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An autonomous area is an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority. Typically it is either geographically distinct from the country or is populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas are often federacies. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, personal autonomies (cultural autonomy) and local autonomies.
- 1 Contemporary
- 1.1 Iraq
- 1.2 China
- 1.3 Russia
- 1.4 Other countries
- 2 Historical
- 3 Other
- 4 Notes
- 5 See also
- 6 Bibliography
- Main article: Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan is the only region which has gained official recognition internationally as an autonomous federal entity.
- Main article: Autonomous areas of China
China (PRC) has four types of autonomous area.
Found only as divisions of Inner Mongolia. In effect, these are autonomous counties (see below).
- Main article: Autonomous counties of China
The most numerous type of autonomous area in China, found both within and outside the larger autonomous prefectures and regions.
- Main article: Autonomous regions of China
Special administrative region
Apart from its republics, which by definition have a degree of autonomy, Russia has two types of autonomous region:
- Main article: Autonomous okrugs of Russia
Okrug is a transliterated Slavic loanword usually translated as "district". The sizes of okrugs, however, vary more widely than other areas commonly identified as "districts", from large first-level divisions to third-level divisions within cities. As of 2008, Russia has four autonomous okrugs.
- Main article: Autonomous oblasts of Russia
The other types of autonomous area to be found in the world are:
Four cities are formally designated by their countries as autonomous: the capital of Uzbekistan, Tashkent;the capital of Belgium Brussels; the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla; and the Argentinian capital, Buenos Aires. Another Argentinian city that has been pressing for autonomous status is Rosario, a city of around one million inhabitants that receives less subsidy than the smaller provincial capital Santa Fe.
Six countries formally designate areas of their territory as autonomous provinces:
- The Åland Islands, a part of Finland;
- The two provinces of Trento (or Trentino) and Bolzano (or South Tyrol) in Italy;
- The Bougainville province in Papua New Guinea;
- Jeju-do, a South Korean offshore island;
- The Serbian provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina.
In addition to the autonomous regions of China mentioned above, various other areas of the world are formally described as autonomous regions:
- the Faroe Islands and Greenland, two autonomous regions within the Kingdom of Denmark;
- Rodrigues, an autonomous dependency within the Republic of Mauritius.
- Iraqi Kurdistan;
- the three autonomous regions of India;
- the five "autonomous regions with special statute" in Italy;
- the two autonomous regions of Portugal (the Azores and Madeira);
- Mount Athos in Greece;
- Zelaya in Nicaragua;
- the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, within the Philippines.
- the five municipalities, or caracoles in Chiapas, in the southeast of Mexico.
- Nunatsiavut, a self-governing region of Labrador Inuit in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador
- The Nisga'a of British Columbia and Tli Cho of the Northwest Territories have self-government as a result of treaties
In addition to the Russian republics mentioned above, areas known as "autonomous republics" exist within some of the countries established following the end of the Soviet Union:
- the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic within Azerbaijan;
- Abkhazia and the Autonomous Republic of Adjaria within Georgia;
- the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province within Tajikistan;
- the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine;
- the Karakalpakstan Republic within Uzbekistan.
- the Palestinian Authority within Israel exercises certain sovereign powers within its borders, but is not a fully independent government. The PA-administrated territories are internationally recognized as occupied by Israel, and not a proper part of that country.
- Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa and Namibia
- Subcarpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia within Czechoslovakia (1938-1939)
- Grand Duchy of Finland
- Hungarian Autonomous Province
- "Indian" (First Nation or Native American) reserves and reservations, in, respectively, Canada and the United States;
- the five comarcas indígenas ("indigenous regions") of Panama.
If elected, the Action démocratique du Québec party, now the official opposition in the Canadian province of Quebec, promises to work to make Quebec an autonomous region within the Canadian confederation.
- ^ Currently under United Nations administration.
- ^ Also described as a "self-governing territory".
- List of autonomous areas by country
- Country subdivision
- Personal union
- List of autonomous regions leaders
- M. Weller and S. Wolff (eds), Autonomy, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge, 2005
- From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt, report by Minority Rights Group International
- P.M. Olausson, Autonomy and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2007.
Autonomous area · Bailiwick · Banner (Autonomous banner) · Block · Borough (County borough · Metropolitan borough) · Cadastral division · Capital (Federal capital) · Canton · Circle · Circuit · City (Autonomous city · Chartered city · Independent city) · Colony · Commune · Community (Autonomous community · Residential community) · Condominium · Constituency · County (Administrative county · Autonomous county · Metropolitan county) · Council · Department · District (Autonomous district · Capital district · City district · Federal district · Metropolitan district · Municipal district · Subdistrict) · Division · Duchy · Eldership · Federal dependency · Governorate · Hamlet · Hundred · Insular area · Local administrative unit · Local government area · Municipality (District municipality · Regional municipality · Regional county municipality · Rural municipality) · Neighbourhood · Parish (Civil parish) · Periphery · Prefecture (Autonomous prefecture · Subprefecture) · Principality (Co-principality) · Protectorate · Province (Autonomous province) · Quarter · Regency · Region (Autonomous region · Capital region · Special administrative region) · Republic (Autonomous republic) · Reservation (Reserve) · Shire · State · Suzerainty · Territory (Autonomous territorial unit · Capital territory · Dependent territory · National territory · Union Territory) · Town · Townland · Township (Township (Scotland) · Civil township) · Urban (urbanized) area · Village · WardCurrent non-English
Amt · Arrondissement · Bakhsh · Baladiyah · Barangay · Bairro · Bezirk / Regierungsbezirk · Comarca · Comune · Daïra · Frazione · Freguesia · Gmina · Judeţ · Kommun · Liwa · Località · Oblast · Okrug · Ostān · Plasa · Powiat · Ranchería · Shabiyah · Shahr · Shahrestān · Sýsla · Taluka · Tehsil · Vingtaine · Voivodeship · Wilayah · WoredaDefunct and historical
Agency · Barony · Diocese · Free imperial city · Imperial Circle · March · Praetorian prefecture · Presidency · Residency · Riding · Rural district · Sanitary district · Theme · Urban district · Viscountcy (Viscounty)Defunct and historical
non-English terms Political division · Census division · Electoral division
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