Gordon BrownFor others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). The Right Honourable
Speaking at the Commonwealth Finance Ministers Press Conference in 2004.Prime Minister of the United KingdomIncumbentAssumed office
27 June2007Monarch Elizabeth IIDeputy Harriet HarmanPreceded by Tony BlairChancellor of the ExchequerIn office
2 May1997 – 27 June2007Prime Minister Tony BlairPreceded by Kenneth ClarkeSucceeded by Alistair DarlingMember of Parliament
for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath
Dunfermline East(1983 – 2005) IncumbentAssumed office
9 June1983Preceded by New constituency Majority 18,216 (43.6%) Born 20 February1951(1951-02-20) (age 57)
Govan, Glasgow, ScotlandNationality British(Scottish) Political party LabourSpouse Sarah BrownChildren John and James FraserResidence 10 Downing Street(official)
North Queensferry(private)Alma materUniversity of EdinburghOccupation PoliticianProfession Academic
JournalistReligion Church of Scotland
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. He took office on 27 June 2007, three days after becoming leader of the Labour Party. Prior to this he served as the Chancellor of the Exchequer under Tony Blair from 1997 to 2007, becoming the United Kingdom's longest serving Chancellor since Nicholas Vansittart in the early 19th century. He has a PhD in history from the University of Edinburgh, and, as Prime Minister, he also holds the positions of First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service. He has been a Member of Parliament since 1983; firstly for Dunfermline East and since 2005 for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath.
- 1 Early life and career before parliament
- 2 Election to parliament and opposition
- 3 Brown as Chancellor of the Exchequer
- 4 Run up to succeeding Blair
- 5 Brown as Prime Minister
- 6 Married life and family
- 7 Controversies
- 8 Depictions of Brown in popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early life and career before parliament
His father, John Ebenezer Brown, was a minister of the Church of Scotland. He was a strong influence on Brown and died in 1998, aged 84. His mother Jessie Elizabeth Souter, known as Bunty, died in 2004 aged 86. She was the daughter of John Souter, a timber merchant Gordon was brought up with his brothers John and Andrew Brown in a manse in Kirkcaldy—the largest town in Fife, Scotland across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh. In common with many other notable Scots, he is therefore often referred to as a "son of the manse". Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programme, which took him two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes. At age 16 he wrote that he loathed and resented this "ludicrous" experiment on young lives.
He was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the age of only 16. He suffered a retinal detachment after being kicked in the head during an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school. He was left blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and lying in a darkened room for weeks at a time. Later at Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the same symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his eye was saved. Brown graduated from Edinburgh with First Class Honours MA in 1972, and stayed on to complete his PhD (which he gained in 1982), titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918-29.
In 1972, while still a student and with strong connections with the previous Dean of Admissions, Brown was elected Rector of the University of Edinburgh, the convener of the University Court. Brown served as Rector until 1975, and he also edited The Red Paper on Scotland. From 1976 to 1980 he was employed as a lecturer in Politics at Glasgow College of Technology - in the 1979 general election, Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency and lost to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram. From 1980 he worked as a journalist at Scottish Television, later serving as current affairs editor until his election to parliament in 1983.
Election to parliament and opposition
Gordon Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in 1983 general election and became opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In 1986, he published a biography of the Independent Labour Party politician James Maxton, the subject of his PhD thesis. Brown was Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1987 to 1989 and then Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, before becoming Shadow Chancellor in 1992.
Having led the Labour Movement Yes campaign, refusing to join the cross-party Yes for Scotland campaign, during the 1979 Scottish devolution referendum, while other senior Labour politicians - including Robin Cook, Tam Dalyell and Brian Wilson - campaigned for a No vote, Brown was subsequently a key participant in the Scottish Constitutional Convention, signing the Claim of Right for Scotland in 1989.
After the sudden death of Labour leader John Smith in May 1994, Brown was tipped as a potential party leader, but did not contest the leadership after Tony Blair became favourite. It has long been rumoured a deal was struck between Blair and Brown at the former Granita restaurant in Islington, in which Blair promised to give Brown control of economic policy in return for Brown not standing against him in the leadership election. Whether this is true or not, the relationship between Blair and Brown has been central to the fortunes of "New Labour", and they have mostly remained united in public, despite reported serious private rifts.
