BradfordFor other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). For the larger local government district, see City of Bradford. Bradford
Bradford shown within West YorkshirePopulation293,717 OS grid referenceSE164331 - London204 miles (328 km) Metropolitan boroughCity of BradfordMetropolitan countyWest YorkshireRegionYorkshire and the HumberConstituent countryEnglandSovereign stateUnited KingdomPost townBRADFORD Postcode districtBD1-15Dialling code01274 PoliceWest YorkshireFireWest YorkshireAmbulanceYorkshireEuropean ParliamentYorkshire and the HumberUK ParliamentBradford East
Bradford WestList of places: UK• England• Yorkshire
Bradford (pronunciation (help·info)) is a city in West Yorkshire, England. It lies amongst the Pennines, 8.6 miles (13.8 km) west of Leeds, and 13 miles (20.9 km) northwest of Wakefield. Bradford is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the metropolitan borough of the City of Bradford, Bradford being the administrative centre. Bradford has a population of 293,717, whilst the wider borough has a population of 493,100.
Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence during the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture, particularly wool. It was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, and amongst the earliest industrialised settlements, rapidly becoming the "wool capital of the world". The area's supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population size and a stimulation in civic investment; Bradford has fine Victorian architecture including the grande Italianate City Hall.
The textile sector in Bradford fell into a terminal decline from the mid-20th century. Since this time, Bradford has faced similar challenges to the post-industrial north, including deindustrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues. Since the 1950s Bradford has experienced significant levels of immigration, particularly from India and Pakistan, and subsequently has the fourth highest proportion of Muslims in England and Wales. Since the decline in heavy industry, Bradford has emerged as a tourist destination with attractions such as the National Media Museum, Cartwright Hall, and Saltaire, the latter of which is a World Heritage Site.
- 1 History
- 2 Governance
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Education
- 6 Health
- 7 Development
- 8 Twin towns
- 9 Culture and recreation
- 10 Religion
- 11 Originating in Bradford
- 12 Transport
- 13 In popular culture
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The name Bradford is derived from the "broad ford" at Church Bank (below the site of Bradford Cathedral) around which a settlement had begun to appear before the time of the Norman Conquest ("Bradeford" in the Domesday book of 1086). The ford crossed the stream called Bradford Beck.
Bradford has long been a centre of the West Riding wool industry. Bradford was one of the many English towns which became prosperous during the Industrial Revolution. Bradford's textile industry dates back as far as the 13th century, but it was not until the 19th century that it became world-famous. Wool was imported in vast quantities for the worsted cloth in which Bradford specialised. Other fibres were also processed, e.g., alpaca. Yorkshire boasted plentiful supplies of iron ore, coal and soft water which were used in cleaning raw wool, and a huge coal seam provided the power that the industry needed. Sandstone, Bradford's local stone, was an excellent resource for the building of the mills, and the large population of West Yorkshire meant there was a readily available workforce.
A culture of innovation was fundamental to Bradford's dominance in the 19th and 20th centuries. New textile technologies were invented in the city. A prime example being the work of Samuel Lister. This innovation culture continues today throughout Bradford's economy: from automotive Kahn Design  to electronics Pace Micro Technology.
To support the textile mills, a large manufacturing base grew up in the city, providing textile machinery, and this led to diversification with different industries thriving side-by-side. For example, Bradford's proud manufacturing history includes the Jowett Motor Company, which had many great achievements during its 50 years existence. The textile industry started to decline in the 1920s, and Bradford has been cited as an example of deindustrialization. However, today a spirit of rebirth has taken hold and Bradford is one of the north's important cities, with modern technology, chemicals, engineering, academic and financial sectors replacing the "dark satanic mills" image of the Industrial Revolution.
The grandest of the mills (no longer used for textile production) is Lister Mills, the chimney of which can be seen from most places in Bradford. It has recently become a beacon of regeneration in the city after a £100 million conversion to apartment blocks by property developers Urban Splash .
Salts Mill is another large mill that has an exciting new life in the modern era. The mill is occupied by high technology companies, contemporary design shops and gallery spaces. It is the hub of the world heritage site of Saltaire, three miles north of Bradford city centre. The Bradford district also contains the villages of Thornton and Haworth, the birthplace and home of the world famous Brontë sisters. Clayton was home to Albert Pierrepoint, Britain's last hangman.
Ever since the Industrial Revolution there have been waves of immigration into the city and today there is a very diverse population (Figures for ethnic origin of inhabitants are given in the entry for the City of Bradford). This is reflected in the different types of places of worship built over the years. Nonconformist chapels were frequently built in the 19th century, and mosques started appearing in the 20th century. The city has been praised for its cultural diversity but on occasion conflict has arisen. In January 1989, copies of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses were publicly burnt in Bradford, and the city's Muslim community took the lead in the campaign against the book in the UK. In July 2001, ethnic tensions and troubles in other northern towns led to serious rioting in Bradford "Bradford Riot".
