HerpesviridaeHerpesviridae Virus classificationGroup: Group I (dsDNA) Family: Herpesviridae
The Herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.   The family name is derived from the Greek word herpein ("to creep"), referring to the latent, re-occurring infections typical of this group of viruses. Herpesviridae can cause latent or lytic infections.
- 1 Viral structure
- 2 Herpes virus life-cycle
- 3 Human herpesviridae infections
- 4 Animal herpesviridae
- 5 Taxonomy
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Herpes viruses all share a common structure—all herpesviruses are composed of relatively large double-stranded, linear DNA genomes encoding 100-200 genes encased within an icosahedral protein cage called the capsid which is itself wrapped in a lipid bilayer membrane called the envelope. This particle is known as the virion.
Herpes virus life-cycle
Infection is initiated when a viral particle contacts a cell with specific types of receptor molecules on the cell surface. Following binding of viral envelope glycoproteins to cell membrane receptors, the virion is internalized and dismantled, allowing viral DNA to migrate to the cell nucleus. Within the nucleus, replication of viral DNA and transcription of viral genes occurs.
During symptomatic infection, infected cells transcribe lytic viral genes. In some host cells, a small number of viral genes termed latency associated transcript (LAT) accumulate instead. In this fashion the virus can persist in the cell (and thus the host) indefinitely. While primary infection is often accompanied by a self-limited period of clinical illness, long-term latency is symptom-free.
Reactivation of latent viruses has been implicated in a number of diseases (e.g. Shingles). Following activation, transcription of viral genes transitions from latency-associated LAT to multiple lytic genes; these lead to enhanced replication and virus production. Often, lytic activation leads to cell death. Clinically, lytic activation is often accompanied by emergence of non-specific symptoms such as low grade fever, headache, sore throat, malaise, and rash as well as clinical signs such as swollen or tender lymph nodes and immunological findings such as reduced levels of natural killer cells.
Human herpesviridae infectionsType Synonym Subfamily PathophysiologyHHV-1 Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) α (Alpha) Oral and/or genital herpes(predominantly orofacial) HHV-2 Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) α Oral and/or genital herpes (predominantly genital) HHV-3 Varicella zoster virus(VZV) α Chickenpoxand shinglesHHV-4 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), lymphocryptovirus γ (Gamma) Infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma, CNS lymphoma in AIDSpatients,
post-transplant lymphoproliferative syndrome (PTLD), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, HIV-associated hairy leukoplakiaHHV-5 Cytomegalovirus(CMV) β (Beta) Infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome,retinitis, etc. HHV-6, -7 Roseolovirusβ Sixth disease (roseola infantumor exanthem subitum) HHV-8 Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
(KSHV), a type of rhadinovirusγ Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, some types of multicentric Castleman's disease
Zoonotic infectionsMacaque monkeyCeHV-1 Cercopithecine herpesvirus-1, (Monkey B virus) α Very unusual, with only approximately 25 human cases reported.Untreated infection is often deadly; sixteen of the 25 cases resulted in fatal encephalomyelitis. At least four cases resulted in survival with severe neurologic impairment.Symptom awareness and early treatment are important for laboratory workers facing exposure.MouseMHV-68 Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 γ Zoonoticinfection found in 4.5% of general population and more common in laboratory workers handling infected mice.ELISA tests show factor-of-four (x4) false positiveresults, due to antibody cross-reaction with other Herpes viruses.
In animal virology the most important herpesviruses belong to the Alphaherpesvirinae. Research on pseudorabies virus (PrV), the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease in pigs, has pioneered animal disease control with genetically modified vaccines. PrV is now extensively studied as a model for basic processes during lytic herpesvirus infection, and for unravelling molecular mechanisms of herpesvirus neurotropism, whereas bovine herpesvirus 1, the causative agent of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and pustular vulvovaginitis, is analyzed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of latency. The avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus is phylogenetically distant from these two viruses and serves to underline similarity and diversity within the Alphaherpesvirinae. 
- Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae
- Genus Simplexvirus
- Genus Varicellovirus
- Bovine herpesvirus 1 causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, vaginitis, balanoposthitis, and abortion in cattle.
- Bovine herpesvirus 5 causes encephalitis in cattle.
- Caprine herpesvirus 1 causes conjunctivitis and respiratory disease in goats.