As Shadow Chancellor, Brown worked to present himself as a fiscally competent Chancellor-in-waiting, to reassure business and the middle class that Labour could be trusted to run the economy without fuelling inflation, increasing unemployment, or overspending—legacies of the 1970s. He publicly committed Labour to following the Conservatives' spending plans for the first two years after taking power.
Brown as Chancellor of the ExchequerGordon Brown speaking at the annual World Bank/IMF meeting in 2002
- See also Chancellorship of Gordon Brown
The Prime Minister's website singles out three achievements in particular from Brown's decade as Chancellor: presiding over "the longest ever period of growth", making the Bank of England independent and delivering an agreement on poverty and climate change at the G8 summit in 2005. However, critics of Brown's record as Chancellor point out that he was fortunate to inherit a strong economy from the Conservatives.
Acts as Chancellor
- Bank of England independence: On taking office as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Brown gave the Bank of England operational independence in monetary policy, and thus responsibility for setting interest rates.
- Spending: Once the two-year period of following the Conservatives' spending plans was over, Brown's 2000 Spending Review outlined a major expansion of government spending, particularly on health and education. In his April 2002 budget, Brown raised national insurance to pay for health spending. Brown changed tax policy in other ways, such as the working tax credits.
- Growth: An OECD report shows UK economic growth averaged 2.7% between 1997 and 2006, higher than the Eurozone's 2.1%, though lower than in any other English-speaking country. UK unemployment is 5.5%, down from 7% in 1997 and lower than the Eurozone's average of 8.1%.
- Euro: In October 1997, Brown took control of the United Kingdom's membership of the European single currency issue by announcing the Treasury would set five economic tests to ascertain whether the economic case had been made. In June 2003 the Treasury indicated the tests had not been passed.
- Gold sales: Between 1999 and 2002 Brown sold 60% of the UK's gold reserves at $275 an ounce. It was later attacked as a "disastrous foray into international asset management" as he had sold at close to a 20-year low. He pressured the IMF to do the same, but it resisted. The gold sales have earned him the pejorative nickname 'Golden Brown', after the song by The Stranglers.
- Spectrum auctions: Under Brown, telecom radio frequency auctions gathered £22.5 billion for the government. By using a system of sealed bids and only selling a restricted number of licences, they extracted high prices from the telecom operators. Germany at this time applied a similar auction, and these together caused a severe recession in the European telecoms development industry (2001 Telecoms crash) with the loss of 100,000 jobs across Europe, 30,000 of those in the UK.
- Debt relief and development: Brown believes it is appropriate to remove much of the unpayable Third World debt but does not think all debt should be wiped out. On 20 April 2006, in a speech to the United Nations Ambassadors, Brown outlined a "Green" view of global development.
In the 1997 election and subsequently, Brown pledged to not increase the basic or higher rates of income tax. Over his Chancellorship, he reduced the basic rate from 23% to 20%. However, in all but his final budget, Brown increased the tax thresholds in line with inflation, rather than earnings, resulting in fiscal drag. Corporation tax fell under Brown, from a main rate of 33% to 28%, and from 24% to 19% for small businesses.
In 1999, Brown introduced a lower tax band of 10%. He abolished this in his last budget in 2007 to reduce the basic rate from 22% to 20%, increasing tax for 5 million people, and, according to the Institute for Fiscal Studies leaving those earning between under £18,000 as the biggest losers.
Analysis of policies as Chancellor
- Growth: Brown states that his Chancellorship had seen the longest period of sustained economic growth in the history of the United Kingdom. The details in Brown's growth figures have been challenged.
- Anti-poverty: The Centre for Policy Studies found that the poorest fifth of households, which accounted for 6.8% of all taxes in 1996–7, accounted for 6.9% of all taxes paid in 2004-5. Meanwhile, their share of state benefit payouts dropped from 28.1% to 27.1% over the same period.
- Tax: According to the OECD UK taxation has increased from a 39.3% share of gross domestic product in 1997 to 42.4% in 2006, going to a higher level than Germany. This increase has mainly been attributed to active government policy, and not simply to the growing economy.
- Pensions: Conservatives have accused Brown of imposing "stealth taxes". A commonly reported example resulted in 1997 from a technical change in the way corporation tax is collected, the indirect effect of which was for the dividends on stock investments held within pensions to be taxed, thus lowering pension returns and contributing to the demise of some pension funds. The Treasury contend that this tax change was crucial to long-term economic growth.