Bradford was one of the contenders for 2008 European Capital Of Culture. Although in the end it lost out to Liverpool, the bid created confidence in the city and has led to new initiatives.
In 2004, the Bradford Urban Regeneration Company commissioned architect Will Alsop to create a vision for the city's future and the role of a "City Centre" in the 21st century. The audacious (yet controversial) Alsop plan  envisions four regenerated quarters within the heart of the city — The Bowl, The Channel, The Market and The Valley — each creating new public spaces for commerce, education, leisure and showcasing Bradford's setting within the Pennine region.
- See also: City of Bradford
During the English Civil War the town was Parliamentarian in sympathy, but changed hands several times as it was difficult to defend. A life-size statue of Oliver Cromwell decorates the façade of the 19th century City Hall, suggesting a continuing commitment to parliamentary values. However, Bradford did not gain its own MPs until the Reform Act 1832 gave it two. Other prominent statues of political figures include Robert Peel and Richard Cobden (campaigners for free trade which Bradford at one time saw as key to its commercial success) and W.E. Forster (perhaps Bradford's most famous MP). Bradford's politicians tended to identify with industrialists in the 19th century, but the city played an important part in the early history of the Labour Party. A mural on the back of the Priestley Centre For The Arts (visible from Leeds Road) commemorates the centenary of the founding of the Independent Labour Party in 1893.
Bradford was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1847, covering the parishes of Bradford, Horton and Manningham. It became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888. The county borough was granted city status by Letters Patent in 1897. Bradford was expanded in 1882 to include Allerton, Bolton, Bowling, Heaton, Thornbury and Tyersal. In 1899 it was further expanded by adding North Bierley, Eccleshill, Idle, Thornton, Tong and Wyke. Clayton was added in 1930.
The county borough was merged with the Borough of Keighley, the Urban Districts of Baildon, Bingley, Denholme,Cullingworth, Ilkley, Shipley and Silsden, along with part of Queensbury and Shelf Urban District and part of Skipton Rural District by the Local Government Act 1972. One result of the boundaries of Bradford being widened in this way is that the district is marginal in terms of party political loyalty — at present no group is in overall control of the council.
In 1858 a case of poisoning occurring as a result of sweets sold from Bradford's Green Market being adulterated with arsenic led to legislation such as the Pharmacies Act 1868 and W.E. Gladstone's regulating of the adulteration of foodstuffs. See The Bradford Sweet Poisoning.
The City of Bradford has an estimated population (2003) of 477,775. About 300,000 of these live within the main city area itself, the rest living in the surrounding towns, villages and countryside.Panorama over Bradford, 2006.
Unusually for a major city, Bradford is not built on any substantial body of water. The ford from which it takes its name (Broad-Ford) was a crossing of the stream called Bradford Beck. The beck rises in the Pennine hills to the west of the city, and is swelled by tributaries such as Horton Beck, Westbrook, Bowling Beck and Eastbrook. At the site of the original ford, just below the present Bradford Cathedral, it turns north, and flows more or less straight towards the River Aire at Shipley.Leeds and Liverpool Canal (Bingley).
Bradford Beck's course through the city centre is entirely underground, and was mostly so by the middle of the 19th century. On the 1852 Ordnance Survey map of Bradford it is visible as far as Sun Bridge, at the end of Tyrrell Street, and then again from beside the Railway Station at the bottom of Kirkgate. On the 1906 Ordnance Survey, it disappears at Tumbling Hill Street, off Thornton Road, and first appears again north of Cape Street, off Valley Road, though there are further culverts as far as Queens Road. This is substantially the position today.
Bradford Beck is now a central element of the Alsop plan to regenerate the city centre. 'The Bowl' is an ambitious project to open up the beck and create a huge pool to act as the pivotal point of the new city centre.
The Bradford Canal, built in 1774, took its water from Bradford Beck and its tributaries. This supply was often inadequate to feed the locks, and the polluted state of the canal led to its temporary closure in 1866: the canal was closed in the early 20th century as uneconomic. Like the beck, the canal is about to be rejuvenated in the Alsop plan. 'The Channel' envisages the reopening of the canal and the creation of a new canal-side community.
Bradfordale (or Bradforddale) is a name given by geographers to the valley of Bradford Beck (see for example Firth 1997). It can reasonably be regarded as one of the Yorkshire Dales, though as the site of a big city, it is often not recognised as such.
