-Ugrians) moved to the lower Ob River, while southern Ugrians remained in the south and became nomadic herdsmen. Since these southern Ugrians became the ancestors of the Magyars, this division is usually marked as the beginning of the Magyars as a distinct ethnic group. During the following centuries, the Magyars continued to live in the wood-steppes and steppes southeast of the Ural Mountains, strongly influenced by their immediate neighbours of Iranian extraction.
Fourth century to c.830 ADMap showing location of the Magyars in 600 AD.
In the early eighth century, some of the Magyars moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Magyars who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241. As a consequence, earlier scholarship considered the Magyars and the Bashkirs as two branches of the same nation. The earlier Bashkirs, however, were decimated during the Mongol invasion of Europe (thirteenth century) and assimilated into Turkic peoples.
The Magyars around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars (Proto-Bulgarians, descendants of the Onogurs) and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. The Bulgars and Magyars shared a long-lasting relationship in Khazaria, either by alliance or rivalry. The system of two rulers (later known as kende and gyula) is also thought to be a major inheritance from the Khazars. Tradition holds that the Magyars were organized in a confederacy of tribes called hétmagyar. The tribes of the hétmagyar were; Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján. The confederacy was formed as a border defending allies of Khazaria mainly during the reign of Khagan Bulan and Ovadyah, with the Magyar tribe as ascendant.
c.830 to c.895
Around 830, a civil war broke out in the Khazar khaganate. As a result, three Kabar tribes out of the Khazars joined the Magyars and they moved to what the Magyars call the Etelköz, i.e. the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River (today's Ukraine). Around 854, the Magyars had to face a first attack by the Pechenegs. (According to other sources, the reason for the departure of the Magyars to Etelköz was the attack of the Pechenegs.) Both the Kabars and earlier the Bulgars may have taught the Magyars their Turkic languages; according to the Finno-Ugric theory, this is used to account for at least three hundred Turkic words and names still in modern Hungarian. The new neighbours of the Magyars were the Vikings and the eastern Slavs. Archaeological findings suggest that the Magyars entered into intense interaction with both groups. From 862 onwards, the Magyars (already referred to as the Ungri) along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz to the Carpathian Basin–mostly against the Eastern Frankish Empire (Germany) and Great Moravia, but also against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria.
Entering the Carpathian Basin (after 895)Prince Árpád crossing the Carpathians. A detail from Árpád Feszty and his assistants' vast canvas (over 1800 m²), painted to celebrate the one-thousandth anniversary of the Magyar conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Memorial Site in Hungary. The entry of the Magyars into the Carpathian basin, from the Chronicon Pictum, 1360.
In 895/896, probably under the leadership of Árpád, some Magyars crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin. The tribe called Magyars (Megyer) was the leading tribe of the Magyar alliance that conquered the center of the basin. At the same time (c.895), due to their involvement in the 894-896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Magyars in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and then by their old enemies the Pechenegs. It is uncertain whether or not those conflicts were the cause of the Magyar departure from Etelköz.
In the Carpathian Basin, the Magyars initially occupied the Great Moravian territory at the upper/middle Tisza river, a scarcely populated territory, where, according to Arabian sources, Great Moravia used to send its criminals, and where the Roman Empire had settled the Iazyges centuries earlier. From there, they intensified their looting raids across continental Europe. In 900, they moved from the upper Tisza river to Transdanubia (Pannonia), which later became the core of the arising Hungarian state. Their allies, the Kabars (probably led by Kurszán), appear to have settled in the region around Bihar. Upon entering the Carpathian Basin, the Magyars found a mainly Slavic population there.
Remnants of the Avars lived in the southwest and Romanians in the east and southeast, although the latter is a matter of controversy (see Origin of the Romanians). After the battle of Augsburg (956), the Magyars gradually changed their pastoral way of life to an agricultural one and borrowed hundreds of agricultural Slavic words. See History of Hungary for a continuation, and Hungary before the Magyars for the background.