Other policy stances as Chancellor
- Higher education: In 2000, Brown started a political row about higher education (referred to as the Laura Spence Affair) when he accused the University of Oxford of elitism in its admissions procedures, describing its decision not to offer a place to state school pupil Laura Spence as "absolutely outrageous". Lord Jenkins, then Oxford Chancellor, said "nearly every fact he used was false."
- Anti-racism and popular culture: During a diplomatic visit to India in January 2007, Brown responded to questions concerning perceived racism and bullying against Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty on the British reality TV show Celebrity Big Brother saying, "There is a lot of support for Shilpa. It is pretty clear we are getting the message across. Britain is a nation of tolerance and fairness." He later said the debate showed Britain wanted to be "defined by being a tolerant, fair and decent country."
Run up to succeeding Blair
- Main articles Labour Party leadership election, 2007 and Timeline for the Labour Party leadership elections, 2007
In October 2004 Tony Blair announced he would not lead the party into a fourth general election, but would serve a full third term. Political controversy over the relationship between Brown and Blair continued up to and beyond the 2005 election, which Labour won with a reduced parliamentary majority and reduced vote share. The two campaigned together but the British media remained—and remains—full of reports on their mutual acrimony.
Blair, under pressure from within his own party, announced on 7 September 2006 that he would step down within a year. Brown was the clear favourite to succeed Blair for several years with experts and the bookmakers; he was the only candidate spoken of seriously in Westminster. Appearances and news coverage leading up to the handover were interpreted as preparing the ground for Brown to become Prime Minister, in part by creating the impression of a statesman with a vision for leadership and global change.
Brown is the first prime minister from a Scottish constituency since the Conservative/SUP Sir Alec Douglas-Home in 1964. He is also one of only four prime ministers who attended a university other than Oxford or Cambridge, along with the Earl of Bute (Leiden), Lord John Russell (Edinburgh) and Neville Chamberlain (Mason Science College, later Birmingham).
On 9 September 2006 Charles Clarke said in an interview that the Chancellor had "psychological" issues he must confront and accused him of being a "control freak" and "totally uncollegiate". Brown was also "deluded", Clarke said, to think Blair can and should anoint him as his successor now. Environment Secretary David Miliband stressed his support for Brown.
From January 2007 the media reported Brown had now "dropped any pretence of not wanting, or expecting, to move into Number 10 in the next few months"—although he and his family will likely use the more spacious 11 Downing Street. This enabled Brown to signal the most significant priorities for his agenda as Prime Minister; speaking at a Fabian Society conference on 'The Next Decade' in January 2007, he stressed education, international development, narrowing inequalities (to pursue 'equality of opportunity and fairness of outcome'), renewing Britishness, restoring trust in politics, and winning hearts and minds in the war on terror as key priorities.
In March 2007 Brown's character was attacked by Lord Turnbull who worked for Brown as Permanent Secretary at the Treasury from 1998 to 2002. Turnbull accused Brown of running the Treasury with "Stalinist ruthlessness" and treating Cabinet colleagues with "more or less complete contempt". This was especially picked-up on by the British media as the comments were made on the eve of Brown's budget report.
Brown as Prime Minister
- See also Premiership of Gordon Brown
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Brown ceased to be Chancellor and, upon the approval of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 27 June 2007. Like all modern Prime Ministers, Brown concurrently serves as the First Lord of the Treasury and the Minister for the Civil Service, and is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and, hence, also a Privy Counsellor. He is also Leader of the Labour Party and Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. He is the sixth of the twelve post-war Prime Ministers to be appointed to the role without having won a general election.
Brown has proposed moving some traditional prime ministerial powers conferred by royal prerogative to the realm of Parliament, such as the power to declare war and approve appointments to senior positions. Brown wants Parliament to gain the right to ratify treaties and have more oversight into the intelligence services. He has also proposed moving some powers from Parliament to citizens, including the right to form "citizens' juries", easily petition Parliament for new laws, and rally outside Westminster. He has asserted that the attorney general should not have the right to decide whether to prosecute in individual cases, such as in the loans for peerages scandal.
- End to corruption: Following the cash for honours scandal, Brown emphasised cracking down on corruption. This has led to a belief that Brown will introduce a new ministerial code which sets out clear standards of behaviour for ministers.