Bradford's historical prominence in textile industries has now waned, however the prevailing low wages and the support of a thriving educational sector continue to create economic success in many areas, notably: Finance (Yorkshire Building Society, Bradford & Bingley plc, Abbey/Grupo Santander, Provident Financial plc), Retail (Morrison's supermarkets, Grattan Mail Order), Electronics (Pace Micro, Filtronic), Engineering (NG Bailey, Powell Switchgear), Manufacturing (Denso Marston, CIBA Chemicals, Bailey Offsite).
EducationUniversity of Bradford The Old Building at Bradford College, founded in 1832
The University of Bradford has over 10,000 students. It received its Royal Charter in 1966, but traces its history back to the 1860s. It has always been a technical and technological institution, and has no true arts faculties; but it still covers a wide range of subjects including technology & management science, optometry, pharmacy, medical sciences, nursing studies, archaeology and modern languages. Its Peace Studies Department, founded with Quaker support in 1973, was for long the only such institution in the UK. In terms of nationally recognised leading areas of research there are various departments such as Institute of Pharmaceutical Innovation, Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, Bradford School of Pharmacy, Peace Studies, Archaeology, Engineering, Management, Biochemistry, amongst others. It balances academic research, teaching quality with a strong tradition of social inclusion.
Bradford College has around 26,000 students. It developed from the 19th century technical college whose buildings it has inherited. It now offers a wide range of further and higher educational courses, and is an Associate College of Leeds Metropolitan University. It has absorbed the Art School whose most famous alumnus is David Hockney.
Bradford Grammar School, in Frizinghall, dates back to 1548: it has been co-educational since 1999. The Girls' Grammar School, Bradford is a quite separate establishment dating from 1875: it continues to take only girls except for its Infants' Department. Woodhouse Grove School is another major private education establishment, located in the Aire Valley at Apperley Bridge.
There are two major hospitals in Bradford: Bradford Royal Infirmary and St Luke's Hospital. Plus significant local health centres and cottage hospitals. Private health care is also available at the Yorkshire Clinic, Shipley and the Yorkshire Eye Hospital, Greengates.
Bradford is home to one of the UK's largest ever birth cohort studies, known as Born in Bradford. Partly supported by European funding, it is the result of close collaboration between the University of Bradford, the NHS and other institutions in West Yorkshire. It will track the lives of all the babies born in the city from 2006 to 2008 and aim to find solutions to some of Bradford's public health problems, such as obesity and a higher than average infant mortality rate.
DevelopmentLeeds to Liverpool Canal, Saltaire. Mill buildings built by Sir Titus Salt.
Recently many significant developments have been completed in the Bradford district (last 10 years). In addition further large schemes are under construction and proposed.
- Centenary Square, city centre, public piazza and retail
- Connecting the City,  £20 m clearance of 1960s structures over several acres of the city centre, preparation for Broadway project
- Lister Mills Silk Warehouse, Manningham, 131 apartments first phase of £100 m project
- Victoria Mill, Shipley, £70 m conversion and new build, 300 apartments  (part complete)
- City termination of M606
- Leisure Exchange, city centre, multiplex cinemas, bowling, restaurants
- New Class 333 electric trains (similar to Heathrow Express) from Forster Square railway station to Leeds/Ilkley/Skipton/Shipley/Bingley/Keighley
- Abbey offices, Yorkshire Building Society offices, city centre
- Valley Parade, Manningham, completion of 25,000 seat covered stands at Bradford City football stadium
- Manchester Road corridor, 2 mile guided bus route with innovative art installation/bus stops
- Bingley Relief Road, £49 m project creating 9 mile high-speed route through Airedale
- Rawson Quarter, redevelopment of the former Rawson Market.
