Translation

Select text and it is translated.
This area is result which is translated word.

Languages


Bhumibol Adulyadej

Bhumibol Adulyadej
Rama IX of Thailand King of Thailand
A younger Rama IX Reign 9 June1946– present Coronation 6 May1950Born 5 December1927(1927-12-05) (age 80) Birthplace Cambridge, United StatesPredecessor Ananda MahidolHeir-Apparent Maha VajiralongkornConsort SirikitIssue Ubol Ratana
Maha Vajiralongkorn
Maha Chakri Sirindhorn
Chulabhorn WalailakRoyal House Chakri DynastyFather Mahidol AdulyadejMother Srinagarindra

Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; IPA: [pʰuːmipʰon adunjadeːt]; Royal Institute: Phummiphon Adunyadet; listen (help·info)) (born Monday, December 5, 1927 in the Year of the Rabbit), is the current King of Thailand. Publicly acclaimed "the Great" (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja), he is also known as Rama IX. Having reigned since June 9, 1946, he is the world's longest-serving current head of state and the longest-serving monarch in Thai history.[1]

Although Bhumibol is a constitutional monarch, he has several times made decisive interventions in Thai politics, including the 2005-2006 Thai political crisis. He was credited with facilitating Thailand's transition to democracy in the 1990s, although in earlier periods of his reign he supported some military regimes. He endorsed the military junta which had overthrown the elected government of Thaksin Shinawatra during the September 19 2006 coup.

A billionare, Bhumibol has used part of his great wealth to fund over 3,000 development projects, particularly in rural areas. He is immensely popular in Thailand, and is revered as a semi-divine figure by a number of Thais.[2][3][4]

Bhumibol was born in the United States and educated primarily in Switzerland. Bhumibol is also an accomplished musician, artist, and sailor.

Contents

Early life

Bhumibol was born at the Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States. He was the younger son of HRH Prince Mahidol Adulyadej and Mom Sangwal (later Somdej Phra Sri Nakarindhara Boromaratchachonnani). At the time of his birth, he was known in Thailand as Phra Worawongse Ther Phra Ong Chao Bhumibol Adulyadej (พระวรวงศ์เธอ พระองค์เจ้าภูมิพลอดุลยเดช) , reflecting the fact that his mother was a commoner. Had he been born a few years earlier, before his uncle King Prajadhipok passed a law allowing children of a prince and a commoner to be called Phra Ong Chao (a prince of a lesser status than Chao Fa) , he would have been called Mom Chao (the most junior class of the Thai princes) , as were his older brother and sister.[5] His name, Bhumibol Adulyadej, means "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power".[6]

Bhumibol came to Thailand in 1928, after Prince Mahidol obtained a certificate in the Public Health programme at Harvard University. Bhumibol finished his primary schooling at Mater Dei school in Bangkok and then left with his family in 1933 for Switzerland, where he received his secondary education at the École Nouvelle de la Suisse Romande in Chailly-sur-Lausanne. He received the baccalauréat des lettres (high-school diploma with major in French literature, Latin, and Greek) from the Gymnase Classique Cantonal of Lausanne. He was studying science at the University of Lausanne when his elder brother, Phra Ong Chao Ananda Mahidol, was crowned King of Thailand in 1935. King Ananda Mahidol then elevated his brother and sister to Chao Fa status, the most senior class of the Thai princes and princesses. They came to Thailand briefly in 1938, but returned to Switzerland for further study, remaining there until the end of World War II in 1945.[7]

Succession and marriage

Bhumibol ascended to the throne following the death of his brother, King Ananda Mahidol, on June 9, 1946. Ananda Mahidol's death resulted from a gunshot to the head while in his bedroom in the Baromphiman Palace in the Grand Palace, under circumstances that to this day remain a mystery.[8] Bhumibol then returned to Switzerland in order to complete his education, and his uncle, Rangsit, Prince of Chainat, was appointed Prince Regent. Bhumibol switched over his field of study to law and political science in order to prepare himself more effectively for his new position as ruler.

While finishing his degree in Switzerland, Bhumibol visited Paris frequently. It was in Paris that he first met a first cousin once removed, Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara, daughter of the Thai ambassador to France.[9] He was 21 and she was 15. Bhumibol became a regular visitor to the ambassador's residence.

On October 4, 1948, while Bhumibol was driving a Fiat Topolino on the Geneva-Lausanne highway, he collided into the rear of a braking truck 10 km outside of Lausanne. He hurt his back and incurred cuts on his face that cost him sight in his right eye.[10][11][12] He subsequently wore an ocular prosthetic. While he was hospitalised in Lausanne, Sirikit visited him frequently. She met his mother, who asked her to continue her studies nearby so that Bhumibol could get to know her better. Bhumibol selected for her a boarding school in Lausanne, Riante Rive. A quiet engagement in Lausanne followed on July 19, 1949, and the couple were married on April 28, 1950, just a week before his coronation.

Bhumibol and his wife Queen Sirikit have four children:

One of Bhumibol's grandchildren, Bhumi Jensen, was killed in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. He was the son of Princess Ubol Ratana.[13]

Coronation and titles

Thai Royal Family

Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on May 5, 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pledged that he would "reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people" ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม").[14] His ceremonial name is:

- พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช มหิตลาธิเบศรามาธิบดี จักรีนฤบดินทร์ สยามินทราธิราช บรมนาถบพิตร
- Phrabat Somdej Phra Paramindra Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Mahitaladhibet Ramadhibodi Chakrinarubodindara Sayamindaradhiraj Boromanatbophit listen (help·info)
- (RTGS:) Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Phummiphon Adunyadet Mahitalathibet Ramathibodi Chakkrinaruebodin Sayaminthrathirat Borommanatbophit

On the same day, he made his consort Queen (Somdej Phra Boromarajini). The date of his coronation is celebrated each May 5 in Thailand as Coronation Day, a public holiday. On June 9, 2006, Bhumibol celebrated his 60th anniversary as the King of Thailand, becoming the longest reigning monarch in Thai history.[1]

Following the death of his grandmother Queen Savang Vadhana (สว่างวัฒนา, Sawang Watthana Phra Phanvasa Aiyeekajao) , Bhumibol entered a 15-day monkhood (October 22 -November 5, 1956) at Wat Bowonniwet, as is customary at the death of elder relatives.[15] During this time, Sirikit was appointed his regent. She was later appointed Queen Regent (Somdej Phra Boromarajininat) in recognition of this.