- Constitutional reform: Brown has not stated whether he proposes a U.S.-style written constitution—something the UK has never had—or a looser bill of rights. He said in a speech when announcing his bid that he wants a “better constitution” that is “clear about the rights and responsibilities of being a citizen in Britain today”. He plans to set up an all-party convention to look at new powers for Parliament. This convention may also look at rebalancing powers between Whitehall and local government. Brown has said he will give Parliament the final say on whether British troops are sent into action in future.
- Housing: House planning restrictions are likely to be relaxed. Brown said he wants to release more land and ease access to ownership with shared equity schemes. He backed a proposal to build new eco-towns, each housing between 10,000 and 20,000 homeowners—up to 100,000 new homes in total.
- Health: Brown intends to have doctors' surgeries open at the weekends, and GPs on call in the evenings. Doctors were given the right of opting out of out-of-hours care two years ago, under a controversial pay deal, signed by then-Health Secretary John Reid, which awarded them a 22% pay rise in 2006. Brown stated that the NHS was his "top priority", yet he had just cut the capital budget of the English NHS from £6.2bn to £4.2bn.
The Brown government was involved in controversy in April 2008 over the decision to scrap the 10p Income Tax Band and he was forced into making concessions. In the local elections on 1 May 2008, Labour suffered their worst results in 40 years finishing in third place with a projected 24% share of the national vote.
Foreign policyGordon Brown touring the slums of Nairobi, Kenya in 2005
Brown made his first overseas trip as Prime Minister not to Washington, but to Berlin, and spoke to German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
In a speech given to the Labour Friends of Israel in April 2007, Brown stated:
Many of you know my interest in Israel and in the Jewish community has been long-standing…My father was the chairman of the Church of Scotland's Israel Committee. Not only as I've described to some of you before did he make visits on almost two occasions a year for 20 years to Israel—but because of that, although Fife, where I grew up, was a long way from Israel with no TV pictures to link us together—I had a very clear view from household slides and projectors about the history of Israel, about the trials and tribulations of the Jewish people, about the enormous suffering and loss during the Holocaust, as well as the extraordinary struggle that he described to me of people to create this magnificent homeland.
Brown said in a letter published March 17, 2008 that the United Kingdom will hold an inquiry into the Iraq war -- but not soon. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown will skip the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics, on August 8, 2008 in Beijing, it was reported on April 9, 2008. But, he will not boycotting the Olympics and will attend the closing ceremony, on August 24, 2008. Brown has been under intense pressure from human rights campaigners to send a message to China, concerning the 2008 Tibetan unrest. But his decision not to attend the opening ceremony is not an act of protest, the decision was made weeks ago and was not a stand on principle.
Diplomatic relationship with the U.S.Brown with American President George W. Bush
There has been widespread speculation on the nature of the UK's relationship with the United States under Brown's government. A Washington, D.C. speech by Brown's close aide Douglas Alexander was widely reported as both a policy shift and a message to the U.S.: "In the 21st century, strength should be measured on what we can build together…we need to demonstrate by our deeds, words and our actions that we are internationalist, not isolationist, multilateralist, not unilateralist, active and not passive, and driven by core values, consistently applied, not special interests."
However Downing Street's spokesman strongly denied the suggestion that Alexander was trying to distance Britain from U.S. foreign policy and show that Britain would not necessarily, in Tony Blair's words, stand "shoulder to shoulder" with George W. Bush over future military interventions: "I thought the interpretation that was put on Douglas Alexander's words was quite extraordinary. To interpret this as saying anything at all about our relationship with the U.S. is nonsense."
Brown personally clarified his position; "We will not allow people to separate us from the United States of America in dealing with the common challenges that we face around the world. I think people have got to remember that the relationship between Britain and America and between a British prime minister and an American president is built on the things that we share, the same enduring values about the importance of liberty, opportunity, the dignity of the individual. I will continue to work, as Tony Blair did, very closely with the American administration."
Married life and family
Brown's early girlfriends included the journalist Sheena Macdonald, Marion Caldwell and Princess Margarita, the eldest daughter of exiled King Michael of Romania. She has said about their relationship: "It was a very solid and romantic story. I never stopped loving him but one day it didn't seem right any more, it was politics, politics, politics, and I needed nurturing."
Brown married Sarah Macaulay in a private ceremony at his home in North Queensferry, Fife, on 3 August 2000. On 28 December 2001, a daughter, Jennifer Jane, was born prematurely and died on 8 January 2002. Gordon Brown commented at the time that their recent experiences had changed him and his wife:
I don't think we'll be the same again, but it has made us think of what's important. It has made us think that you've got to use your time properly. It's made us more determined. Things that we feel are right we have got to achieve, we have got to do that. Jennifer is an inspiration to us.