- The Gatehaus, Little Germany,  £22 m 11 floor apartment building  
Under construction and (proposed):
- Lister Mills Velvet Mill, 170 apartments
- Broadway Project, £300 m city centre shops, offices and apartments (proposed, clearance complete)
- Eastbrook Hall, Little Germany, £12 m rebuilding significant structure to create commercial and living space (completion summer 2008)
- Listerhills urban village, £90 m mixed use project, student and key-worker housing, in city centre Thornton Road/Valley area (commences 2008)
- New Victoria Place, £55 m hotel, public square, offices, retail, Bradford College, 205 apartments, adjacent Alhambra Theatre and Centenary Square (proposed, site is debated over)
- Channel neighbourhood, £350 m waterside project in city centre Canal Road area, shops, offices, apartments, includes reopening Bradford Canal (in planning)
- University campus refurbishment, £75 m project as part of 'Ecoversity' vision (part complete) 
- Lister Mills further phases of £100 m project, Chimney Square, Boiler House, link to Victor Road and Lister Park (proposed)
- Drummonds, Manningham, conversion of mills to apartments and offices (proposed)
- The Bowl, centrepiece of the Alsop Masterplan large pool backed by City Hall, the future gathering place for Bradfordians (purchase of land in progress)
- Citygate project, Manchester Road (City Centre end) hotel, residential and commercial buildings including 38 storey tower, making it Bradford's tallest (completion 2012)
- Beehive Mills, Thornton Road, residential apartments and commercial uses on the ground floors including a 22 storey tower (completion 2010)
Bradford's current twin towns and cities are listed at http://www.bradford.gov.uk/life_in_the_community/twin_towns_and_villages:
- Skopje, Republic of Macedonia - twinned 1963
- Roubaix, France - twinned 1969
- Verviers, Belgium – twinned 1970
- Mönchengladbach, Germany – twinned 1971
- Hamm, Germany – twinned 1976
- Galway, Ireland - twinned 1987
- Mirpur, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan - friendship agreement 1998
Culture and recreation
Museums and art galleriesCartwright Hall, Lister Park, Bradford.
The city is the location of the most visited museum outside London — the National Media Museum, previously called the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, which has three cinemas including a gigantic Imax screen. Bradford's main art gallery is housed in the grand Edwardian Cartwright Hall in Lister Park. Salt's Mill has the world's largest collection of David Hockney artworks. Bradford Industrial Museum celebrates and explains the significant achievements in Bradford's industrial past, from textiles to the manufacture of motor cars. Colour was important in the development of the textile industry and the educational Bradford Colour Museum  is unique in the UK. It is run by the Society of Dyers and Colourists.
Each year the city hosts several successful festivals. In June there is the Book Festival and the massive Bradford Mela, the biggest of its kind outside Asia. The Ilkley Literature Festival in September and October is the largest and most prestigious in the north attracting big names from the arts and entertainment. There are several Continental Markets and Food Fairs throughout the city and district including the Bradford International Market, a four day spectacular in August. The city is also known for it's various film festivals hosted by the National Media Museum. These include The Bradford Film Festival in March, Bite The Mango Film Festival (World Cinema) in September, plus the Bradford Animation Festival held each November.
ArchitectureThe Wool Exchange, Bradford.
Bradford has some fine Victorian buildings: apart from the mills mentioned elsewhere in this article, there is the City Hall (with statues of rulers of England unusually including Oliver Cromwell), the Wool Exchange (now used as a bookshop), and a large Victorian cemetery at Undercliffe.
Little Germany is a splendid Victorian commercial district just east of the city centre which takes its name from 19th century immigrants who ran businesses from some of the many listed buildings. Following decades of decay there have been successful conversions to office and residential use. In mid-2005 renovation began on the prominent Eastbrook Hall in Little Germany.
Like many cities, Bradford lost a number of notable buildings to developers in the 1960s and 1970s: particularly mourned at the time were the Swan Arcade and the old Kirkgate Market. In recent years some buildings from that era have themselves been demolished and replaced: Provincial House, next to Centenary Square, was demolished by controlled explosion in 2002, and Forster House was pulled down in 2005 as part of the Broadway development.
There are four theatres in Bradford: The Alhambra was built in 1914 for theatre impresario Frank Laidler, and later owned by the Moss Empire group (Oswald Stoll and Edward Moss) and refurbished in 1986; The Studio is a smaller studio theatre in the same complex. Both of these are operated by Bradford Council. The Theatre in the Mill is a small studio theatre in the University of Bradford which presents both student and community shows and small-scale touring professional work. The Priestley Theatre is a privately run venue with a medium-sized proscenium theatre and a small studio.
Among the professional theatre companies based in Bradford, are
- Kala Sangam
- the satirical madcap comedy troop, Komedy Kollective.
- Lost Dog (based at Theatre In The Mill)
- Mind the Gap, one of the longest established, who have always worked with a mixture of disabled and able-bodied performers.
Groups and organisations teaching theatre include
- The Asian Theatre School
- Bradford Stage and Theatre School
- Stage 84
Amateur theatre groups include:
- Actors' Community Theatre (ACT)
- Bingley Little Theatre
- The Bradford Players
- Bradford University Society for Operettas and Musicals (BUSOM)
- Bradford University Theatre Group (BUTG),
- Bradford Youth Players
- Buttershaw (St Paul's) Church Amateur Operatic and Dramatic Society
- Drama Unlimited
- Great Horton Amateur Operatic Society
Music and dance
St George's Hall is a grand concert hall, designed by Lockwood and Mawson, dating from 1853. The Hallé Orchestra have been regular visitors over the years, as have a wide range of popular entertainers including Ken Dodd. It is sometimes used for theatrical productions.The famous Salt Mills, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Though the university does not have an academic music department, it has a Fellow in Music who organises a range of playing and performing groups, and regular concerts around the university, in venues such as the Tasmin Little Music Centre, and the Yorkshire Craft Centre at Bradford College; there are also occasional concerts further afield, in venues such as Bradford Cathedral.