Although Bhumibol is sometimes referred to as King Rama IX in English, the name "Rama" is never used in Thai. The name is used to approximate Ratchakal ti Kao (รัชกาลที่ 9, literally "the Ninth Reign"). More commonly, Thais refer to him as Nai Luang or Phra Chao Yu Hua (ในหลวง or พระเจ้าอยู่หัว: both mean "the King" or "Lord Upon our Heads"). He is also called Chao Chiwit ("Lord of Life").[16] Formally, he would be referred to as Phrabat Somdej Phra Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว) or, in legal documents, Phrabat Somdej Phra Paraminthara Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช), and in English as His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej. He signs his name as ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช ป.ร. (Bhumibol Adulyadej Por Ror; this is the Thai equivalent of Bhumibol Adulyadej R[ex]).

Role in Thai politics

Plaek Pibulsonggram era

In the early years of his reign, during the government of military dictator Plaek Pibulsonggram, Bhumibol had no real power and was little more than a ceremonial figure under the military-dominated government. In August 1957, 6 months after parliamentary elections, General Sarit Dhanarajata accused the government of Field Marshal Pibulsonggram of lèse majesté due to its conduct of the 2,500th anniversary celebration of Buddhism.[17][18] On September 16, 1957, Pibulsonggram went to Bhumibol to seek support for his government.[19] Bhumibol told the Field Marshal to resign to avoid a coup; Pibulsonggram refused. That evening, Sarit Dhanarajata seized power, and two hours later Bhumibol imposed the martial law throughout the Kingdom.[20] Bhumibol issued a Royal Command appointing Sarit as "Military Defender of the Capital" without anyone countersigning this Royal Command. The said Royal Command contained the following matters:[21]

“ Whereas it is manifested that the country administration by the Government under the premiership of Field Marshal P. Phibunsonggram is untrustworthy, as well as the Government could not maintain the public order. The military under the leadership of Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajata has successfully took over the administrative power and is acting as the Military Defender of the Capital. I, therefor, appointed Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajata as Military Defender of the Capital. All the people are requested to remain calm while all public servants are to follow the Orders issued by Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajat. Henceforth onwards. Announced on 16 September Buddhist Era 2500 (1957). ”

Sarit Dhanarajata era

During Sarit's dictatorship, the monarchy was revitalised. Bhumibol attended public ceremonies, toured the provinces and patronised development projects. Under Sarit, the practice of crawling in front of royalty during audiences, banned by King Chulalongkorn, was revived in certain situations and the royal-sponsored Thammayut Nikaya order was revitalised. For the first time since the absolute monarchy was overthrown, a king was conveyed up the Chao Phraya River in a Royal Barge Procession to offer robes at temples.[22][23]

Other disused ceremonies from the classical period of the Chakri dynasty, such as the royally-patronised ploughing ceremony (Thai: พิธีพืชมงคล) , were also revived.[24] Upon Sarit's death in 8 December 1963, an unprecedented 21 days of mourning was declared in the palace. A royal five-tier umbrella shaded his body while it lay in state. Long-time royal adviser Phraya Srivisarn Vacha later noted that no Prime Minister ever had such an intimate relation with Bhumibol as Sarit.[25]

Contemporary thinkers differ in their views about the relationship between Bhumibol and Sarit. Paul Handley, writer of The King Never Smiles views Sarit as Bhumibol's tool, whereas political scientist Thak Chaloemtiarana asserts that Sarit used Bhumibol in order to build his own credibility.[26][27]

Thanom Kittikachorn era

Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn was appointed premier a day after Sarit's death in 1963. He continued most of Sarit's policies for a decade. During the 1970s, Bhumibol was a key figure in the Village Scouts and Red Gaur paramilitary organisations. In October 1973 after massive protests and the deaths of a large number of pro-democracy demonstrators, Bhumibol opened the gates of the Chitralada Palace to fleeing protesters, and held an audience with student leaders. Bhumibol subsequently appointed the Thammasat University Rector Sanya Dharmasakti as the new Prime Minister, replacing Thanom. Thanom subsequently moved to the United States and Singapore. A succession of civilian governments followed, but the return of Field Marshal Thanom and his ordination as a novice monk at Wat Bowonniwet in 1976 led to renewed conflict. Protests against the ex-dictator escalated and came to a head when two newspapers (one English language and one Thai) published allegedly doctored photographs depicting Thammasat students hanging someone with a close likeness to the Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn in effigy.[28] With the public convinced and being told so by pro-government agencies that lèse majesté had been committed, military and paramilitary forces were then urged to attack the University, leading to a bloody massacre on 6 October 1976. The official death toll was forty six, but it is feared the actual figure is in the hundreds. Some of the hatred was sewn by a popular far-right radio program "Armored Car" hosted by Samak Sundaravej, who would in 2008 be named as Prime Minister by a Thaksin Shinawatra-nominee government. Despite the high number of deaths, Samak has erroneously stated that "only one unlucky guy" was killed, and has denied complicity in the violence. No proper government report was ever issued.

Prem Tinsulanond era

The ensuing chaos was used as a pretext for a military coup that same evening. The junta submitted three names to the king to choose from to become the next Premier: Deputy President of the king's Privy Council Prakob Hutasingh, right-wing Bangkok Governor Thamnoon Thien-ngern, and conservative Supreme Court judge Thanin Kraivixien.[29] Bhumibol chose Thanin as the most suitable. However, Thanin proved to be very right-wing himself, causing student protestors to flee to join the Communists in the jungle. Thanin was himself overthrown in a military coup in October 1977 led by General Kriangsak Chomanan. Kriangsak was succeeded in 1980 by the popular Army Commander-in-Chief, General Prem Tinsulanond, later the Privy Council President.

Bhumibol's refusal to endorse military coups in 1981 (the April Fool's Day coup) and 1985 (the Share Rebellion) ultimately led to the victory of forces loyal to the government, despite some violence - including in 1981, the seizure of Bangkok by rebel forces. The coups led many to believe that Bhumibol had misjudged Thai society and that his credibility as an impartial mediator between various political and military factions had been compromised.[30][31][32]

Crisis of 1992

Main article: Black May (1992)

In 1992, Bhumibol played a key role in Thailand's transition to a democratic system. A coup on February 23, 1991 returned Thailand back under military dictatorship. After a general election in 1992, the majority parties invited General Suchinda Kraprayoon, a leader of the coup group, to be the Prime Minister. This caused much dissent, which escalated into demonstrations that led to a large number of deaths when the military was brought in to control the protesters. The situation became increasingly critical, as neither side would back down and the violence escalated.[33] Many university students and political activists in Bangkok were shot and killed when attacked by army and paramilitary forces loyal to the army and monarchy.