Sarah Brown keeps a low profile, rarely making official appearances either with or without her husband, in contrast to Cherie Blair. She is inevitably much sought after to give interviews, although is reluctant to do so. However, she is patron of several charities, and has written articles for national newspapers related to this.
Of his two brothers, John Brown is Head of Public Relations in the Glasgow City Council. His brother Andrew Brown has been Head of Media Relations in the UK for the French-owned utility company EDF Energy since 2004. He was previously director of media strategy at the world's largest public relations firm Weber Shandwick from June 2003 to 2004. Previously he was editor of the Channel 4 political programme Powerhouse from 1996 to 2003, and worked at the BBC from the late 1970s to early 1980s.
ControversiesIt has been suggested that some of the information in this article's Criticism or Controversy section(s)be merged into other sections to achieve a more neutral presentation. (Discuss)
Links with nuclear power industry
Another controversial issue was the link between Brown's brother Andrew and one of the main nuclear lobbyists, EDF Energy, given the finding that the government did not carry a proper public consultation on the use of nuclear power in its 2006 Energy Review. Attention has also been drawn to the fact that the father-in-law of Brown's closest adviser Ed Balls, Tony Cooper (father of the Labour minister Yvette Cooper) has close links with the nuclear industry. Cooper was described as an "articulate, persuasive and well-informed advocate of nuclear power over the last ten years" by the Nuclear Industry Association on his appointment as Chairman of the British Nuclear Industry Forum in June 2002. He is also a member of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and was appointed to the Energy Advisory Panel by the previous Conservative administration.
Gordon Brown caused controversy during September and early October 2007 by letting speculation continue on whether he would call a snap general election. Following David Cameron's 'off the cuff' speech and an opinion poll showing Labour 6% behind the Conservative Party in key marginal seats, he finally announced that there would be no election in the near future and seemed to rule out an election in 2008. This has been taken by some in the media and opposition as a sign of weakness.
November 2007 has seen Gordon Brown face intense criticism of not adhering to the 'military covenant', a convention within British politics stating that in exchange for them putting their lives at risk for the sake of national security, the armed forces should in turn be suitably looked after by the government. Criticism has come from several former Chiefs of Defence, including General Lord Guthrie, First Sea Lord Lord Boyce, Air Chief Marshal Lord Craig, Field Marshal Lord Bramall and Field Marshal Lord Inge. Poor housing, lack of equipment and adequate healthcare provisions are some of the major issues Brown has been accused of neglecting.
Brown has continued to be dogged by controversy about not holding a referendum on the EU Treaty of Lisbon, despite a Labour manifesto pledge to give the British public a referendum on the original EU Constitution. Brown has argued that the Treaty significantly differs from the Constitution, and as such does not require a referendum. This approach has seen Brown come under heavy fire from opponents on both sides of the House and in the press. Brown has responded with plans for a lengthy debate on the topic, stating that he believes the issue to be too complex for the British people to decide. This has led to him being labelled patronising and out of touch with popular opinion. Brown's stubbornness on the issue may largely be due to the fact that he thinks he would lose a referendum on account of widespread Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom.
Depictions of Brown in popular culture
Brown's reputed dourness while holding a high public office comes across in the way he is portrayed on both the screen—where he was played by David Morrissey in the Stephen Frears directed TV movie The Deal and by Peter Mullen in the TV movie The Trial of Tony Blair—and stage: he features as a character in the 2007 Musical TONY! The Blair Musical, written by Chris Bush and Ian McCluskey. During its run in York, he was played by Bush, and then by Michael Slater at the 2007 Edinburgh Fringe Festival and subsequently at the Pleasance Theatre in Islington, London. Also drawing on this perception, radio presenter Nick Abbot plays a sound effect of Darth Vader because of the way Gordon Brown's jaw appears to detach as he breathes in.
In keeping with its tradition of having a comic strip for every Prime Minister, Private Eye features a comic strip, The Broonites (itself a parody of The Broons), parodying Brown's government. The Eye has also started a column titled "Prime Ministerial Decree", a parody of statements that would be issued by Communist governments in the former Eastern Bloc. This is in reference to a criticism of Brown having "Stalinist tendencies".
