Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909This article is part of
the History of Malaysiaseries
Early kingdoms Gangga Negara(2nd–11th century CE)
Pan Pan(3rd–5th century)
The rise of Muslim states Kedah Sultanate(1136–present)
Johor Sultanate(1528–current) Jementah Civil War(1879) European colonialism Portuguese Malacca(1511 - 1641)
Dutch Malacca(1641 - 1824)
Kingdom of Sarawak(1841–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824Burney Treaty(1826) Straits Settlements(1826–1946) Larut War(1861–1874) Klang War(1867–1874) Pangkor Treaty of 1874Federated Malay States(1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States(1800s–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang(1914)
Mat Salleh Rebellion(1896–1900)
World War II Japanese occupation(1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya(1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre(1942)
Battle of Muar(1942)
Battle of Singapore(1942)
Battle of North Borneo(1945)
Sandakan Death Marches(1945)
Malaysia in transition Malayan Union(1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya(1948–1963)
Bukit Kepong Incident(1950)
Federation of Malaysia(1963–present)
Operation Coldstore(1963) Indonesia confrontation(1962–1966) Brunei Revolt(1962–1966) Singapore in Malaysia(1963–1965) 1964 Race Riots(1964) Communist Insurgency War(1967-1989)
Contemporary Malaysia Malaysia today
May 13 Incident(1969)
New Economic Policy(1971–1990)
1988 constitutional crisis(1987–88)
Asian financial crisis(1997–98)
The agreement, in which the Malays were not represented, effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts. The area around modern Pattani (Malay:Patani), Narathiwat (Malay:Menara), Songkhla (Malay:Singgora), Satun (Malay:Setul) and Yala (Malay:Jala) remained under Thai control, while Thailand relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu which remained within the British sphere of influence as protectorates. These four states, along with Johor later became known as the Unfederated Malay States.
Originally, Setul and Perlis were part of the Malay Sultanate of Kedah but only Setul remained with Thailand. Patani, Menara, Singgora dan Jala were historically ruled by the Malay Sultanate of Patani.
The British logic for sanctioning the continued Thai occupation of the remaining northern half of the Malaya was the perceived value of Thailand as a friendly buffer against the French in Indochina.
Previously in 1826, both signees of the 1909 treaty agreed to the Burney Treaty. The Burney Treaty stated that Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu were Thai provinces while Penang and Province Wellesly belonged to the British while Thailand would not interfere with British trade in Kelantan and Terengganu.
This agreement has had a long lasting effect on both Thailand and Federation of Malaysia. The border between them was mainly drawn by this treaty. Moreover, to some extent, Pattani separatist movement is due to Pattani's refusal to recognize Thai domination over it and ultimately the deal made between the United Kingdom and Thailand.
- ^ U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Office of the Geographer, "International Boundary Study: Malaysia - Thailand Boundary," No. 57, 15 November 1965.