Bhumibol summoned Suchinda and the leader of the pro-democracy movement, retired Major General Chamlong Srimuang, to a televised audience. At the height of the crisis, the sight of both men appearing together on their knees (in accordance with royal protocol) made a strong impression on the nation, and led to Suchinda's resignation soon afterwards. According to the book "The King Never Smiles", the audio portion of what Bhumibol actually said has never been broadcast. It was one of the few public occasions in which Bhumibol directly intervened in a political conflict directly and publicly. A general election was held shortly afterward, leading to a civilian government.[34]

Crisis of 2005–2006 and the September 2006 coup

Main articles: Thailand political crisis 2005-2006, Finland Plot, and 2006 Thailand coup d'état

Background to the coup

See also: Thailand political crisis 2005-2006

Weeks before the April 2006 legislative election, the Democrat Party-led opposition and the People's Alliance for Democracy petitioned Bhumibol to appoint a replacement prime minister and cabinet. Demands for royal intervention met with much criticism from the public. Bhumibol, in a speech on April 26, 2006, responded, "Asking for a Royally-appointed prime minister is undemocratic. It is, pardon me, a mess. It is irrational".[35]

After publicly claiming victory in the boycotted April parliamentary elections, Thaksin Shinawatra had a private audience with the king. A few hours later, Thaksin appeared on national television to announce that he would be taking a break from politics.

In May 2006, the Sondhi Limthongkul-owned Manager Daily newspaper published a series of articles describing the "Finland Plot", alleging that Thaksin and former members of the Communist Party of Thailand planned to overthrow the king and seize control of the nation. No evidence was ever produced to verify the existence of such a plot, and Thaksin and his Thai Rak Thai party vehemently denied the accusations and sued the accusers.

In a rare, televised speech to senior judges, Bhumibol requested that the judiciary take action to resolve the political crisis.[35] On May 8, 2006, the Constitutional Court invalidated the results of the April elections and ordered new elections scheduled for October 15, 2006.[36] The Criminal Court later jailed the Election Commissioners.[37][38]

On July 14, 2006, Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda addressed graduating cadets of the Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, telling them that the Thai military must serve the country - not the Government.[39]

On July 20, Bhumibol signed a royal decree endorsing new House elections for October 15, 2006. In an unprecedented act, the King wrote a note on the royal decree calling for a clean and fair election. That very day, Bhumibol underwent spinal surgery.[40]

The coup

See also: 2006 Thailand coup

In the evening of September 19, the Thai military overthrew the Thaksin government and seized control of Bangkok in a bloodless coup. The junta, led by the Sonthi Boonyaratglin, Commander of the Army, called itself the Council for Democratic Reform under the Constitutional Monarchy, accused the deposed prime minister and his regime of many crimes, including lese majeste, and pledged its loyalty to the Bhumibol. Martial law was declared, the Constitution repealed and the October elections cancelled.[41] Hundreds of Bangkokians came out to flock around the coup makers' stationed forces. The military officers were given flowers or asked for photographing. Protests were banned and protestors were arrested. On 20 September, Bhumibol endorsed the coup, and ordered civil servants to take orders from Sonthi.

The King's role in the coup was the subject of much speculation among Thai analysts and the international media. The King had an audience with Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda at the same time as the First Special Forces were ordered mobilised.[42] Anti-coup protestors claimed that Prem was a key mastermind of the coup, although the military claimed otherwise and banned any discussion of the topic. In a BBC interview, Thitinan Pongsudhirak of Chulalongkorn University noted, "This coup was nothing short of Thaksin versus the King... He is widely seen as having implicitly endorsed the coup." In the same interview, social critic Sulak Sivaraksa claimed, "Without his involvement, the coup would have been impossible." Sulak added that the King is "very skillful. He never becomes obviously involved. If this coup goes wrong, Sonthi will get the blame, but whatever happens, the King will only get praise."[43] On Saturday September 23, 2006, the junta warned they would "urgently retaliate against foreign reporters whose coverage has been deemed insulting to the monarchy."[44] The President of Bhumibol's Privy Council, General Prem Tinsulanonda, supported the coup. The junta later appointed Privy Council member General Surayud Chulanont as Prime Minister.

After the coup

The junta appointed a Constitutional Tribunal to rule on the alleged poll fraud cases concerning the Thai Rak Thai and Democrat political parties. Guilty rulings would have dissolved both parties, Thailand's largest and oldest, respectively, and banned the parties' leadership from politics for five years. The weeks leading up to the verdicts saw rising political tensions. On 24 May 2007, about a week before the scheduled verdict, Bhumibol gave a rare speech to the Supreme Administrative Court (the President of which is also a member of the Constitutional Tribunal). "You have the responsibility to prevent the country from collapsing," he warned them in the speech, which was shown on all national television channels simultaneously during the evening. “The nation needs political parties.” The actual meaning of Bhumibol's advice was not clear, and interpretations varied. Some observers saw it as suggesting the judges should not make a compromise ruling. Others saw it as a warning against dissolving the two major parties. Bhumibol, who spoke standing but in a weak, rasping voice, was careful not to say where he stood on the merits of the case. "In my mind, I have a judgment but I cannot say," he said. "Either way the ruling goes, it will be bad for the country, there will be mistakes."[45][46][47] The Tribunal later acquitted the Democrat Party but dissolved the Thai Rak Thai party and banned over 100 of its executives from politics for five years.

The junta-appointed Constitution Drafting Assembly later tried to use the King in a propaganda campaign to increase public support for its widely criticised draft constitution. The CDA placed billboards saying, "Love the King. Care about the King. Vote in the referendum. throughout the Northeast of Thailand, where opposition to the junta was greatest.[48]

Royal powers

For a historical perspective on how Bhumibol's constitutional powers have changed over time, see the Constitutions of Thailand article
Monument to King Bhumibol in Phitsanulok, Thailand

Bhumibol retains enormous powers, partly because of his immense popularity and partly because his powers - although clearly defined in the Thai Constitution - are often subject to conflicting interpretations. This was highlighted by the controversy surrounding the appointment of a new Auditor-General. Jaruvan Maintaka, who had been appointed by The State Audit Commission, later went into conflict with the prime minister. Constitution Court ruled in July 2004 that the appointment of Jaruvan Maintaka to this post was technically unconstitutional. But Jaruvan refused to leave her position without an explicit order from Bhumibol. When the Senate, approved of a replacement for Jaruvan, Bhumibol, in a very rare move, refused to approve the replacement.[49] The Senate declined to vote to override his veto.[50] Finally in February 2006 the Audit Commission reinstated Jaruvan when it became clear from a memo from the Office of the King's Principal Private Secretary that Bhumibol supported her appointment.

