Chronology of the ancient Near East
- See short chronology for a timeline in absolute dates.
Bronze Age • Bronze Age collapse • Iron AgeLanguages Assyriology • Cuneiform script
Sumerian literature • Babylonian literature • Hittite textsMythology Mesopotamian mythology • Babylonian mythology • Hittite mythologyOther topics Cuneiform law • Babylonian law • Assyrian law
The following periods need to be distinguished:
- Early Bronze Age: A series of rulers and dynasties whose existence is based mostly on the Sumerian King List besides some that are attested epigraphically (e.g. En-me-barage-si). No absolute dates within a certainty better than a century can be assigned to this period.
- Middle to Late Bronze Age: Beginning with the Akkadian Empire around 2300 BC, the chronological evidence becomes internally more consistent. Essentially, for this period, a good picture can be drawn of who succeeded whom, and synchronisms between Mesopotamia, the Levant and the more robust chronology of Ancient Egypt can be established. The assignment of absolute dates is a matter of dispute; the conventional middle chronology fixes the sack of Babylon at 1591 BC while the short chronology fixes it at 1531 BC.
- The Bronze Age collapse - a "Dark Age" begins with the fall of Babylonian Dynasty III (Kassite) around 1200 BC, the invasions of the Sea Peoples and the collapse of the Hittite Empire.
- Early Iron Age: around 900 BC, historical data, written records become more numerous once more, with the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, enabling the certain assignment of absolute dates. Classical sources such as the Canon of Ptolemy, the works of Berosus and the Hebrew Bible provide chronological support and synchronisms. An eclipse in 763 BC which anchors the Assyrian list of imperial officials.
- 1 Variant Bronze Age chronologies
- 2 Sources of
- 2.1 Inscriptional
- 2.2 Classical
- 2.3 Astronomical
- 2.4 Dendrochronology
- 2.5 Radiocarbon dating
- 2.6 Synchronisms
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Variant Bronze Age chronologies
Due to the sparsity of sources throughout the "Dark Age", the history of the Near Eastern Bronze Age down to the end of the Third Babylonian Dynasty is a "floating chronology". In other words, it fits together internally as a "relative chronology" but not as a "absolute chronology".
The major schools of thought on the length of the Dark Age are separated by 56 or 64 years. This is because the key source for their dates is the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa and the visibility of Venus has a 56/64[clarify] year cycle. There have been other attempts to anchor the chronology using records of eclipses and other methods, but they are not yet widely supported. The alternative major chronologies are defined by the date of the 8th year of the reign of Ammisaduqa, king of Babylon. This choice then defines the reign of Hammurabi.
The current scholarly consensus is with the short chronology (sack of Babylon 1531 BC) used in this article. In older literature, the most commonly encountered is the middle chronology (sack of Babylon 1595 BC). The middle chronology currently still has strong academic supporters. The alternative "long" and "ultra low" chronologies are clear minority views. There are also some scholars who discount the validity Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa entirely.
The following table gives an overview of the competing proposals, listing some key dates and the deviation relative to the short chronology:Chronology Ammisaduqa Year 8 Reign of Hammurabi Fall of Babylon I ± Ultra-Low 1542 BC 1696 BC - 1654 BC 1499 BC +32 aShort or Low 1574 BC 1728 BC - 1686 BC 1531 BC ±0 a Middle 1638 BC 1792 BC - 1750 BC 1595 BC -64 a Long or High 1694 BC 1848 BC - 1806 BC 1651 BC -120 a
The chronologies of Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia depend significantly on the chronology of Ancient Egypt. To the extent that there are problems in the Egyptian chronology, these issues will be inherited in chronologies based on synchronisms with Ancient Egypt.
Sources of chronological data
Thousands of cuneiform tablets have been found in an area running from Anatolia to Egypt. While many are the modern equivalent of grocery receipts, these tablets, along with inscriptions on buildings and public monuments, provide the major source of chronological information for the ancient Middle East.
- State of materials
While there are some relatively pristine objects, such as you might see in the Louvre or the British Museum, the vast majority of recovered tables and inscriptions are in much worse condition. They have been broken with only portions found, intentionally defaced, and damaged by weather or the effects of being buried underground. Many tablets were not even baked in antiquity and have to be carefully handled until they are heated properly. 