Although Bradford was home to composer Frederick Delius, there are no prominent professional music ensembles based in Bradford at present. There are some prominent amateur groups, such as the Bradford Festival Chorus.
The Topic Folk Club has been in existence since 1956, though it has changed the pub it meets in every few years. It currently meets in the Cock and Bottle on Barkerend Road, on Thursday nights.
Jazz at The Priestley is a long-running series of jazz evenings in the Cellar Bar of The Priestley on Friday nights.
Boar's Head Morris Men were a (mainly Cotswold) morris side in Bradford from the early 1970s until 2006. Persephone Ladies Morris are still active, as are Rainbow Morris in Shipley, and clog side Clogaire.
Bradford Music Week will take place in and around central Bradford between Mon 26th and Sun 1st June 2008. The event will feature seminars, exhibitions, workshops, films, special events and activities. There will be concerts from national breaking bands and also importantly opportunities for local artists to play in everything from small acoustic performances to full blown gigs at various venues in and around the city centre.
The National Media Museum celebrates cinema and movies. It contains an Imax cinema, the Cubby Broccoli Cinema, and the Pictureville Cinema — described by David Puttnam as the best cinema in Britain . The museum has a rich and varied programme of films from around the world.
Traditional cinemas have been replaced by new entertainment complexes with multi-screen cinemas. There are two multiplex cinema in Bradford: Cineworld at the Leisure Exchange in the city centre, and Odeon Leeds-Bradford at Thornbury, on the outskirts of Bradford, to replace the old Odeon next to the Alhambra, which was the recent focus of protests by Bradfordians who didn't wish to see this building close.
Bradford is bidding to become a UNESCO City of Film.
Since around 2000, several clubs and theme pubs have opened in the West End of Bradford, around the Alhambra Theatre, turning what was previously a fairly quiet area into one that is often crowded and raucous at night.
A myriad of Indian and Pakistani restaurants cater for the most discerning curry tastes.
Bradford has a number of architecturally historic hotels that date back to the establishment of the two railway lines into the city centre, back in Victorian times. The Victoria Hotel and the Midland Hotel were built to accommodate business travellers to the city from Scotland, the Midlands, and London, arriving at Forster Square and Bradford Victoria station (later to become Bradford Interchange, during the height of the woollen trade.
Parks and countryside
Within the city district there are 37 parks and gardens. Lister Park with its boating lake and Mughal Water Gardens, was voted Britain's Best Park for 2006. Peel Park is the venue for the annual Mela — a celebration of eastern culture. And Bowling Park is the site where the annual Bradford Carnival takes place, celebrating local African and Caribbean culture.
Beauty spot Chellow Dene has two Victorian reservoirs set in pleasant woodland. To the west and north of Bradford are picturesque and atmospheric moorlands: the famous Ilkley Moor and moors above Haworth known internationally for its connection with the Brontë sisters.
Bradford has a long and proud history in sport, especially rugby league, football and cricket.
The city has a long rugby tradition, and Bradford Bulls (formerly Bradford Northern) are one of the most successful rugby league clubs in the world, winning the World Club Championship three times since 2002 and also seven times winners of the Rugby League Championship. The home of the Bulls is Grattan Stadium, Odsal (formerly Odsal Stadium) in the south of the city. The city is also home to a number of Rugby Union clubs — Bradford and Bingley RFC (The Bees) are based to the north of the city in Bingley; Bradford Salem are based in the Heaton area and Wibsey RFC can be found in that district to the south of the city centre.Bradford City's Valley Parade football stadium
League football was introduced to West Yorkshire in Bradford, when Bradford City were formed in 1903. James Whyte, a sub-editor of the Bradford Observer had met with Football Association representative John Brunt in January to discuss the plans, and in May, Manningham RFC, a rugby league side decided to change codes to association football. The Football League subsequently elected Bradford City to the league, with a total of 30 votes to replace Doncaster Rovers, because it saw the invitation as a chance to introduce football to the rugby-dominated county. Just eight years after they were elected to the league, City won the FA Cup and recorded the highest league position in their history. The club now plays in the bottom tier of The Football League following two periods of administration, but their ground suffered one of the worst all-time sporting disasters in the world after 56 people died at Valley Parade on 11 May 1985. A second side from the city, Bradford (Park Avenue) were successful in The Football League until they dropped out of the league in 1974. They now play in the regional league, which means the Bradford derby has not been exercised in years. Their ground hosted county cricket for Yorkshire CCC as well as football.