Senator Kaewsan Atibhodi, a former member of the Constitution Drafting Committee, noted that under Article Seven of the 1997 Constitution said that: "whenever no provision under this Constitution is applicable to any case, it shall be decided in accordance with the constitutional practice in the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State”. Kaewsan interpreted this as giving Bhumibol veto powers over the Senate's appointment of Wisut Montriwat to replace Jaruvan: "Whenever [the King] considers [something as being] not beneficial to the people and being unjust, His Majesty has a veto power".[51]

Bhumibol had vetoed legislation very rarely. In 1976, when the Parliament voted 149-19 to extend democratic elections down to district levels, Bhumibol refused to sign the law.[52] The Parliament refused to vote to overturn the King's veto. In 1954, Bhumibol vetoed parliamentary-approved land reform legislation twice before consenting to sign it.[53] The law limited the maximum land an individual could hold to 50 rai (20 acres) , at a time when the Crown Property Bureau was the Kingdom's largest land-owner. The law was repealed after General Sarit overthrew the elected government in a coup.

Bhumibol's popularity was demonstrated following the 2003 Phnom Penh riots in Cambodia, when hundreds of Thai protesters, enraged by the burning of the Thai embassy in Phnom Penh, gathered outside the Cambodian embassy in Bangkok. The situation was resolved peacefully when Police General Sant Sarutanonda told the crowd that he had received a call from royal secretary Arsa Sarasin conveying Bhumibol's request for calm. The crowd dispersed.[54]

Bhumibol has the constitutional prerogative to pardon criminals. There have been criteria for the selection of the convicted, including age and the remained serving time. But the 2006 pardoning of several convicted paedophiles, including an Australian rapist and child pornographer, caused controversy.[55][56][57]

Royal projects

Bhumibol has been involved in many social and economic development projects. The nature of his involvement has varied by political regime.[58]

The military regime of Plaek Pibulsonggram (1951–1957) suppressed the monarchy. However, during that period Bhumibol managed to initiate a few projects using his own personal funds. These projects included the Royal Film and Radio Broadcasting Projects.

In the military governments of Sarit Dhanarajata and his successors (1958–1980), Bhumibol was reportrayed as the "Development King" and the source of the economic and political goals of the regime. Royally-initiated projects were implemented under the financial and political support of the government, including projects in rural areas and communities under the influence of the Communist Party of Thailand. Bhumibol's visits to these projects were heavily promoted by the Sarit government and broadcast on the state-controlled media.

During the civilian governments of General Prem Tinsulanond (1981–1987), the relationship between the Thai state and the monarch was at its closest. Prem, later to become President of Bhumibol's Privy Council, officially allocated government budgets and manpower to support royal projects. Most activities in this period involved the development of large scale irrigation projects in rural areas.

During the modern period (post-1988) , the structured development of the Royal Projects reached its apex. Bhumibol's Chaipattana Foundation was established, promoting the Localism in Thailand theory, an alternative to the export-oriented policies adopted by the period's elected governments.

Awards

In May 2006, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, presented the United Nations' first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award to Bhumibol.[59]

In 1960, Bhumibol was a recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain, a personal award of the British Monarch. Also on June 28, 1960, President Eisenhower presented Bhumibol with the Legion of Merit, Degree of Chief Commander[60] and Bhumibol presented President Eisenhower with the Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri.

Bhumibol, who serves as head of The National Scout Organization of Thailand, was presented the Bronze Wolf award on June 20, 2006, the highest award of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for his support and development of Scouting in Thailand by Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden and Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation. The presentation took place at Chitralada Palace in Thailand and was witnessed by Chairman of the World Scout Committee Herman Hui.

Bhumibol set a world record for receiving the greatest number of honorary university degrees (136) in 1997.[61] Most of his degrees came from Thai universities: for instance, Kasetsart University awarded him ten honorary doctoral degrees at once.

60th Anniversary celebrations

The emblem for the 60th Anniversary Celebration of King Bhumibol's Accession to the Throne.
Main article: 60th anniversary of the accession of Bhumibol Adulyadej

Also called the Diamond Jubilee, the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty the King's Accession to the Throne were a series of events marking Bhumibol's reign. Events included the royal barge procession on the Chao Phraya River, fireworks displays, art exhibitions, pardoning 25,000 prisoners,[62] concerts and dance performances.

Tied in with the anniversary, on May 26, 2006 United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented Bhumibol with the United Nations Development Programme's first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award. National holidays were on June 9 and June 12 -13, 2006. On June 9, the King and Queen appeared on the balcony of Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall before hundreds of thousands of people. The official royal barge procession on June 12 was attended by the King and Queen and royal visitors from 26 other countries. On June 13, a state banquet for the royal visitors was held in the newly constructed Rama IX Throne Hall at the Grand Palace, the first official function for the hall. The Chiang Mai Royal Flora Expo was also held to honor the anniversary.

On January 16, 2007, the junta officially declared the end of the 60th anniversary celebrations and commenced year-long celebrations of Bhumibol's 80th birthday.[63]


Private life

Bhumibol is a painter, photographer, author and translator. His book Phra Mahachanok is based on a traditional Jataka story of Buddhist scripture. The Story of Thong Daeng is the story of his dog Thong Daeng.[64]

In his youth, Prince Bhumibol was greatly interested in firearms. He kept a carbine, a Sten gun, and two automatic pistols in his bedroom, and he and his elder brother, King Ananda Mahidol, often used the gardens of the Baromphiman Palace for target practice.[65]

Health

Bhumibol suffers from lumbar spine stenosis, a narrowing of the canal that contains the spinal cord and nerve roots, which results in back and leg pain and numbness in the legs. He received a microsurgical decompression in July 2006.[66][67]

King Bhumibol was taken to Bangkok's Siriraj hospital on Saturday 13 October 2007, complaining he felt weak down his right side; doctors later found out through scans that he had a blood shortage to his brain.[68] He was discharged on November 7, 2007.[69]

Music

Bhumibol is an accomplished jazz musician and composer, particularly the alto saxophone. He was the first Asian composer awarded honorary membership of the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts in Vienna at the age of 32.[70] He used to play jazz music on air on the Or Sor radio station. In his travels, he has played with such jazz legends as Benny Goodman, Jack Teagarden, Lionel Hampton, Maynard Ferguson, and Preservation Hall Jazz Band. His songs can often be heard at social gatherings and are performed in concerts. They can be listened to here.