Many of the Magyars, however, remained to the north of the Carpathians after 895/896, as archaeological findings suggest (e.g. Polish Przemysl). They seem to have joined the other Magyars in 900. There is also a consistent Hungarian population in Transylvania that is historically unrelated to the Magyars led by Árpád: the Székelys, 40% of the Hungarian minority in Romania. They are fully acknowledged as Magyars. The Székely people's origin, and in particular the time of their settlement in Transylvania, is a matter of historical controversy (see Székely for details).
History after 900
Medieval Hungary controlled more territory than medieval France, and the population of medieval Hungary was the third largest of any country in Europe. The Magyar leader Árpád is believed to have led the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin in 896. In 907, the Magyars destroyed a Bavarian army at Pressburg and laid Germany, France and Italy open to Magyar raids. These raids were fast and devastating. The Magyars defeated Louis the Child's Imperial Army near Augsburg in 910. From 917-925, Magyars raided through Basle, Alsace, Burgundy, Saxony, and Provence. Magyar expansion was checked at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955. Although the battle at Lechfeld stopped the Magyar raids against Western Europe, the raids on the Balkan Peninsula continued until 970. Hungarian settlement in the area was approved by the Pope when their leaders accepted Christianity, and Stephen I the Saint (Szent István) was crowned King of Hungary in 1001. The century between the Magyars' arrival from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1001 was dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal).Eastern Hemisphere, 1100ad.
The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850-51. There is a debate among Magyar and non-Magyar (especially Slovak and Romanian) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure throughout history:
- Some historians, especially Hungarians, support the theory that the Magyars' percentage in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the Middle Ages, and began to decrease only at the time of the Ottoman conquest, reaching as low as around 39% (or 29% according to historians from outside Hungary) in the end of the eighteenth century. The decline of the Magyars was due to the constant wars, famines and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule. The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Magyars, so the death toll among them was much higher than among other nationalities. In the 18th century their percentage declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Germany, Serbia, and other countries.
- Others, particularly Slovak and Romanian historians, tend to emphasise the multi-ethnic nature of the Kingdom even in the Middle Ages and argue that the drastic change in the ethnic structure hypothesized by Hungarian historians in fact did not occur. Therefore, the Magyars are supposed to have accounted only for about 30-40% of the Kingdom's population since its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Magyar and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of Transylvania through the times; see Origin of the Romanians.
In the nineteenth century, the percentage of Magyars in the Kingdom of Hungary rose gradually, reaching over 50% by 1900, mostly because of (economic) immigration, and partially because of some magyarization. Spontaneous assimilation was an important factor, especially among the German and Jewish minorities and the citizens of the bigger towns. On the other hand, about 1.5 million people (of whom about two-thirds were non-Hungarian) left the Kingdom of Hungary between 1890-1910 to escape from poverty.
The years 1918 to 1920 were a turning point in the Magyars' history. By the Treaty of Trianon, the Kingdom had been cut into several parts, leaving only a quarter of its original size. One third of the Magyars became minorities in the neighbouring countries. During the remainder of the twentieth century, the Magyar population of Hungary grew from 7.1 million (1920) to around 10.4 million (1980), in spite of losses during the Second World War and the wave of emigration after the attempted revolution in 1956. The number of Hungarians in the neighbouring countries mostly remained the same or slightly decreased, mostly due to assimilation (sometimes forced; see Slovakization and Romanianization) and emigration to Hungary (in the 1990s, especially from Transylvania and Vojvodina).
After the "baby boom" of the 1960s, a serious demographic crisis began to develop in Hungary and its neighbours. The Magyar population reached its greatest in 1980, after which it began to decline. This is expected to continue at least until 2050, when the population would number around seven to eight million.
Today, the Magyars represent around 35% of the population of the Carpathian Basin. Their number is around twelve to thirteen million. While other ethnic groups increased their numbers two, three or even more times during the twentieth century, the Magyar population stagnated. Between 1950 and 2000, the increase in Hungary's population was the third slowest in the world, after Bulgaria and St. Kitts and Nevis: 8.6% (from 9,338,000 to 10,137,000).
There was a referendum in Hungary in December 2004 on whether to grant Hungarian citizenship to Magyars living outside Hungary's borders (i.e. without requiring a permanent residence in Hungary). The referendum failed due to the insufficient voter turnout.
Later influencesAn embossed stone in the Ópusztaszer National Memorial Park showing a worldwide Hungarian population count.