Bradford was also home to the now-defunct Bradford Dukes speedway team, which raced at Odsal. Speedway was staged a Greenfields Stadium in the pioneer days, when it was known as the Autodrome, and it was used for a couple of seasons in the early 1960s. Odsal opened its doors soon after the war in Europe ended in 1945 and continued in the late 1950s. It entered a team in the 1960 Provincial League then fell dormant until the 1970s when it re-opened and ran for many years. The track staged a number of big meetings including Speedway World Finals.
The Telegraph and Argus is Bradford's daily evening newspaper, published six days each week from Monday to Saturday. It is known locally as the "T&A".
Bradford was one of the first areas of the UK to get a local commercial radio station Pennine Radio in September 1975. Today this is The Pulse of West Yorkshire and Pulse Classic Gold. As of 2006 Bradford Community Broadcasting based in the city centre has broadcast on full-time Community Radio license around Bradford and the Aire Valley.
The city of Bradford and surrounding districts are home to a wealth of places of worship that contribute to the region's cultural heritage. These include Sikh gurdwaras and Hindu mandirs, Jewish synagogues and Buddhist centres , but mostly Christian churches and Muslim mosques. Due to a significant Pakistani (and to a lesser extent, Bangladeshi) population in the city, Islam has become prominent throughout the city, particularly in inner city areas such as Manningham and Girlington. As well as there being a significant Muslim population, there is also a fairly large Indian immigrant community in Bradford. The area of Leeds Road probably has the largest Sikh population in the city, which is reflected by the number of Gurdwaras in the area. The area also has a significant number of Hindus, having the largest Hindu mandir in the North of England. Furthermore there is also a small Jewish population, despite the fact that over the years many of them have tended to leave Bradford, preferring various parts of Leeds instead, particularly the area of Alwoodley and Moortown. However several synagogues can still be found in the city, such as the one in Manningham.
The district has a tradition of nonconformity which is reflected in the number of chapels erected by Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists etc. The city was a major centre of the House Church movement in the 1980s, and the Christian charity Christians Against Poverty was founded in the city. Other house churches in the city include El Shaddai International Christian Centre and the World Outreach Church. Bradford is also home to the Abundant Life Church, a large nonconforming Church, that has around 3000 members.
Two carved stones, probably parts of a Saxon preaching cross, were found on the site of Bradford Cathedral. They indicate that Christians may have worshipped here since Paulinus of York came to the north of England in AD 627 on a mission to convert Northumbria. He preached in Dewsbury and it was from there that Bradford was first evangelised. The vicars of Bradford later paid dues to that parish.
- Main article: Bradford Cathedral
The most prominent Christian church in Bradford, is Bradford Cathedral, originally the Parish Church of St Peter. The parish of Bradford was in existence by 1283, and there was a stone church on the shelf above Bradford Beck by 1327.
Since the 1960s Bradford has had a significant Muslim population, and accordingly there are many mosques throughout the city. Some were converted from churches or other buildings, but there are several purpose-built mosques as well. The largest of these mosques is probably Hanfia Masjid in the majority Muslim area of Manningham. Another large mosque in Bradford, would be Madni Jamia Masjid which recently won the Model Mosque (Islam Channel) award.There is ongoing construction of a mosque and college in the area of Horton Grange, for Islamic courses.
There are two Hindu temples (mandirs). The Lakshmi Narayan mandir opened officially on 20 April 2008. This is the largest Hindu temple in Northern England. Also in Bradford is the Hindu Temple & Community Centre on Thornton Lane . There are also smaller house-based mandirs, as shown in the List of Hindu Temples.
There is a prominent Sikh community in Bradford, with six gurdwaras (Sikh place of worship) around the city. The Sikh festival of Vaisakhi (Baisakhi) is also celebrated on April 14 every year, this sees Sikhs from Bradford and the surrounding area travel to each of the gurdwaras in the city in a procession called a nagar kirtan. There are three gurdwaras in the Leeds Road area of Bradford alone, Gobind Singh Gurdwara, on Gobind Marg, being the largest of these. There is a Ramgharia Gurdwara on Bolton Road and Guru Nanak Gurdwara is on Wakefield Road.
The Jewish community in Bradford was strong in the middle to late 19th century, and there is a 19th century Reform synagogue in Bowland Street in the Manningham area. This, "The oldest Reform synagogue outside London", was established by German Jews who had moved to Bradford for the wool trade. According to historian Shatman Kadish, "The city of Bradford was unique in that it boasted a Reform synagogue before it acquired an Orthodox one".