The Blair-Brown rivalry has also been the subject of substantial cultural attention, and indeed the television and stage productions mentioned above touch on it. Furthermore, the Franz Ferdinand song "You're the Reason I'm Leaving" (from You Could Have It So Much Better) is believed to be at least partially about the end of the Blair-Brown rivalry, as told from Blair's perspective. The song contains the lyric: I'd no idea that in four years I'd be hanging from a beam behind the door of number ten, singing "fare thee well, I am leaving, yes I leave it all to you."
In the movie The Queen, when Tony Blair (played by Michael Sheen) is talking with Alastair Campbell (played by Mark Bazeley) about the result of the meeting of Princess Diana's funeral and the press' response to Tony Blair's speech about Diana's death, there is a call from someone named Gordon, and Tony Blair told his secretary to put him on hold. This is a reference to Gordon Brown.
Gordon Brown was depicted in Season 12 of South Park sitting at a table of world leaders opposite Nicolas Sarkozy in the episode "Canada on Strike". He was portrayed speaking in an English accent, perhaps a reflection of the mellowing his Scottish accent has received over the years. However, the accuracy of the impersonation is still under question..
- UK general elections: 1983, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2001, 2005, subsequent election
- Labour Party leadership election, 2007
Brown as Chancellor
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- ^ Are you Statistically Prepared to Become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom?. BBC - h2g2. BBC (2005-08-01). Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
- ^ Sylvester, Rachel; Alice Thomson and Toby Helm. "Clarke attack on Brown 'the deluded control freak'", The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group Limited, 2006-09-09. Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
- ^ Bright, Martin. "It must be Gordon, Gordon, Gordon", New Statesman, New Stickman, 2006-09-11. Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
- ^ Temko, Ned. "Brown invokes JFK as No 10 beckons", The Observer, Guardian News and Media Limited, 2007-01-14. Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
- ^ Fabian Society (2007-01-15). "Make education our national mission". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
- ^ Naughton, Philippe. "Brown hit by 'Stalinist' attack on Budget eve", The Times, Times Newspapers Limited, 2007-03-20. Retrieved on 2007-03-30.
- ^ O'Connor, John Kennedy. "Brown's Ascendency" ABC Radio National Perspective. June 25, 2007. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/perspective/stories/2007/1960948.htm
- ^ "The king is dead", 'The Economist', 2007-07-05.
- ^ "Gordon’s manifesto for change", 'The Times', 2007-05-13.
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- ^ "Labour suffers big council losses", BBC, 2008-05-02.
- ^ Jones, George. "The subtle shift in British foreign policy", Telegraph.co.uk, 2007-06-12. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
- ^ Jonny Paul: Background: New British PM will likely be friend to Israel, Jerusalem Post, June 27, 2007
- ^ Brown agrees to Iraq war probe -- one day, CNN, March 17, 2008
- ^ UK's Brown to skip Olympics opening, CNN, April 10, 2008
- ^ "The subtle shift in British foreign policy", BBC. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
- ^ "Brown flies out to meet Merkel and will see Bush later", The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
- ^ "Speech not critical of US - Brown", BBC. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
- ^ Gordon Brown profiled, The Guardian, March 6, 2001
- ^ BBC News. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
- ^ Losing baby has changed us forever, says Brown, The Telegraph 6 February 2002 Accessed 10 June 2007
- ^ "BBC News. Retrieved on September 23, 2007.
- ^ "Wife will seek to stay out of the limelight", The Daily Telegraph, 2007-05-12. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
- ^ Brown, Sarah. "Why I want you to get behind Maggie's", The Scotsman, 2006-11-11. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- ^ Mackay, Neil. "this woman could save you £40m", The Sunday Herald, February 20, 2000.
- ^ Andrew Brown to head media team at EDF Energy, EDF Energy, September 13, 2004
- ^ The powerful business of promoting a nuclear future, Terry Macalister July 11, 2006, The Guardian
- ^ Nuclear review 'was misleading', BBC News, 15 February 2007
- ^ Labour and the nuclear lobby, Analysis, Brian Wheeler, BBC News, May 23, 2007
- ^ Tony Cooper is new Chairman of BNIF, 28 June 2002, Nuclear Industry Association
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- ^ Army Jobs Core Values and the Military Covenant.
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- ^ "The Independent - Renew the Military Covenant". Retrieved on November 11, 2007.