Sailing

Bhumibol is an accomplished sailor and sailboat designer.[71] He won a gold medal for sailing in the Fourth Southeast Asian Peninsular (SEAP) Games in 1967, together with HRH Princess Ubol Ratana whom he tied for points.[72] This accomplishment is all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. Bhumibol has also sailed the Gulf of Thailand from Hua Hin to Toey Harbour in Sattahip, covering 60 nautical miles (110 km) in a 14-hour journey on the "Vega 1," an OK Class dinghy he built.[65]

Like his father, a former naval engineer, Bhumibol was an avid boat designer and builder. He produced several small sail-boat designs in the International Enterprise, OK, and Moth Classes. His designs in the Moth class include the “Mod,” “Super Mod,” and “Micro Mod.”[73]

Patent

Bhumibol is the only Thai monarch —and possibly the only monarch in the world, to hold a patent;[74][75] obtaining one in 1993 for a waste water aerator named "Chai Pattana" and several patents on rainmaking since 1955: the "sandwich" rainmaking patent in 1999 and lately the "supersandwich" patent in 2003.[76][77][78]

Wealth

Estimates of the post-devaluation (circa 1997–1998) wealth of the royal household range from 10 billion to 20 billion USD.[79] The wealth and properties of Bhumibol and his family are managed by the Crown Property Bureau (CPB) and the Privy Purse. The CPB was established by law but is managed independently of the Thai Government.[65][80]

Through the CPB, Bhumibol owns massive amounts of land and equity in many companies. The CPB is the majority shareholder of Siam Cement (the largest Thai industrial conglomerate), Christiani & Nielsen (one of the largest construction firms), Deves Insurance (which has monopoly on government properties and contracts), Siam Commercial Bank (one of the largest banks), and Shin Corporation (a major telecommunications firm, through the CPB's holdings in Siam Commercial Bank). The CPB also rents or leases about 36,000 properties to third parties, including the sites of the Four Seasons Hotel Bangkok, the Suan Lum Night Bazaar, Siam Paragon and Central World Tower. The CPB spearheaded a plan to turn Bangkok’s historical Rajadamnoen Avenue into a shopping street known as the “Champs-Élysées of Asia” and in 2007, shocked longtime residents of traditional marketplace districts by giving them eviction notices.[81] Bhumibol's substantial income from the CPB, at least five billion baht in 2004 alone, is exempt from taxes.[82][81] The CPB receives many state privileges. Although the Ministry of Finance technically runs the CPB, in reality the decisions are made by Bhumibol. The CPB's annual report is for the eyes of Bhumibol alone.[81]

In addition, Bhumibol has numerous personal investments independent of the CPB. He is personally the majority shareholder of the Thai Insurance Company and Sammakorn, as well as many other companies.[83] He also receives fees from public appearances and his presence in university graduation ceremonies.[84]

Bhumibol has a fleet of three personal aircraft: a Boeing 737-800 and two Airbus A319-100's. The Boeing had been purchased by the Thaksin Shinawatra government for government use, but after the 2006 coup, the junta donated it to Bhumibol. Both Airbuses are used by other members of the royal family.[85]

Lèse majesté

Scope of the law

Although Bhumibol is held in great respect by many Thais, he is also protected by lèse majesté laws which allow critics to be jailed for three to 15 years.[86] The laws were toughened during the dictatorship of royalist Premier Tanin Kraivixien, such that criticism of any member of the royal family, the royal development projects, the royal institution, the Chakri Dynasty, or any previous Thai King was also banned.[87] Jail terms for Thai citizens committing lèse majesté are usually harsher than for foreigners. Social critic Sulak Sivaraksa has been charged several times with lèse majesté, but has always been acquitted. Politician Veera Musikapong was jailed and banned from politics for lèse majesté, despite the palace's opinion that the remarks were harmless. Frenchman Lech Tomacz Kisielwicz refused to switch off a reading light on a Thai Airways flight he shared with two Thai princesses and was jailed under lèse majesté for two weeks after his flight landed in Bangkok.[88] He was acquitted after apologizing to the King.

There is controversy over whether criticism of members of Bhumibol's Privy Council also qualifies as criticism of Bhumibol.[89] Police Special Branch Commander Lt-General Theeradech Rodpho-thong refused to file charges of lèse majesté against activitists who launched a petition to oust Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda, claiming that the law only applied to members of the royal family.[90] Two days later, he was demoted by Police Commander Seripisut Temivavej.[91]

There was also controversy following the death of Princess Galyani Vadhana. The website of Same Sky Books, publishers of Fah Diao Kan magazine, was shut down by the government after comments on its bulletin board questioned claims made by the Thai media that the entire country was in mourning over the death. Comments were also made criticizing official calls for the public to wear black as a sign of mourning.[92]

Bhumibol himself stated that he was not above criticism in his 2005 birthday speech. "Actually, I must also be criticised. I am not afraid if the criticism concerns what I do wrong, because then I know. Because if you say the king cannot be criticised, it means that the king is not human," he said. "If the King can do no wrong, it is akin to looking down upon him because the King is not being treated as a human being. But the King can do wrong."[93] Despite this, few have dared to call for the repeal of the law. Any doing so have been accused of disloyalty and could also be charged with lèse majesté.[94] Political scientist Giles Ungpakorn noted that "the lèse majesté laws are not really designed to protect the institution of the monarchy. In the past the laws have been used to protect governments, to protect military coups. This whole [royal] image is created to bolster a conservative elite well beyond the walls of the palace."[95]

Political use of the lèse majesté law

Accusations of lese majesty are often politically motivated. Premier Thaksin Shinawatra and his political opponent Sondhi Limthongkul both filed charges of lèse majesté against each other during the 2005–2006 political crisis. Thaksin's alleged lèse majesté was one of the stated reasons for the Thai military's 2006 coup.[96][97][98][99]

In 2005, the Department of Special Investigation (DSI) issued arrest warrants for two Swedish citizens, Abdulrosa Jehngoh and Chipley Putra Jehngoh, claiming that their Manusaya.com website contained content insulting to Bhumibol.[100][101] Chipley Putra Jehngoh also held Malaysian and Thai citizenship and at the time lived in the Middle East. Abdulrosa Jehngoh was granted Swedish citizenship and lives in Sweden. The website was hosted in Canada and was linked to separatist organisation in southern Thailand or more specifically the website 'www.pulo.org' which incited separatist movement.[102]

Sondhi, a vocal opposition of Prime Minister Thaksin, often accused Thaksin and his affiliates of lèse majesté. In April 2007, A Bangkok criminal court sentenced Sondhi for defamation for claiming on his Muang Thai Rai Sapda talk show that Thaksin's Deputy Transport Minister, Phumtham Vejjayachai, was linked to the anti-royal Manusaya.com website.[103]

Academics have been investigated for lèse majesté for even questioning the role of the monarchy in Thai society. In 2007, Assistant Professor Boonsong Chaisingkananon of Silpakorn University was investigated for lèse majesté for asking students in an exam if the institution of the monarchy was necessary for Thai society and how it may be reformed to be consistent with the democratic system. The University cooperated with the police investigation, and even turned over students' answer sheets and the marks the professor gave them.[104]

Insults to Bhumibol's image

Acts deemed insulting to Bhumibol's image are also criminal offenses in Thailand. Charges may be filed by anybody, except for Bhumibol himself. In 2007, Oliver Jufer, a Swiss man, was sentenced to 10 years in jail for daubing black paint on portraits of Bhumibol while drunk.[105] The Thai press was requested not to publish any information about the case. "This is a delicate issue and we don't want the public to know much about it," noted chief prosecutor Manoon Moongpanchon.[106] The man originally pleaded innocent, but eventually pleaded guilty to five acts of lèse majesté. Foreign reporters were barred from the hearing.[107] Saprang Kalayanamitr publicly suspected that Jufer was hired to perform the vandalism and ordered a military investigation.[108] Jufer was pardoned by the king less than a month after his conviction.