The fact of where an item is recovered is an important piece of information for archaeologist. Unfortunately, two forces get in the way of this data. First, in ancient times old materials were often reused either as building material or fill, sometimes at a great distance from the original location. Secondly, looting has been a fact of life for archaeological sites, dating at least back to Roman times. The provenance of a looted object is difficult or impossible to determine.
- Multiple Versions
Over time, key documents like the Sumerian King List were repeatedly copied across the generations. As a result, there are sometimes multiple versions of a chronological source that differ from each other. It can be very hard to determine which version is correct. The Sumerian King List is a good example. 
The translation of cuneiform documents is quite difficult, especially given the damaged nature of much source material. Additionally, our knowledge of the underlying languages, like Akkadian and Sumerian, have evolved over time, so a translation done now may be quite different than one done in 1900 AD. The result of all this is that there can be honest disagreement what the document really says. Worse yet, many archaeological finds have not yet been published, much less translated. Those held in private collections may never be.
Many of our important source documents, such as the Assyrian King List, are the products of government and religious establishments. They often have a built in slant in favor of the king or god in charge. A king may even take credit for a battle or construction project of an earlier ruler. The Assyrians in particular have a literary tradition of always putting the best possible face on history. The tablets or inscriptions in question still have value, though one does have to keep the slant in mind.
Keeping historical lists of rulers was traditional in the ancient Near East.
Covers rulers of Mesopotamia from a time "before the flood" up to the fall of the Isin Dynasty. For many early city/states it is the only source of chronological data. A major problem is that many early rulers are listed with fantastically long reigns. There has been some speculation that this stems from an error transcribing from the base 60 arithmetic of the Sumerians to the decimal based system of the later Akkadians.
This list deals only with the rulers of Babylon. It has been found in two versions Babylonian King List A and Babylonian King List B. The later dynasties in the list reflect the Kassite and Sealand periods of Babylon. There is also a Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Period which covers the later part of the 1st millennium.
Found in multiple differing copies, this tablet lists all the kings of Assyria and their regnal lengths back into the mists of time, with the portions with reasonable data beginning at around the 14th century BC. When combined with the various Assyrian chronicles, the Assyrian King List anchors the chronology of the 1st millennium. Some contrarians believe this anchoring is less than solid.
Many chronicles have been recovered in the ancient Near East. Most are partial or fragmentary, but when combined with other sources, they provide a rich source of chronological data. 
- Synchronistic Chronicle
Found in the library of Assurbanipal in Nineveh, it records the interaction of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires, from the Assyrian point of view. While useful, the consensus is that this chronicle should be taken with a grain of salt.
- Chronicle P
While quite incomplete, this tablet provides the same type of information as the Assyrian Synchronistic Chronicle, but from the Babylonian point of view.
- Royal Chronicle of Lagash
The Sumerian King List omits any mention of Lagash, even though it was clearly a major power during the period covered by the list. The Royal Chronicle of Lagash appears to be an attempt to remedy that omission, listing the kings of Lagash in the form of a chronicle. . It should be noted that some scholars believe the chronicle to be either a parody of the Sumerian King List or a complete fabrication.
As today, political figures in the ancient Near East liked to take credit for public works. Temples, walls, statues, pretty much anything built by a ruler is likely to have some sort of inscription mentioning their name. The kings also were sure to record major deeds like battles won, titles acquired, or gods appeased in some form of public inscription. These are very useful in tracking the reign of a ruler.
Unlike current calendars, most ancient calendars were based on how long the current ruler had been in power. A year might be "the 5th year in the reign of Hammurabi". As part of this, each royal year was given a title, like "the year Ur was defeated". Most often this reflected a deed of the ruler. The compilation of these years are called date lists. 
Eponym (limmu) lists
In Assyria, a royal official, or Limmu was selected every year of a king's reign. Many copies of these lists have been found.  . Naturally, things are not as clear cut as all that. There are sometimes more or fewer limmu than the length of a king's reign. And sometimes the different versions of the Eponym List disagree on a limmu.
Trade, diplomatic, and disbursement records
As is often the case in archaeology, it is the everyday records of a civilization that give the best picture of a civilization. Cuneiform tablets were constantly moving around the ancient Near East, offering alliances (sometimes including daughters for marriage), threatening war, acting as shipping documents for mundane supplies or settling accounts receivable. Most were tossed away after use the way that we would toss the receipt from a fast food restaurant. Fortunately for us, they didn't really have recycling, except perhaps to use the material as wall filler in new construction.