Originating in Bradford
The birthplace of rock bands New Model Army, Anti System, Smokie, Dead Eye Decline, Southern Death Cult/The Cult, The Scene, One Minute Silence, Terrorvision, Morbid Humour, Violation, and Asian hip hop group Fun-Da-Mental.
The people in this list were either born or brought up in Bradford (not necessarily both), or had a significant connection with the city later in life. Those marked with an asterisk ('*') are described in Lister, 2004.
Only a few particularly notable names are listed here. See Category:People from Bradford for a fuller list
- Sir Edward Appleton — discoverer of the ionosphere and Nobel Prize winner
- The Brontë sisters, Anne, Emily*, and Charlotte* — born in Thornton on the outskirts of Bradford, but later lived in Haworth.
- Frederick Delius — Composer
- W.E. Forster MP for Bradford — commemorated by statue, and is the namesake of Forster Square.
- David Hockney — Artist
- Kimberley Walsh - Member of Girls Aloud
- Samuel Lister — Industrialist & inventor, commemorated by a statue.
- Richard Oastler — social reformer; statue in Northgate
- J. B. Priestley — Writer, commemorated by a statue.
- Richard Whiteley — Television presenter
- Junior Witter — Boxer, former WBC World Light Welterweight champion.
In past centuries Bradford's location in Bradfordale made communications difficult, except from the north. Nonetheless, Bradford is now well-served by transport systems.
Bradford was first connected to the developing turnpike network in 1734, when the first Yorkshire turnpike was built between Manchester and Leeds via Halifax and Bradford. In 1740, the Selby to Halifax road was constructed through Leeds and Bradford. Several more local and long-distance roads were built through the rest of the century.
Today Bradford lies on several trunk roads:
- The A650 between Wakefield and Keighley
- The A647 to Leeds
- The A658 to Harrogate
- The A6036 to Halifax
The M606, a spur off the M62 motorway, connects Bradford with the national motorway network. Although it was originally planned to go directly into the city centre, this has never been built and is unlikely now ever to be, as a hotel has been built across the proposed route.
Buses and trams
On 20 June, 1911, Britain's first trolleybus service opened in Bradford, between Laisterdyke and Dudley Hill. It was often known as the trackless, in contradistinction to trams. The last trolleybus service in Bradford — and indeed in Britain — ceased operation on 26 March, 1972. The Bradford Trolleybus Association bought some of Bradford's trolleybuses but later sold them off to private owners most can now be found at the Trolleybus Museum at Sandtoft.
The Bradford Canal was a four-mile long spur off the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at Shipley. It was planned and built as part of the original Leeds and Liverpool project, to connect Bradford with the limestone quarries of north Yorkshire, the industrial towns on both sides of the Pennines and the ports on each coast. It opened in 1774, closed in 1866, reopened in 1871, and finally closed in 1922. There are plans to rebuild the canal as a key part of regenerating the city centre (see the main article).
RailwaysEntrance to the Bradford Interchange.
The Leeds and Bradford Railway opened Bradford's first railway station at the bottom of Kirkgate on 1 July 1846. It offered a service via Shipley to Leeds and through Leeds to other centres, including London. The line was soon absorbed by the Midland Railway, and the station was rebuilt in the early 1850s and again, much larger, in 1890. Today it is a smaller railway station dating from 1990, called Forster Square railway station though it is somewhat distant from the site of its predecessors, and from Forster Square itself. Modern electric trains connect directly to Leeds, Ilkley and Skipton. There is currently a 4 times daily National Express East Coast service linking Bradford with London King's Cross. A new company Grand Central Railway is proposing to significantly increase this London connection, with additional fast trains via Doncaster/East Coast Mainline and via Manchester/West Coast Mainline.
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway opened its station at Drake Street on 9 May 1850, on its line between Manchester and Leeds. The Great Northern Railway opened a third terminus at Adolphus Street in 1854, serving Leeds and other places on its network, but the station was too far from the centre, and the two companies eventually agreed to build a joint station to replace the L&Y's station at Drake Street. This was Bradford Exchange railway station, opened in 1867: Adolphus Street remained as a goods terminal. The Exchange Station was completely rebuilt in 1880, with ten platforms; but by 1973 it was too large and again was rebuilt on a different site. In 1983 that station was renamed Bradford Interchange when a large bus station was built alongside. Bradford Interchange railway station connects directly to Leeds, to Manchester Victoria and to Blackpool.
From the 1870s, the Great Northern built several suburban railway lines around Bradford:
- from Laisterdyke via Idle to Shipley and Windhill
- from Exchange to Queensbury, and thence to Keighley and Halifax,
- from Low Moor to Dudley Hill, thence to the Pudsey loop, and to Dewsbury.