Internet-based insults

Further information: Media of Thailand#YouTube Controversy
Wikinews has related news: Thailand bans YouTube over videos insulting king

Another high-profile case was the banning of YouTube. On April 04, 2007, the Thai government blocked Thai access to YouTube as a result of a video clip which it deemed insulting to the king.[109][110] Various leaders of the military junta claimed that the clip was an attempt to undermine the monarchy, attack Thailand as a country, and threatened national security.[111]

Monarchy debate

A debate on the hitherto taboo subject of the role of the monarchy in Thailand starts behind closed doors Tuesday, 15 January 2008, at Bangkok's Thammasat University. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn is scheduled to open the conference.[112]

Biographies

American journalist Paul Handley, who spent thirteen years in Thailand, wrote the biography The King Never Smiles. The Information and Communications Ministry banned the book and blocked the book's page on the Yale University Press website in January 2006. In a statement dated 19 January 2006, Thai National Police Chief General Kowit Wattana said the book has "contents which could affect national security and the good morality of the people."[113] The book provides a detailed discussion of Bhumibol's role in Thai political history and also analyzes the factors behind Bhumibol's popularity, though it is sometimes based on rumors which cannot be confirmed.

William Stevenson, who had access to the Royal Court and the Royal Family, wrote the biography The Revolutionary King in 2001.[114] An article in Time says the idea for the book was suggested by Bhumibol.[115]

Critics noted that the book displays intimate knowledge about personal aspects of Bhumibol. However, the book has been unofficially banned in Thailand and the Bureau of the Royal Household has warned the Thai media about even referring to it in print. (An official ban was not possible as it was written with the Royal blessing.) The book has been criticised for factual inaccuracies (geographical and historical) , disrespecting Bhumibol (it refers to Bhumibol by his family nickname "Lek") , and proposing a controversial theory explaining the death of King Ananda. Stevenson said, "The King said from the beginning the book would be dangerous for him and for me."[115]

Succession to the throne

Bhumibol's only son, Prince Vajiralongkorn, was given the title "Somdej Phra Boroma Orasadhiraj Chao Fah Maha Vajiralongkorn Sayam Makutrajakuman" (Crown Prince of Siam) on December 28, 1972 and made heir apparent to the throne in accordance with the Palace Law on Succession of 1924.

On December 5, 1977, Princess Sirindhorn was given the title, "Sayam Boromrajakumari" (Royal Princess of Siam). Her title is often translated by the English-language press as "Crown Princess", although her official English-language title is simply "Princess".[116]

Although the constitution was later amended to allow the Privy Council to appoint a princess as successor to the throne, this would only occur in the absence of an heir apparent. This amendment is retained in Section 23 of the 1997 "People's Constitution." This effectively signalled Princess Sirindhorn as second in line to the throne, but did not affect Prince Vajiralongkorn's status as heir apparent.

Recent constitutions of Thailand have made the amendment of the Palace Law of Succession the sole prerogative of the reigning King. According to Gothom Arya, former Election Commissioner, this allows the reigning King, if he so chooses, to appoint his son or any of his daughters to the Throne.[117]