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- ^ "The Times - Battle of the EU treaty to last for months". Retrieved on October 19, 2007.
- ^ The Queen DVD, Miramax, at 00:34:00
- ^ Growling Gordon finds new voice as ‘estuawy Bwown’ - Times Online
- ^ Captain Britain and MI: 13 #1
- ^ Have no fear, SuperGordon is here to help save the world - but only in new comic book 'Captain Britain', The Daily Mail, June 2, 2008
- ^ Prime Minister turns comic book hero, The Sunday Mail June 1, 2008
- Brown, Gordon (2007). Britain's Everyday Heroes. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-8459-6307-1.
- Brown, Gordon (2007). Courage: Eight Portraits. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-6532-1.
- Brown, Gordon (2006). in Wilf Stevenson: Speeches 1997-2006. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-8837-5.
- Brown, Gordon (ed.); Wright, Tony (ed.) (1995). Values, Visions and Voices: An Anthology of Socialism. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-731-5.
- Brown, Gordon (1989). Where There's Greed: Margaret Thatcher and the Betrayal of Britain's Future. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-228-0.
- Brown, Gordon (ed.); Cook, Robin (ed.) (1987). Scotland: The Real Divide. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-0-906391-18-1.
- Brown, Gordon (1986). Maxton: A Biography. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-042-2.
- Bower, Tom (2003). Gordon Brown. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-717540-6.
- Jefferys, Kevin (2002). Labour forces from Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown. IB Taurus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4175-1633-9.
- Keegan, William (2003). The Prudence of Mr. Gordon Brown. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-84697-1.
- Rosen, Greg (ed.) (2002). Dictionary of Labour Biography. Methuen. ISBN 978-1-902301-18-1.
- Naughtie, James (2001). The Rivals: The Intimate Story of a Political Marriage. Fourth Estate. ISBN 978-1-84115-473-2.
- Peston, Robert (2005). Brown's Britain: How Gordon Runs the Show. Short Books. ISBN 978-1-904095-67-5.
- Routledge, Paul (1998). Gordon Brown: The Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81954-9.
- Pym, Hugh; Kochan, Nick (1998). Gordon Brown the First Year in Power. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-3701-4.
- Rawnsley, Andrew (2001). Servants of the people:The inside story of New Labour. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-027850-7.
- Rosen, Greg (2005). Old Labour to New:The Dreams that Inspired, the Battles that Divided. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-045-2.
- Routledge, Paul (2003). Bumper Book of British Lefties. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-064-3.
External linksWikisource has original works written by or about: Gordon Brown Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Gordon Brown Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gordon Brown
- 10 Downing Street - Prime Minister: The Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP
- Audio and Transcript of Gordon Brown’s First Speech as Labour Party Leader 24 June 2007
- Gordon Brown - full access article in Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Guardian Unlimited Politics - Special Report: Gordon Brown
- TheyWorkForYou.com - Gordon Brown
- BBC News - Gordon Brown in Africa January 2005 trip about his 'Marshall plan for Africa'
- Gordon Brown at the Open Directory Project
- Observer: How Gordon Brown become the most powerful Chancellor in history
- Transcript of Gordon Brown's acceptance speech Triple A accessible version
- John Newsinger: Brown's Journey from Reformism to Neoliberalism, International Socialism — gives a left wing perspective on Gordon Brown's political evolution
- Gordon Brown news and information
John SmithShadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
1992 – 1997 Succeeded by
Kenneth ClarkePreceded by
Kenneth ClarkeChancellor of the Exchequer
1997 – 2007 Succeeded by
Alistair DarlingPreceded by
Tony BlairPrime Minister of the United Kingdom
2007 – present Incumbent Minister for the Civil Service
2007 – present First Lord of the Treasury
2007 – present Parliament of the United KingdomNew constituency Member of Parliamentfor Dunfermline East
1983– 2005Constituency abolished Member of Parliamentfor Kirkcaldy
2005– present Incumbent Party political offices Preceded by
Tony BlairLeader of the British Labour Party
2007 – present Incumbent Academic offices Preceded by
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Magnús MagnússonOrder of precedence in England and WalesPreceded by
The Rt Hon Jack StrawMP
Prime Minister Succeeded by
The Rt Hon Michael MartinMP
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The Most Rev and Rt Hon John Sentamu
Archbishop of YorkGentlemen
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The Rt Hon Michael MartinMP
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