Besides the various peoples mentioned above, the Magyars assimilated or were influenced by subsequent peoples arriving in the Carpathian Basin. Among these are the Cumanians, Pechenegs, Jazones, Germans and other Western European settlers in the Middle Ages. Romanians and Slovaks have lived together and blended with Magyars since early medieval times. Turks, who occupied the central part of present-day Hungary from c.1541 until c.1699, inevitably exerted an influence, as did the various nations (Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats and others) that resettled depopulated territories after their departure. The advanced economic and political conditions of the Slavs, who had preceded the Magyars' arrival but continued to migrate thereafter, and those of the Germans exerted a significant influence; several Hungarian words relating to agriculture, politics, religion and handicrafts were borrowed from Slavic languages. Both Jewish and Roma (Gypsy) minorities have been living in Hungary since the Middle Ages.
Maps and images
Magyars in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1911
Migrations of the Székely Hungarians
Hungarians in Harghita, Covasna, and Mureş counties of Romania (2002 data)
Hungarians in Vojvodina, Serbia
A Székely village in Covasna County, Romania
Regions where Hungarian is spoken
- List of Hungarians
- List of people of Hungarian origin
- Hungarian diaspora
- Hungarian minority in Romania
- Hungarians in Vojvodina
- Hungarians in Slovakia
- Pole, Hungarian, two good friends
- ^ a b 18. Demographic data – Hungarian Central Statistical Office and calculation at Talk:Hungarian people#Number_of_Hungarians_in_Hungary
- ^ 2001 Slovakian Census
- ^ Bund Ungarischer Organisationen in Deutschland
- ^ 2001 Austrian census
- ^ 2002 Serbian Census
- ^ a b c d e f Data from the 2000 census
- ^ http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIH#Stanovništvo
- ^ CSO Ireland - 2006 Census
- ^ The 2001 census
- ^ Revista Época Edição 214 24/06/2002
- ^ OSZK.
- ^ Hungary - The Árpáds, Encyclopædia Britannica
- ^ Hungary The Medieval Period - Flags, Maps, Economy, History, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System
- ^ Hungary - Origins and Language
- ^ Mit jelent az a szó, hogy magyar? - NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGYARORSZÁG
- ^ Translated from the Hungarian Wikipedia article on the topic. http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magyarok#A_.E2.80.9Emagyar.E2.80.9D_n.C3.A9v
- ^ Emese Saga
- ^ uirala theory-BACKGROUND - FinnoUgric Languages
- ^ Genetic structure in relation to the history of Hungarian ethnic groups | Human Biology | Find Articles at BNET.com
- ^ Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations, U.S. National Library of Medicine
- ^ Moravcsik, Gyula. Byzantine Christianity and the Magyars in the Period of Their Migration. The American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
- ^ Róna-Tas, András (1999), Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages, pp. 96
- ^ a b Blench, Roger; Matthew Briggs (1999). Archaeology and Language. Routledge, 210. ISBN 0415117615. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
- ^ History of Hungary, 895-970
- ^ [http://www.fanaticus.org/DBA/armies/III30/index.html The Magyars (650-997 AD)]
- ^ Milan Tutorov, Banatska rapsodija, istorika Zrenjanina i Banata, Novi Sad, 2001.
- ^ Hungarian historians give the lowest estimates as 70,000 people, while Serbian and Slovak authors suggest much lower numbers; around 25,000.
- ^ Specifically, the Latin term natio hungarica referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary regardless of their ethnicity.
- ^ Peaks/waves of immigration
- ^ Kocsis, Károly (1998). "Introduction", Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin. Simon Publications LLC. ISBN 193131375X. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
- Origins of the Hungarians from the Enciklopédia Humana (with many maps and pictures)
- An overview of all the various theories
- On the origins of the Hungarians by Marcell Jankovics
- Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin
- Hungary and the Council of Europe
- Facts about Hungary
- Hungarians outside Hungary - Map
- MtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms in Hungary: inferences from the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Uralic influences on the modern Hungarian gene pool
- Probable ancestors of Hungarian ethnic groups: an admixture analysis
- Human Chromosomal Polymorphism in a Hungarian Sample
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