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rama IX

References

  1. ^ a b A Royal Occasion speeches. Worldhop.com Journal (1996). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  2. ^ Montlake, Simon. "Backstory: The king and Thai", The Christian Science Monitor, 2006-06-12. Retrieved on 2008-03-04
  3. ^ "World in Brief", The Washington Post, 2007-03-30. Retrieved on 2008-03-04
  4. ^ MacKinnon, Ian. "YouTube ban after videos mock Thai king", The Guardian, 2007-04-07. Retrieved on 2008-03-04
  5. ^ The Illustrious Chakri Family. Tudtu. Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  6. ^ Wimuttanon, Suvit (ed.) (2001). Amazing Thailand (special collector's edition). World Class Publishing, Page 33. ISBN 974-91020-3-7
  7. ^ Biography of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej. The Golden Jubilee Network. Kanchanapisek Network (1999). Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  8. ^ Bhumibol Adulyadej. The Encyclopedia of Asian History the Asia Society 1988.. Asia Source (1988). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  9. ^ Bhirom Bhakdi, Soravij. Queens of the Chakri Dynasty. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  10. ^ A Royal Romance. Srinai Tripod.com. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  11. ^ The Making of a Monarch. Bangkok Post (December 5, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  12. ^ Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press, Page 104. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
  13. ^ Khun Poom Jensen, Son of Princess Ubolratana. Soravij.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  14. ^ Royal Power Controversy. 2Bangkok.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  15. ^ Thailand Monarchy. Thailand Travel and Tours (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  16. ^ Head, Jonathan. Why Thailand's king is so revered, BBC News, December 5, 2007. Accessed May 11, 2008.
  17. ^ Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press, Page 129–130, 136–137. ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  18. ^ Thak Chaloemtiarana (1979). Thailand: The Politics of Despotic Paternalism. Social Science Association of Thailand, Page 98. 
  19. ^ Suwannathat-Pian, Kobkua (1995). Thailand's Durable Premier. Oxford University Press, Page 30. ISBN 967-65-3053-0
  20. ^ The Royal Command on Imposition of the Martial Law throughout the Kingdom. (1957, 16 September). The Government Gazette of Thailand, (Vol. 74, Pt. 76). [Online]. Available: http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2500/A/076/2.PDF. (Accessed: 4 June 2008).
  21. ^ The Royal Command on Appointment of the Military Defender of the Capital. (1957, 16 September). The Government Gazette of Thailand, (Vol. 74, Pt. Special 76 Ko). [Online]. Available: http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2500/A/076/1.PDF. (Accessed: 4 June 2008).
  22. ^ Evans, Dr. Grant; citing Christine Gray (1998). The Politics of Ritual and Remembrance: Laos since 1975. Laosnet.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  23. ^ Evans, Dr. Grant (1998). The Politics of Ritual and Remembrance: Laos since 1975. University of Hawaii Press, Pages 89–113. ISBN 0-8248-2054-1
  24. ^ Klinkajorn, Karin. Creativity and Settings of Monuments and Sites in Thailand: Conflicts and Resolution (PDF). International Council on Monuments and Sites. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  25. ^ Thongthong Chandrangsu, A Constitutional Legal Aspect of the King's Prerogatives (M.A. thesis) Chulalongkorn University, 1986) , page 160
  26. ^ ใจ อึ๊งภากรณ์, บทความ รศ.ใจ อึ๊งภากรณ์ วิจารณ์ : The King Never Smiles, 14 ธันวาคม 2549
  27. ^ ทักษ์ เฉลิมเตียรณ, การเมืองระบบพ่อขุนอุปถัมภ์แบบเผด็จการ, สำนักพิมพ์มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์ 2525
  28. ^ Beemer, Bryce (1997). Explorations in Southeast Asian Studies. Forgetting and Remembering "Hok Tulaa", the October 6 Massacre. University of Hawaii. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  29. ^ His Gracious Majesty. The Nation (February 02, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  30. ^ Michael Schmicker, Asian Wall Street Journal, December 23, 1982
  31. ^ สุลักษณ์ ศิวรักษ์, "ลอกคราบสังคมไทย", กรุงเทพฯ: หนังสือไทย, 2528
  32. ^ Anonymous, "The Chakri Dynasty and Thai Politics, 1782–1982", cited in Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press, Page 298. ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  33. ^ Development Without Harmony. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (2000). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  34. ^ BIOGRAPHY of Chamlong Srimuang. The 1992 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Government Service. Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation (2000). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  35. ^ a b HM the King's April 26 speeches. The Nation. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  36. ^ Constitution Court invalidate the April election and order new election. The Nation. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  37. ^ EC Commissioners arrive at Bangkok Remand Prison. The Nation. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  38. ^ EC Guilty in Historic Ruling. Bangkok Post. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  39. ^ Tinsulanonda, General Prem (July 14, 2006). A special lecture to CRMA cadets. Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  40. ^ Kosajan, Worranaree (July 22, 2006). King urges fair poll. The Nation. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  41. ^ Thai Military Launches Coup to Remove PM Thaksin. Associated Press. Foxnews.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  42. ^ Coup as it unfolds. The Nation (September 20, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  43. ^ McGeown, Kate (September 21, 2006). Thai king remains centre stage. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  44. ^ Thai junta vows action against foreign media. ABC News (September 23, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  45. ^ Ahuja, Ambika (May 25, 2007). Thai king urges firm, clear verdict in key case. China Post. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  46. ^ Thai king against dissolving parties. Gulf Times (May 25, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  47. ^ Thai king warns over court ruling. BBC News (May 25, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  48. ^ Schuettler, Darren (August 13, 2007). Academic accused of insulting Thai king in exam paper. Reuters News. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  49. ^ ‘My govt serves His Majesty’. The Nation (September 09, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  50. ^ Senate steers clear of motion on Jaruvan. The Nation (October 11, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  51. ^ Thammasat Debate: Royal powers forum packed. The Nation (September 07, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  52. ^ Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. Yale University Press, Page 233. ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  53. ^ Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. Yale University Press, Page 126. ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  54. ^ The Burning of the Thai Embassy in Cambodia. The Nation, 2Bangkok.com (2003). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  55. ^ Aussie pedophile free on royal pardon. The Nation (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  56. ^ McDonald, Phillipa (June 30, 2006). Campaigners condemn paedophile's release. ABC News Online. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  57. ^ Bathersby, Damien (July 02, 2006). Royal pardon for child predator. Sunshine Coast Daily. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  58. ^ Chitbundid, Chanida (2003). /2546_ANTH.htm The Royally-initiated Projects: The Making of Royal Hegemony (B.E. 2494–2546). Thammasat University. Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  59. ^ With new Human Development award, Annan hails Thai King as example for the world. UN News Center (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  60. ^ Citation Accompanying Legion of Merit, Degree of Chief Commander, Presented to the King of Thailand Dwight D. Eisenhower. The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara (1960). Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  61. ^ Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press, Page 417. ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  62. ^ Pinyorat, Rungrawee C. (2006). Millions of Thai honor king. Boston.com News, Associated Press. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  63. ^ Govt launches commemorative events for HM the King's 80th birthday. The Nation (February 16, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  64. ^ HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Tongdaeng. Amarin, Bangkok. 2004. ISBN 9742729174
  65. ^ a b c Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press, Page 70. ISBN 0-300-10682-3
  66. ^ Doctors to Permfom Surgery on Thai king, 78. Bangkok Post. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  67. ^ Doctors to perform surgery to cure lumbar spine stenosis for His Majesty. Breaking News. The Nation. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  68. ^ Thailand's king taken to hospital. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  69. ^ Homeward-bound King Bhumibol, in pink, snaps pics of happy, weeping subjects. MCOT English News, Thai News Agency. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  70. ^ Tang, Alisa (June 13, 2006). Thailand's monarch is ruler, jazz musician. Boston.com News, Associated Press. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  71. ^ The Heart for Art. Bangkok Post (February 6, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  72. ^ Cummins, Peter (December 2004). His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej The Great: Monarch of Peace and Unity. Chiang Mai Mail. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  73. ^ H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Minsitry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  74. ^ Long Live The King!. Bangkokker (June 09, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  75. ^ H.M. Biography. Assumption University (June 09, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  76. ^ Thai king's patent to make rain. BBC News (March 27, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  77. ^ Weather Modification by Royal Rainmaking Technology. 60th Celebrations (June 17, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  78. ^ Thai King gets rainmaking patent. 60th Celebrations (June 09, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  79. ^ Horn, Robert (December 06, 1999). The Banker Who Saved A King. Time Asia. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  80. ^ Pendelton, Devon; Tatiana Serafin. "The World's Richest Royals", Forbes, 2007-08-30. Retrieved on 2008-03-04
  81. ^ a b c Thailand's Royal Wealth: How Thailand’s Royals Manage to Own All the Good Stuff. Asia Sentinel (March 01, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  82. ^ Royal Assets Structuring Act of 1936 (Thai). Section 8. The Crown Property Bureau (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25. (พระราชบัญญัติ จัดระเบียบทรัพย์สิน ฝ่ายพระมหากษัตริย์)
  83. ^ See Stock Exchange of Thailand Report 56-1 for TIC and SAMCO
  84. ^ Giles Ji Ungpakorn, "The Monarchy in Modern Thailand: Invented Tradition or Ancient Institution?", Paper given at the 9th Thai Studies Conference, University of Northern Illinois in April 2005
  85. ^ King's new aircraft arrives, with 'Air Force One' in reserve. The Nation (April 21, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  86. ^ Champion, Paul (September 25, 2007). Professor in lese majeste row. Reuters. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  87. ^ The original penalty was a maximum of 7 years imprisonment, but was toughened to a minimum of 3 years and a maximum of 15 years. This harsher sentence has been retained to the current day, see Colum Murphy (September 2006). "A Tug of War for Thailand’s Soul". Far Eastern Economic Review.  As stipulated under the Constitution, lese-majeste only applied to criticism of the King, Queen, Crown Prince, and Regent. Tanin, a former Supreme Court justice, reinterpreted this as a blanket ban against criticism of royal development projects, the royal institution, the Chakri Dynasty, or any Thai King. See David Streckfuss. "Kings in the Age of Nations: The Paradox of Lèse-Majesté as Political Crime in Thailand". Comparative Studies in Society and History 33 (3).  The reinterpretation has stood to the present day.
  88. ^ Perry, Richard Lloyd (March 13, 2007). Moment of vandalism may lead to a lifetime in prison. Times Online. Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  89. ^ Authorities close in on Prem's foes. Bangkok Post (April 05, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  90. ^ Row festers over website seeking to oust Prem. The Nation (April 03, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  91. ^ Special Branch chief demoted in reshuffle. The Nation (April 05, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  92. ^ AP, Thailand Shuts Down Political Web Site
  93. ^ Royal Birthday Address: 'King Can Do Wrong'. National Media (December 05, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  94. ^ Swiss man 'insulted' Thai king. Al Jazeera (March 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  95. ^ Swiss man faces jail for lèse majesté. Telegraph.co.uk (March 13, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  96. ^ Julian Gearing (September December 03, 1999). "A Protective Law: It's called lèse-majesté - and it is taken seriously". Asiaweek 45 (48). 
  97. ^ Colum Murphy (September 2006). "A Tug of War for Thailand’s Soul". Far Eastern Economic Review. 
  98. ^ Thai coup leader says new PM within two weeks. TurkishPress (September 19, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  99. ^ World Notes Thailand. Time (September 15, 1986). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  100. ^ ข้อเท็จจริง สรุปผลการสืบสวนกรณีเว็บไซต์ Pulo.org และ Manusaya.com. The Department of Special Investigation (2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  101. ^ THAILAND: Sondhi faces deluge of lese majeste claims. Bangkok Post. Asia Media (March 30, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  102. ^ ออกหมายจับ 2 ตัวการทำเว็บไซต์หมิ่นราชวงศ์. Crime Manager (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  103. ^ Thai media tycoon sentenced for slandering Thaksin minister in 2005. News Watch (April 02, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  104. ^ ประชาไท, อาจารย์ ม.ศิลปากรออกข้อสอบวิชาอารยธรรมไทย ถูกแจ้งข้อหาหมิ่นพระบรมเดชานุภาพ, 19 ก.ค. 50
  105. ^ Swiss man jailed for Thai insult. BBC News (March 29, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  106. ^ Thailand to try Swiss man for insulting king. IOL (February 07, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  107. ^ No One Can Offend Him. Sky News (March 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  108. ^ Swiss man faces jail for lèse majesté. The Telegraph (March 13, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  109. ^ Thai YouTube Ban Persists Over King Clip. AP via CBS (April 05, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  110. ^ More Thai king videos on YouTube. BBC (April 05, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  111. ^ Inconvenient truths of censorship. The Nation (April 16, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-26.
  112. ^ Monarchy debate defies traditional deference. Bangkok Post Breaking News (February 20, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  113. ^ Warrick-Alexander, James (February 06, 2006). Thailand Bars Univ. Website. Yale Daily News. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  114. ^ Stevenson, William (2001). The Revolutionary King. Constable and Robinson. ISBN 1-84119-451-4
  115. ^ a b McCarthy, Terry (December 06, 1999). The King and Ire. Time Asia. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  116. ^ Biography of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. The Golden Jubilee Network (2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  117. ^ Aryan, Gothan (September 16, 2004). Thai Monarchy (PDF). International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Retrieved on 2006-07-05. presented in Kathmandu, Nepal