- Porcine herpesvirus 1 causes pseudorabies.
- Equine herpesvirus 1 causes abortion in horses.
- Equine herpesvirus 3 causes coital exanthema in horses.
- Equine herpesvirus 4 causes rhinopneumonitis in horses.
- Canine herpesvirus 1 causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in puppies.
- Feline herpesvirus 1 causes feline viral rhinotracheitis and keratitis in cats.
- Duck herpesvirus 1 causes duck plague.
- Genus Mardivirus
- Genus Iltovirus
- Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae
- Porcine herpesvirus 2 causes inclusion body rhinitis in swine.
- Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae
The following genera are included here:
- Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae
- Genus Simplexvirus; type species: Human herpesvirus 1 or Herpes simplex; diseases: cold sores, genital herpes, encephalitis
- Genus Varicellovirus; type species: Human herpesvirus 3 or Varicella-zoster virus; diseases: chickenpox, shingles
- Genus Mardivirus; type species: Gallid herpesvirus 2
- Genus Iltovirus; type species: Gallid herpesvirus 1
- Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae
- Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae
- Genus Cercopithecine; type species: Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1
- Genus Ictalurivirus; type species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1
Viruses templatesv • d • eBaltimore(virus classification) I: dsDNA virusesAdenovirus, Herpesvirus, PoxvirusII: ssDNA virusesParvovirusIII: dsRNA virusesReovirusV: (-)ssRNA virusesOrthomyxovirus, RhabdovirusVI: ssRNA-RT virusesRetrovirusVII: dsDNA-RT virusesHepadnavirus
viral haemorrhagic feversMosquito (Dengue fever- Chikungunya- Rift Valley fever- Yellow fever- O'nyong'nyong- West Nile- Japanese Encephalitis- St. Louis Encephalitis- Murray Valley encephalitis- Ross River) Tick (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever- Omsk hemorrhagic fever- Kyasanur forest disease- Alkurma- Powassan) Zoonoticviruses (Vector) Menangle- Nipah- BDVRat (Lassa fever- Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever- Junin- Argentine hemorrhagic fever- Bolivian hemorrhagic fever- Puumala- Andes- Sin Nombre- Haantan) Bat (Australian bat lyssavirus- Ebola- Marburg hemorrhagic fever- Mokola- Duvenhage) Viral infections characterized by
skinand mucous membranelesionsHerpes simplex- Chickenpox- Herpes zoster- Smallpox- Monkeypox- Measles- Rubella- Cowpox- Vaccinia- Molluscum contagiosum- Roseola- Fifth disease- Hand, foot and mouth disease- Foot-and-mouth disease- KSHV- WartViral hepatitisHepatitis A- Hepatitis B- Hepatitis C- Hepatitis D- Hepatitis E- Hepatitis GViral infections of the respiratory systemAvian influenza- Acute viral nasopharyngitis- Infectious mononucleosis- Influenza- Severe acute respiratory syndrome- Viral pneumonia- Human parainfluenza viruses- RSV- hMPVSexually transmitted HIV(AIDS, AIDS dementia complex) - HPV(Genital warts, Cervical cancer) - Adult T-cell leukemiaViral gastroenteritisRotavirus- Norovirus- Astrovirus- Coronavirus- AdenovirusViruses and cancers HTLV(induces leukemia) - VSV(oncolytic) Other viral diseases Cytomegalovirus- Mumps- Bornholm disease
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- ^ Huff J, Barry P (2003). "B-virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) infection in humans and macaques: potential for zoonotic disease". Emerg Infect Dis 9 (2): 246–50. PMID 12603998.
- ^ Herpes-B Fact Sheet
- ^ a b Hricova M, Mistrikova J (2007). "Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 serum antibodies in general human population". Acta virologica 51 (4): 283–7. PMID 18197737.
- ^ Fenner, Frank J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Murphy, Frederick A.; Rott, Rudolph; Studdert, Michael J.; White, David O. (1993). Veterinary Virology (2nd ed.). Academic Press, Inc. ISBN 0-12-253056-X.
- International Herpes Management Forum
- http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/bvirus.pdf PDF Article on Cercopithecine herpesvirus
- http://www.gsu.edu/bvirus National B Virus Resource Center
- Animal viruses