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Demographics of Houston

This article on the demographics of Houston contains information on population characteristics of Houston, Texas, including households, family status, age, gender, income, race and ethnicity.


Population and households

City of Houston
Past censuses[1][2]Year Population Rank 1850 2,396  ? 1860 4,845  ? 1870 9,332  ? 1880 16,513  ? 1890 27,557  ? 1900 44,633 85 1910 78,800 68 1920 138,276 45 1930 292,352 26 1940 384,514 21 1950 596,163 14 1960 938,219 7 1970 1,232,802 6 1980 1,595,138 5 1990 1,630,553 4 2000 1,953,631 4

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 1,953,631 people, 717,945 households, and 457,330 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,371.7 people per square mile (1,301.8/km²). There were 782,009 housing units at an average density of 1,349.6 per square mile (521.1/km²). If the city of Houston were a U.S. state, it would rank 36th in population—its 2.01 million residents in 2004 would place it behind Nevada and ahead of New Mexico.[4][5] In 2005, the Greater Houston area had a population of 5.5 million.[6]

There were 717,945 households out of which 33.1 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2 percent were married couples living together, 15.3 percent had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3 percent were non-families. Twenty-nine percent of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2 percent had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.39.

In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5 percent under the age of 18, 11.2 percent from 18 to 24, 33.8 percent from 25 to 44, 19.1 percent from 45 to 64, and 8.4 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $36,616, and the median income for a family was $40,443. Males had a median income of $32,084 versus $27,371 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,101. Nineteen percent of the population and 16 percent of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 26.1 percent of those under the age of 18 and 14.3 percent of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Race and ethnic origins

Houston is a diverse and international city, in part because of its many academic institutions and strong biomedical, energy, manufacturing and aerospace industries. According to the U.S. Census 2000, the racial makeup of the city was 49.27 percent White, 25.31 percent Black or African American, 0.44 percent Native American, 5.31 percent Asian, 0.06 percent Pacific Islander, 16.46 percent from other races, and 3.15 percent from two or more races. 37 percent of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.

The Hispanic population in Houston is increasing as more immigrants (illegal or otherwise) from Latin American countries look for work in the area. The city has the third-largest Hispanic population in the United States. It is estimated that about 400,000 immigrants reside in the Houston area illegally.[7] This influx of immigrants is partially responsible for Houston having a population younger than the national average.

Houston also has large populations of immigrants from Asia. In addition, the city has the largest Vietnamese American population in Texas and third-largest in the United States.[8][9] A significant number of African immigrants have made the Houston area home. It has been estimated that Greater Houston has the largest Nigerian expatriate population in the United States. [10]

Since the mid-1990s changes in immigration from Cuba to the United States occurred due to the wet feet, dry feet policy and other policy changes; many Cubans immigrated through Mexico and people who did not have relatives in Miami settled in Houston; this caused an expansion of Houston's Cuban American community.[11]


  1. ^ 169 Years of Historic Houston.
  2. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. Campbell Gibson, Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Published June 1998. Last accessed January 11, 2007.
  3. ^ American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ Demographics. Greater Houston Partnership
  5. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2005 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 (SUB-EST2005-01). United States Census Bureau
  6. ^ Post-Census Population Change: Houston is growing faster than the state and the nation. Greater Houston Partnership
  7. ^ Hegstrom, Edward. Shadows cloaking immigrants prevent accurate count. Houston Chronicle (February 21, 2006).
  8. ^ Money Smart Press Release. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
  9. ^ Power Speaks Spanish in Texas. Puerto Rico Herald
  10. ^ Houston Looking to Expand a "Natural" Relationship with Africa
  11. ^ "Immigration: Cubans Enter U.S. at Texas-Mexico Border." Houston Press. 1.

External links

Categories: Houston, Texas

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