Literature

  • HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Tongdaeng. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 2004. ISBN 9742729174
  • HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Mahajanaka. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 1997. ISBN 9748364712
  • HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Mahajanaka: Cartoon Edition. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 1999. ISBN 9742720746
  • HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. His Majesty the King's Photographs in the Development of the Country. Photographic Society of Thailand & Thai E, Bangkok. 1992. ISBN 9748880508
  • HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. Paintings by his Majesty the King: Special exhibition for the Rattanakosin Bicentennial Celebration at the National Gallery, Chao Fa Road, Bangkok, April 1-June 30, 1982. National Gallery, Bangkok. 1982. ASIN B0007CCDMO
  • HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand, Chaturong Pramkaew (Ed.). My Country Thailand...land of Everlasting Smile. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 1995. ISBN 9748363538

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rama IX Bhumibol Adulyadej House of ChakriBorn: 05 December 1927 Regnal titles Preceded by
Ananda MahidolKing of Thailand
1946 – present Incumbent
Designated heir:
Maha Vajiralongkorn
PersondataNAME Adulyadej, Bhumibol ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rama IX, the Ninth Rama, King Bhumipol SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Thailand DATE OF BIRTH December 05, 1927PLACE OF BIRTH Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of AmericaDATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH
v • d • eList of Kings who were termed the GreatThe Greats in Asia Ramkhamhaeng · Naresuan · Narai · Taksin · Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke · Chulalongkorn · Bhumibol Adulyadej · Phra Chao Prom the Great · Sejong the Great of Joseon · Ashoka the great · Kanishka · Akbar the Great · MengraiThe Greats in Europe Julius Caesar · Alfred the Great · Peter I of Russia · Catherine II of Russia · Frederick II of Prussia · Napoléon Bonaparte · The Greats in the Middle East Ramesses II · Alexander the Great · Cyrus the Great · Suleiman the Magnificent Categories: 1927 births | Living people | Thai monarchs | World record holders | Thai Americans | Chakri Dynasty | Reigning monarchs | Current national leaders | Saxophonists | Jazz musicians | Boat and ship designers | Bronze Wolf awardees | Knights of the Elephant | Knights of the Golden Fleece | Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav | Recipients of the Legion of Merit | Recipients of the Royal Victorian Chain | Recipients of the Star of Romania Order | People from Cambridge, MassachusettsHidden category: Featured articles

Related word on this page

Related Shopping on this page