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Portal:Analytical chemistry

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The Analytical_chemistry Portal

Analytical chemistry is the study of the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials. Unlike other major sub disciplines of chemistry such as inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry, analytical chemistry is not restricted to any particular type of chemical compound or reaction. Proporties studied in analytical chemistry include geometric features such as molecular morphologies and distributions of species, as well as features such as composition and species identity. The contributions made by analytical chemists have played critical roles in the sciences ranging from the development of concepts and theories (pure science) to a variety of practical applications, such as biomedical applications, environmental monitoring, quality control of industrial manufacturing and forensic science (applied science).

Traditionally, analytical chemistry has been split into two main types, qualitative and quantitative:

Most modern analytical chemistry is categorized by two different approaches such as analytical targets or analytical methods. Analytical Chemistry (journal) reviews two different approaches alternatively in the issue 12 of each year.(see Methods and Applications Box below)

the gathered data is analysed later using calibration curve . Sometimes an internal standard is added at a known concentration directly to an analytical sample to aid in quantitation. The amount of analyte present is then determined relative to the internal standard as a calibrant.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. Spectrometry is the measurement of these interactions and an instrument which performs such measurements is a spectrometer or spectrograph. A plot of the interaction is referred to as a spectrum.

Historically, spectroscopy referred to a branch of science in which visible light was used for the theoretical study of the structure of matter and for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Recently, however, the definition has broadened as new techniques have been developed that utilise not only visible light, but many other forms of radiation.

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Soxhlet extractor

Franz Ritter von Soxhlet (January 12, 1848– May 5,1926) was a German agricultural chemist from Brno. He invented the Soxhlet extractor in 1879 and in 1886 he proposed that pasteurization be applied to milk.

A Soxhlet extractor is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet [1]. It was originally designed for the extraction of a lipid from a solid material. However, a Soxhlet extractor is not limited to the extraction of lipids. Typically, a Soxhlet extraction is only required where the desired compound has only a limited solubility in a solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. If the desired compound has a high solubility in a solvent then a simple filtration can be used to separate the compound from the insoluble substance.


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Methods_and_Applications

By Analytical Targets
  • Bioanalytical chemistry
  • Material analysis
  • Chemical analysis
  • Environmental analysis
  • Forensics
By Analytical Methods

or Combinations of the above techniques produce "hybrid" or "hyphenated" techniques :

  1. LC-MS (or HPLC-MS)
  2. HPLC/ESI-MS
  3. LC-DAD
  4. CE-MS
  5. CE-UV
  6. GC-MS
Applications 
  • Genomics - DNA sequencing and its related research. Genetic fingerprinting and DNA microarray are very popular tools and research fields.
  • Proteomics - the analysis of protein concentrations and modifications, especially in response to various stressors, at various developmental stages, or in various parts of the body.
  • Metabolomics - similar to proteomics, but dealing with metabolites.
  • Transcriptomics- mRNA and its associated field
  • Lipidomics - lipids and its associated field
  • Peptidomics - peptides and its associated field
  • Metalomics - similar to proteomics and metabolomics, but dealing with metal concentrations and especially with their binding to proteins and other molecules.
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Analytical chemistryAnalytical standardsChemical testsChromatographyComplexometric indicatorsElectrophoresisGustationMass spectrometryOlfactionPH indicatorsRedox indicatorsSeparation processesSpectroscopyTitrationedit  

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v • d • eAnalytical chemistryInstrumentationAtomic absorption spectrometer · Flame emmission spectrometer · Gas chromatograph · High performance liquid chromatograph · Infrared Spectrometer · Mass spectrometer · Melting point apparatus · Microscope · Spectrometer · SpectrophotometerTechniques Calorimetry · Chemometrics · Chromatography · Electrochemistry · Gravimetric analysisSamplingConing and quartering · Dilution · Dissolution · Filtration · Masking · Pulverization · Sample preparation · Separation process · Sub-samplingProminent publicationsAnalytical chemistryChemistry
Titration
v • d • eSpectroscopyAtomic spectroscopyEmission spectroscopyElectron spin resonanceFluorescence spectroscopyGamma spectroscopyInfrared spectroscopyLaser induced breakdown spectroscopyMößbauer spectroscopyNuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopyRaman spectroscopyResonance enhanced multiphoton ionizationRotational spectroscopyTerahertz spectroscopyUltraviolet-visible spectroscopyVibrational spectroscopyX-ray spectroscopy
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v • d • eSeparation processesProcesses Acid-base extraction · Chromatography · Crystallization · Dissolved air flotation · Distillation · Drying · Electrochromatography · Filtration · Flocculation · Froth flotation · Liquid-liquid extraction · Recrystallization · Sedimentation · Solid Phase Extraction · SublimationDevices API oil-water separator · Centrifuge · Mixer-settler · Protein skimmer · Spinning cone · Still · Sublimation apparatusMultiphase systems Aqueous two phase system · Azeotrope · Eutectic
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v • d • eMass spectrometryMassMass spectrumMS softwareIon sourceEI • CI • IA • FAB • FD • MALDI • APCI • ESI • DESI • GD • ICP • MIP • TS • DARTMass analyzer Time-of-flight • Quadrupole • Ion trap • Quadrupole ion trap • OrbitrapDetector Electron multiplier • Microchannel plate detector • Daly detectorMS combination MS/MS • GC/MS • LC/MS


Mass spectrometry
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