The classic example. A number of cuneiform tablets were found at Amarna Egypt, the city of the pharaoh Akenaten. They were written mostly in Akkadian, the diplomatic language of the time. Several named rulers in the region including the kings of Assyria and Babylon. Assuming that the correct kings have been identified, it locks the chronology of the ancient Near East to that of Egypt, at least from the middle of the 2nd Millennium.
Some data sources are available to us from the classical period
Berosus was a Babylonian astronomer living during the Hellenistic period. He wrote a history of Babylon which has not survived to modern times. Luckily, portions of this work were preserved by other classical writers.
This book provides a list of kings starting at around 750 BC in Babylon and forward through the Persian and Roman periods, in an astronomical context. It is used to help define the chronology of the 1st millennium.
- Hebrew Bible
Not having the benefit of being written into clay and buried, the records of the Hebrews have an additional layer of time and translation to work through in being used as a source for chronology. On the other hand, the Hebrews did live pretty much in a territory directly in the crosshairs of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt and the Hittites, giving them a front row seat to actions in the area. Mainly of use in the 1st millennium and with the Assyrian New Kingdom.
A record of the movements of Venus during the reign of a king of the First Babylonian Dynasty. Using it, various scholars have proposed dates for the fall of Babylon based on the 56/64 year cycle of Venus. More recent work has suggested that the fundamental 8 year cycle of Venus is a better metric, leading to the proposal of a "ultra-low" chronology.
A number of lunar and solar eclipses have been suggested for use in dating the ancient Near East. Many suffer from the vagueness of the original tablets in showing that an actual eclipse occurred. At that point, it becomes a question of using computer models to show when a given eclipse would have been visible at a site, complicated by difficulties in modeling the slowing rotation of the earth, Delta T. One important event is the Ninevah Eclipse, found in an Assyrian limmu list i.e. "Bur-Sagale of Guzana, revolt in the city of Ashur. In the month Simanu an eclipse of the sun took place." This eclipse is considered to be solidly dated to 15 June 763 BC. Another important event is the Ur III Lunar/Solar Eclipse pair in the reign of Shulgi. Most calculations for dating using eclipses have assumed that the Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa is a legitimate source.  
Dendrochronology attempts to use the variable growth pattern of trees, expressed in their rings, to build up a chronological timeline. At present, there are no continuous chronologies for the Near East. A floating chronology has been developed using trees in Anatolia for the Bronze and Iron Ages. Until a continuous sequence is developed, the usefulness for improving the chronology of the Ancient Near East is limited.  
As in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean, radiocarbon dates run one or two centuries earlier than the dates proposed by archaeologists. It is not at all clear which groups is right, if either. Mechanisms have been proposed for explaining why radiocarbon dates in the region might be skewed. Equally logical arguments have been made suggesting that the archaeological dates are too late. Time will tell.  The spread of accelerator based carbon dating techniques may help clear up the issue. Another promising front is the dating of lime plaster from structures. 
At least as far back as the reign of Thutmose III, Egypt took a strong interest in the ancient Near East. At times they occupied portions of the region, a favor returned in later days by the Assyrians. Some key synchronisms:
- Battle of Kadesh, involving Ramses II of Egypt (in his 5th year of reign) and Muwatalli II of the Hittite empire. Recorded by both Egyptian and Hittite records.
- Peace treaty between Ramses II of Egypt (in his 21st year of reign) and Hattusili III of the Hittites. Recorded by both Egyptian and Hittite records. 
- Amenhotep III (Amenophis III) marries the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni. There is also a record of messages from the pharoh to Kadashman-Enlil I of Babylon in the Amarna Letter (EA1-5). Other Amarna letters link Amenhotep III to Burnaburiash II of Babylon (EA6) and Tushratta of Mitanni (EA17-29) as well.
- Akhenaten married the daughter of Tushratta of Mitanni (as did his father Amenhotep III) leaving a number of records on the matter.
- Amenhotep IV corresponded with Burnaburiash II of Babylon (EA7-11,15), and Ashuruballit 1 of Assyria (EA15-16)
There is much evidence that the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley traded with the region. This is demonstrated by clay seals found at Ur III and in the Persian Gulf. In addition, if the land of Meluhha does indeed refer to the Indus Valley, then there are extensive trade records ranging from the Akkadian Empire until the Babylonian Dynasty I.