These all closed at various times between the 1930s and the 1960s.
There have been many schemes to build a link between Bradford's main railway terminals, but none has ever come near fruition, and indeed the recent Bradford Masterplan for the city centre regeneration has not addressed this (when asked, the writer of the masterplan admitted to not even considering it). The main practical difficulty is the great difference in elevation: the Exchange/Interchange station is already at the bottom of a long slope, steep by railway standards, but it is many feet higher than Forster Square Station. Some bus services, such as the MetroConnect services to Leeds Bradford Airport, call at both stations, and a free bus service funded by Bradford Council and Metro is due to be trialled in the near future.
- The city is served by Leeds Bradford International Airport, 6 miles to the north east of the city. Bradford and Leeds councils jointly opened the airport in 1931 as Yeadon Aerodrome. There has been rapid expansion in recent years and direct flights are now available to over 70 destinations (October 2006). Around 3 million passengers used the airport in 2006. It is the home base of economy Airline Jet2.com, voted Best European Short Haul Airline 2006. In May 2007 the joint councils sold the airport to Bridgepoint Capital for £145.5 m. Bridgepoint announced that a further £70 m would be invested in airport improvements, to boost passenger figures to over 7 million by 2015. The airport has recently announced a new long-haul route to Islamabad using wide-bodied Airbus A310 aircraft, it is hoped this spurs on new routes from the airport.
In popular culture
The Buttershaw area of the city featured in the 1986 film Rita, Sue and Bob Too, in which two 16-year-old girls were involved in a love triangle with a wealthy married man (played by George Costigan). The film was created by Andrea Dunbar, who died four years after it was made. It was initially unpopular with local residents due to its negative image of the area, but has since earned itself a good reputation in the local community as Buttershaw's claim to fame.
- ^ Allen, C (2003). Fair justice: the Bradford disturbances, the sentencing and the impact. London: Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism.
- ^ Lister, Derek A J (2004). Bradford's Own. Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3826-9.
- ^ Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 County Series Map: Yorkshire Sheet 216. Heritage Cartography. ISBN 1-903004-34-9. . This was surveyed 1847-1850, and published in 1852, though it was reprinted at various dates with certain (unidentified) details updated. The modern edition from Heritage Cartography is 'redrawn' from the original, and titled Bradford 1849, but the railways shown indicate that it is from a printing of at least 1854.
- ^ History of Bradford. visitbradford.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
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- ^ ImplosionWorld.com
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- ^ Frost, Terry (1988). Bradford City A Complete Record 1903–1988. Breedon Books Sport, p. 9. ISBN 0907969380.
- ^ Division 2 1902/03. Footballsite. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
- ^ Frost. Bradford City A Complete Record 1903–1988, p. 13.
- ^ Frost. Bradford City A Complete Record 1903–1988, p. 184.
- ^ Parker, Simon. "Woeful City relegated", Telegraph & Argus, 2007-04-28. Retrieved on 2008-05-03.
- ^ "Carbone hits back", BBC Sport, 2002-05-21. Retrieved on 2008-05-03.
- ^ "Bantams in administration", BBC Sport, 2004-02-27. Retrieved on 2008-05-03.
- ^ BBC On this day - 1985: Fans killed in Bradford stadium fire. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2008-03-16.
- ^ European Day of Jewish Culture and Heritage, 5 September 2004, leaflet issued by the European Association for the Preservation and Promotion of Jewish Culture and Heritage
- ^ Kadish, Sharman (2002). "Constructing Identity: Anglo-Jewry and Synagogue Architecture" (PDF). Architectural History 45: 386-408. SAHGB Publications Limited. ISSN: 0066622X.
- ^ Bradford Exchange. Subterranea Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
- ^ Free bus set to be trialled. Telegraph & Argus (2008-01-30). Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
- ^ "Airport sold for £145m to Bridgepoint", Telegraph & Argus. Retrieved on 2008-02-18.
- ^ Monty Python's The Meaning Of Life (1983). 80s Movies Rewind. Retrieved on 2008-03-30.
- ^ Firth, Gary (1997). A History of Bradford. Phillimore. ISBN 1-86077-057-6.
- Wilmott, Elvira (1987). The Ryburn Map of Victorian Bradford. Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-004-2. The map itself is a reproduction of the Plan of the Town of Bradford ... revised and corrected to the present time by Dixon & Hindle, 1871.
External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Bradford
- City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council
- Visit Bradford, England; Official Bradford Tourism & Travel Website
- Wikitravel Bradford
- MapsAndStats.com: Maps and statistics Bradford Metropolitan District
- Concise guide to Bradford
See also: List of civil parishes in West YorkshireTopics Parliamentary constituencies •
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