Thera and Eastern Mediterranean
Goods from Greece made their way into the ancient Near East, directly in Anatolia and via the island of Cyprus in the rest of the region and Egypt. A Hittite king, Tudhaliya IV even captured Cyprus as part of an attempt to enforce a blockade of the Assyrians.
The eruption of the Thera volcano provides a possible time marker for the region. A large eruption, it would have sent a plume of ash directly over Anatolia and filled the sea in the area with floating pumice. This pumice appeared in Egypt, apparently via trade. Current excavations in the Levant may also add to the timeline. Unfortunately, the exact date of the volcanic eruption is subject of strong contest between the radiocarbon experts, who place it at around 1625 BC and archaeologists, who support a date around 1450 BC.
See alsoAncient Near East Portal
- ^ a b  V.G.Gurzadyan, On the Astronomical Records and Babylonian Chronology, Akkadica, v 119-120 (2000), pp. 175-184.)
- ^ Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History, Marc Van de Mieroop, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0415195322
- ^  Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative
- ^ Transalation of Sumerian King List
- ^ A Mathematical Approach to Certain Dynastic Spans in the Sumerian King List, Dwight W. Young, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 1988), pp. 123-129
- ^ Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Period.
- ^  Assyrian King List at Livius.org.
- ^ The Chronology of Ancient Assyria Re-assessed, Newgrosh, B, JACF VOLUME 08 - Pages 78 - 106 1999.
- ^  Chronicles at Livius.org.
- ^  Synchronistic Chronicle at Livius.org
- ^  Chronicle P at Livius.org.
- ^  Royal Chronicle of Lagash at Livius.org.
- ^ Mesopotamian Chronicles By Jean-Jacques Glassner Published 2004 ISBN 1589830903
- ^  Mesopotamian Year Names
- ^  Assyrian Eponym List 1
- ^ The Eponyms of the Assyrian Empire 910-612 B.C., by Alan Millard. State Archives of Assyria Studies 11, Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1994. xvi + 153 pp., 20 plates
- ^ The Venus Tablet and Refraction, V.G. Gurzadyan, Akkadica, v. 124 (2003), pp. 13-17.
- ^ Ancient Astronomical Observations and Near Eastern Chronology, Wayne A. Mitchell, JACF Vol 3 1990.
- ^ Anatolian tree rings and the absolute chronology of the eastern Mediterranean, 2220-718 BC Kuniholm, Peter Ian, Kromer, Bernd, Manning, Sturt W, Newton, Maryanne, et al. Nature. London: Jun 27, 1996. Vol. 381, Iss. 6585; pg. 780-783
- ^ Dendrochronological Dating in Anatolia: The Second Millennium B.C." Peter I. Kuniholm, Maryanne W. Newton, Carol B. Griggs, & Pamela J. Sullivan, Der Anschnitt, Anatolian Metal III, Beiheft 18, 2005, pp. 41-47.
- ^  Aegean Dendrochronology Project
- ^  Recent Developments in Near Eastern Chronology and Radiocarbon Dating, Michael G. Hasel, Institute of Archaeology, Southern Adventist University, Origins Vol 56 2004, pp 6-31.
- ^ New Uses for Old Laboratory techniques, Jason A. rech, Near Eastern Archaeology, dec 2004;67,4. p 212-219.
- ^  Battle of Kadesh - Hittite Perspective
- ^  Treaty between Egypt and the Hittite Empire
- ^ Gadd, C. J. “Seals of Ancient Indian Style Found at Ur.” Proceedings of the British Academy 18 (1932):191-210.
- ^ Urbanism on Late Bronze Age Cyprus: LC II in Retrospect, Ora Negbi, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Feb 2005, Iss. 337; pp. 1-45
- ^ WWW Companion site to: MANNING, S. W. (1999) A Test of Time
- Chronology at the Crossroads: The Late Bronze Age in Western Asia, Bernard Newgrosh, Troubador Publishing, 2007, ISBN 1906221626
- The Kingdom of the Hittites. (New Edition.), Trevor Bryce, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0199281327
- A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323 BC, Marc Van De Mieroop, Wiley-Blackwell, 2006, ISBN 1405149116
- Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City, Gwendolyn Leick, Penguin , 2003, ISBN 0140265740
- H.Gasche, J.A.Armstrong, S.W.Cole and V.G.Gurzadyan, Dating the Fall of Babylon (1998).
- Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative
- Chronicles at Livius.org
- Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
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